humoral response
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Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 205
Angélica Ramos ◽  
Maria João Cardoso ◽  
Luís Ribeiro ◽  
João Tiago Guimarães

The humoral response through neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is a key component of the immune response to COVID-19. However, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), the gold standard for determining NAbs, is technically demanding, time-consuming and requires BSL-3 conditions. Correlating the NAbs and total antibodies levels, assessed by generalized and automated serological tests, is crucial. Through a commercial surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT), we aimed to evaluate the production of SARS-CoV-2 NAbs in a set of vaccinated healthcare workers and to correlate these NAbs with the SARS-CoV-2 IgG anti-S1, anti-RBD and anti-S2 serological titers. We found that 6 months after vaccination, only 74% maintain NAbs for the Wuhan strain/UK variant (V1) and 47% maintain NAbs for the South African and Brazil variants (V2). Through Spearman’s correlation, we found the following correlations between the percentage of inhibition of NAbs and the SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL, USA) and BioPlex 2200 SARS-CoV-2 IgG Panel (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA) immunoassays: rho = 0.87 (V1) and rho = 0.73 (V2) for anti-S1 assessed by Abbott assay; rho = 0.77 (V1) and rho = 0.72 (V2) for anti-S1, rho = 0.88 (V1) and rho = 0.82 (V2) for anti-RBD, and rho = 0.68 (V1) and rho = 0.60 (V2) for anti-S2 assessed by BioPlex assay (p < 0.001 for all). In conclusion, we found a strong correlation between this fast, user-friendly, mobile and bio-safe sVNT and the serological immunoassays.

2022 ◽  
Yuemiao Zhang ◽  
Xingzi Liu ◽  
Miaomiao Lin ◽  
Jincan Zan ◽  
Yitong Hu ◽  

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at higher risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related morbidity and mortality. However, a significant portion of CKD patients showed hesitation toward vaccination in telephone survey of our center. Yet no serial data available on humoral response in patients with CKD, especially those on immunosuppression. We conducted a pilot, prospective study to survey the safety and humoral response to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in CKD patients receiving a 2-dose immunization of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We found the neutralizing antibody titers in CKD patients was significantly lower than that in healthy controls, hypertension patients, and diabetes patients. Notably, immunosuppressive medication rather than eGFR levels or disease types showed effect on the reduction of immunogenicity. Interestingly, a third dose significantly boosted neutralizing antibody in CKD patients while immunosuppressants impeded the boosting effects. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that CKD patients, even for those on immunosuppression treatment, can benefit from a third vaccination boost by improving their humoral immunity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 405
Charline Herrscher ◽  
Sébastien Eymieux ◽  
Christophe Gaborit ◽  
Hélène Blasco ◽  
Julien Marlet ◽  

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, many studies have investigated the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 during infection. Studies with native viral proteins constitute a first-line approach to assessing the overall immune response, but small peptides are an accurate and valuable tool for the fine characterization of B-cell epitopes, despite the restriction of this approach to the determination of linear epitopes. In this study, we used ELISA and peptides covering a selection of structural and non-structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins to identify key epitopes eliciting a strong immune response that could serve as a biological signature of disease characteristics, such as severity, in particular. We used 213 plasma samples from a cohort of patients well-characterized clinically and biologically and followed for COVID-19 infection. We found that patients developing severe disease had higher titers of antibodies mapping to multiple specific epitopes than patients with mild to moderate disease. These data are potentially important as they could be used for immunological profiling to improve our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the humoral response in relation to patient outcome.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 95
Maria Antonietta Manca ◽  
Tatiana Solinas ◽  
Elena Rita Simula ◽  
Marta Noli ◽  
Stefano Ruberto ◽  

A higher expression of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) has been associated with several malignancies, including prostate cancer, implying a possible use as a diagnostic or prognostic cancer biomarker. For this reason, we examined the humoral response against different epitopes obtained from the envelope protein of HERV-K (HERV-K env-su19–37, HERV-K env-su109–126), HERV-H (HERV-H env-su229–241, HERV-H env387–399) and HERV-W (HERV-W env-su93–108, HERV-W env-su248–262) in the plasma of patients affected by prostate cancer (PCa), and compared to that of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and a borderline group of patients with atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) and prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and healthy controls. A significant antibody response was observed against HERV-K env-su109–126 (p = 0.004) and HERV-H env-su229–241 (p < 0.0001) in PCa patients compared to HCs, BPH and borderline cohorts, whilst no significance difference was found in the antibodies against HERV-W env-su93–108 and HERV-W env-su248–262 in patients with PCa. Our results provided further proof of the association between HERV-K and PCa and added new evidence about the possible involvement of HERV-H in PCa pathogenesis, highlighting their possibility of being used as biomarkers of the disease.

