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2022 ◽  
Allison R. Severson ◽  
Yvette D. Kuiper ◽  
G. Nelson Eby ◽  
Hao-Yang Lee ◽  
J. Christopher Hepburn

ABSTRACT West Avalonia is a composite terrane that rifted from the supercontinent Gondwana in the Ordovician and accreted to Laurentia during the latest Silurian to Devonian Acadian orogeny. The nature and extent of West Avalonia are well constrained in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland, Canada, by U-Pb detrital zircon data and/ or isotope geochemistry of (meta)sedimentary and igneous rocks. The southeastern New England Avalon terrane in eastern Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island has generally been interpreted as an along-strike continuance of West Avalonia in Canada, but the ages and origins of metasedimentary units along the western boundary of the Avalon terrane in Massachusetts and Connecticut remain poorly constrained. In this study, new detrital zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf laser-ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from three samples of metasedimentary units along the western boundary of the southeastern New England Avalon terrane in Connecticut and Massachusetts were compared with existing data to test whether these metasedimentary units can be correlated along strike. The data were also compared with existing detrital zircon U-Pb and εHf data in New England and Canada in order to constrain the extent and provenance of West Avalonia. The maximum depositional age of two of the three detrital zircon samples analyzed in this study, based on the youngest single grain in each sample (600 ± 28 Ma, n = 1; 617 ± 28 Ma, n = 1) and consistency with existing analyses elsewhere in the southeastern New England Avalon terrane, is Ediacaran, while that of the third sample is Tonian (959 ± 40 Ma, n = 4). Detrital zircon analyses of all three samples from this study showed similar substantial Mesoproterozoic and lesser Paleoproterozoic and Archean populations. Other existing detrital zircon U-Pb data from quartzites in the southeastern New England Avalon terrane show similar Tonian populations with or without Ediacaran grains or populations. Most published detrital zircon U-Pb data from (meta)sedimentary rocks in West Avalonia in Canada yielded Ediacaran youngest detrital zircon age populations, except for a quartzite unit within the Gamble Brook Formation in the Cobequid Highlands of Nova Scotia, which showed a Tonian maximum depositional age, and otherwise a nearly identical detrital zircon signature with rocks from the southeastern New England Avalon terrane. All samples compiled from the southeastern New England Avalon terrane and West Avalonia in Canada show main age populations between ca. 2.0 Ga and ca. 1.0 Ga, with major peaks at ca. 1.95, ca. 1.50, ca. 1.20, and ca. 1.00 Ga, and minor ca. 3.1–3.0 Ga and ca. 2.8–2.6 Ga populations. The εHf(t) values from the three samples yielded similar results to those from West Avalonia in Canada, suggesting that both regions were derived from the same cratonic sources. The εHf(t) values of all West Avalonian samples overlap with both Amazonia and Baltica, suggesting that there is a mixed signature between cratonic sources, possibly as a result of previous collision and transfer of basement fragments between these cratons during the formation of supercontinent Rodinia, or during subsequent arc collisions.

Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Qing Sun ◽  
Yongjing Xie ◽  
Tangmin Chen ◽  
Jianping Zhang ◽  
Pedro Laborda ◽  