2022 ◽  
Paolo Corradini ◽  
Chiara Agrati ◽  
Giovanni Apolone ◽  
Alberto Mantovani ◽  
Diana Giannarelli ◽  

Background: Patients with solid or hematological tumors, neurological and immune-inflammatory disorders represent potentially fragile subjects with increased risk to experience severe COVID-19 and inadequate response to SARS-CoV2 vaccination. Methods: We designed a prospective Italian multicentric study to assess humoral and T-cell response to SARS-CoV2 vaccination in patients (n=378) with solid tumors (ST), hematological malignancies (HM), neurological (ND) and immuno-rheumatological diseases (ID). The immunogenicity of primary vaccination schedule and of the booster dose were analyzed. Results: Overall, patient seroconversion rate after two doses was 62.1%. A significant lower rate was observed in HM (52.4%) and ID (51.9%) patients compared to ST (95.6%) and ND (70.7%); a lower median level of antibodies was detected in HM and ID versus the others (p<0.0001). A similar rate of patients with a positive SARS-CoV2 T-cell response was observed in all disease groups, with a higher level observed in the ND group. The booster dose improved humoral responses in all disease groups, although with a lower response in HM patients, while the T-cell response increased similarly in all groups. In the multivariable logistic model, the independent predictors for seroconversion were disease subgroups, type of therapies and age. Notably, the ongoing treatment known to affect the immune system was associated with the worst humoral response to vaccination (p<0.0001), but had no effects on the T-cell responses. Conclusions: Immunosuppressive treatment more than disease type per se is a risk factor for low humoral response after vaccination. The booster dose can improve both humoral and T-cell response.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 171
Richard Vollenberg ◽  
Phil-Robin Tepasse ◽  
Joachim Ewald Kühn ◽  
Marc Hennies ◽  
Markus Strauss ◽  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronovirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Vaccination is considered the core approach to containing the pandemic. There is currently insufficient evidence on the efficacy of these vaccines in immunosuppressed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the humoral response in immunosuppressed IBD patients after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. In this prospective study, IgG antibody levels (AB) against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (spike-protein) were quantitatively determined. For assessing the potential neutralizing capacity, a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate neutralization test (sVNT) was employed in IBD patients (n = 95) and healthy controls (n = 38). Sera were examined prior to the first/second vaccination and 3/6 months after second vaccination. Patients showed lower sVNT (%) and IgG-S (AU/mL) AB both before the second vaccination (sVNT p < 0.001; AB p < 0.001) and 3 (sVNT p = 0.002; AB p = 0.001) and 6 months (sVNT p = 0.062; AB p = 0.061) after the second vaccination. Although seroconversion rates (sVNT, IgG-S) did not differ between the two groups 3 months after second vaccination, a significant difference was seen 6 months after second vaccination (sVNT p = 0.045). Before and three months after the second vaccination, patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents showed significantly lower AB than healthy subjects. In conclusion, an early booster shot vaccination should be discussed for IBD patients on anti-TNF therapy.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262169
Sebastian Havervall ◽  
August Jernbom Falk ◽  
Jonas Klingström ◽  
Henry Ng ◽  
Nina Greilert-Norin ◽  

Current SARS-CoV-2 serological assays generate discrepant results, and the longitudinal characteristics of antibodies targeting various antigens after asymptomatic to mild COVID-19 are yet to be established. This longitudinal cohort study including 1965 healthcare workers, of which 381 participants exhibited antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen at study inclusion, reveal that these antibodies remain detectable in most participants, 96%, at least four months post infection, despite having had no or mild symptoms. Virus neutralization capacity was confirmed by microneutralization assay in 91% of study participants at least four months post infection. Contrary to antibodies targeting the spike protein, antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein were only detected in 80% of previously anti-nucleocapsid IgG positive healthcare workers. Both anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid IgG levels were significantly higher in previously hospitalized COVID-19 patients four months post infection than in healthcare workers four months post infection (p = 2*10−23 and 2*10−13 respectively). Although the magnitude of humoral response was associated with disease severity, our findings support a durable and functional humoral response after SARS-CoV-2 infection even after no or mild symptoms. We further demonstrate differences in antibody kinetics depending on the antigen, arguing against the use of the nucleocapsid protein as target antigen in population-based SARS-CoV-2 serological surveys.

JCI Insight ◽  
2022 ◽  
Steven G. Kelsen ◽  
Alan S. Braverman ◽  
Mark O. Aksoy ◽  
Jacob A. Hayman ◽  
Puja S. Patel ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. annrheumdis-2021-221508
Jerome Hadjadj ◽  
Delphine Planas ◽  
Amani Ouedrani ◽  
Solene Buffier ◽  
Laure Delage ◽  

ObjectivesThe emergence of strains of SARS-CoV-2 exhibiting increase viral fitness and immune escape potential, such as the Delta variant (B.1.617.2), raises concerns in immunocompromised patients. We aimed to evaluate seroconversion, cross-neutralisation and T-cell responses induced by BNT162b2 in immunocompromised patients with systemic inflammatory diseases.MethodsProspective monocentric study including patients with systemic inflammatory diseases and healthcare immunocompetent workers as controls. Primary endpoints were anti-spike antibodies levels and cross-neutralisation of Alpha and Delta variants after BNT162b2 vaccine. Secondary endpoints were T-cell responses, breakthrough infections and safety.ResultsSixty-four cases and 21 controls not previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 were analysed. Kinetics of anti-spike IgG after BNT162b2 vaccine showed lower and delayed induction in cases, more pronounced with rituximab. Administration of two doses of BNT162b2 generated a neutralising response against Alpha and Delta in 100% of controls, while sera from only one of rituximab-treated patients neutralised Alpha (5%) and none Delta. Other therapeutic regimens induced a partial neutralising activity against Alpha, even lower against Delta. All controls and cases except those treated with methotrexate mounted a SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell response. Methotrexate abrogated T-cell responses after one dose and dramatically impaired T-cell responses after two doses of BNT162b2. Third dose of vaccine improved immunogenicity in patients with low responses.ConclusionRituximab and methotrexate differentially impact the immunogenicity of BNT162b2, by impairing B-cell and T-cell responses, respectively. Delta fully escapes the humoral response of individuals treated with rituximab. These findings support efforts to improve BNT162b2 immunogenicity in immunocompromised individuals ( number, NCT04870411).

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Joanna Szczepanek ◽  
Monika Skorupa ◽  
Agnieszka Goroncy ◽  
Joanna Jarkiewicz-Tretyn ◽  
Aleksandra Wypych ◽  

Background: COVID-19 vaccines induce a differentiated humoral and cellular response, and one of the comparable parameters of the vaccine response is the determination of IgG antibodies. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed at three time points (at the beginning of May, at the end of June and at the end of September). Serum samples were obtained from 954 employees of the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (a total of three samples each were obtained from 511 vaccinated participants). IgG antibody concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The statistical analysis included comparisons between vaccines, between convalescents and COVID-19 non-patients, between individual measurements and included the gender, age and blood groups of participants. Results: There were significant differences in antibody levels between mRNA and vector vaccines. People vaccinated with mRNA-1273 achieved the highest levels of antibodies, regardless of the time since full vaccination. People vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-2019 produced several times lower antibody levels compared to the mRNA vaccines, while the antibody levels were more stable. In the case of each of the vaccines, the factor having the strongest impact on the level and stability of the IgG antibody titers was previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. There were no significant correlations with age, gender and blood type. Summary: mRNA vaccines induce a stronger humoral response of the immune system with the fastest loss of antibodies over time.

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