In May 2021, canker symptoms were detected on ‘Xuxiang’ kiwi trees in southwestern Shaanxi (Hanzhong municipality; 107.27° E, 33.23° N) in China. Seven-year-old trees exhibited black necrotic lesions and cracked areas in the trunk (Figure 1). The symptoms were observed in approximately 10% of the trees in 6 orchards (31 ha in total). Application of commercial fungicides did not control the advancement of the pathogen, and infected trees were removed to control the spread. Three samples, approximately 1 cm2 in size, of symptomatic tissue were collected and surface sterilized in 2% NaOCl for 1 min, and washed with sterile ddH2O. Four isolates showing white mycelium with yellow pigmentation were obtained after 4 days of incubation on PDA, containing chloramphenicol (50 µg/mL), at 28 ºC. The pathogen was isolated from all collected samples. ITS, EF1-α, TUB2, RPB1 and RPB2 genes were amplified using ITS1/ITS4, EF1-728F/EF1-986R, T1/T22, RPB1-5F/RPB1-8R and RPB2-5F/RPB2-7cR (strain NJC06), or RPB2-c7F/RPB2-11aR (strains NJC07 and NJC08), primers, respectively. Two isolates shared the same sequences (strain NJC08). Obtained sequences were submitted to GenBank under accession numbers MZ669205 and OL347898-OL347899 (ITS), OL439731-OL439733 (EF1-α), OL439734-OL439736 (TUB2), OL439737-OL439739 (RPB1), and OL439740-OL439742 (RPB2). The sequences shared >99% (ITS; F. avenaceum CBS 128538, MH864972), >99% (EF1-α; F. avenaceum 55-2, MN473124), 100% (TUB2; F. avenaceum SICAUCC 18-0001, MK253102), >98% (RPB1; F. avenaceum NRRL 26911, MG282372), and >98% (RPB2; F. avenaceum SICAUCC 18-0001, MK396098; or F. avenaceum FRC R-09495, CQ915486) homology to multiple F. avenaceum strains. Molecular phylogenetic tree (Figure 2) was constructed using MEGA7 with Fusarium strains found causing rot in various hosts (Wang et al. 2015), and other fungal species, such as Cadophora nalorum, Diaporthe ambigua, D. australafricana, and Neofusicoccum parvum, which were reported to cause cordon dieback on kiwi tree in Chile (Diaz et al. 2021). Microscope observations after cultivation of all isolates on barley-honey-tryptone medium (Song et al. 2020) showed the presence of septate mycelium, fusiform microconidia (8-15 µm in length, containing between 0 and 3 septa; n = 77) and chlamydospores (n = 21), and agree with the morphology of F. avenaceum (Zhao et al. 2020). To confirm pathogenicity, a sterilized spatula was used to make wounds (3 mm diameter, 1 mm depth) on the trunk of 3-months-old ‘Xuxiang’ kiwi trees. Solutions containing 1 × 106 spores/mL (20 µL) of the isolates were injected in the wounds. Sterile ddH2O was used for the control experiment. Inoculated plants were maintained in a growth chamber at 28 °C and 80% relative humidity for 4 days. The pathogen was recovered from the canker lesions, which were similar to those observed in the orchards, and its identity was confirmed by sequence analysis. The pathogen only infected wounded trees, and probably invaded the orchards during the pruning in February 2021. F. avenaceum was reported to cause canker on almond tree (Stack et al. 2020), stem rot on Anthoxanthum aristatum and Polygonatum cyrtonema (Pieczul et al. 2018; Xu et al. 2019), and root rot on carrot, Coptis chinensis and wheat (Le Moullec-Rieu et al. 2020; Mei et al. 2020; Ozer et al. 2020). Recently, F. avenaceum was found causing fruit blotch in kiwi fruit in Anhui (China) (Zhao et al. 2020). Here, F. avenaceum was found causing canker disease in kiwi tree, demonstrating the host and tissue promiscuity of this pathogen. Kiwi is an important crop in China with nearly 1.5 million tons produced in 2019. This report will help to better understand the pathogens reducing kiwi production in China.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Joanna Szczepanek ◽  
Monika Skorupa ◽  
Agnieszka Goroncy ◽  
Joanna Jarkiewicz-Tretyn ◽  
Aleksandra Wypych ◽  

Background: COVID-19 vaccines induce a differentiated humoral and cellular response, and one of the comparable parameters of the vaccine response is the determination of IgG antibodies. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed at three time points (at the beginning of May, at the end of June and at the end of September). Serum samples were obtained from 954 employees of the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (a total of three samples each were obtained from 511 vaccinated participants). IgG antibody concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The statistical analysis included comparisons between vaccines, between convalescents and COVID-19 non-patients, between individual measurements and included the gender, age and blood groups of participants. Results: There were significant differences in antibody levels between mRNA and vector vaccines. People vaccinated with mRNA-1273 achieved the highest levels of antibodies, regardless of the time since full vaccination. People vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-2019 produced several times lower antibody levels compared to the mRNA vaccines, while the antibody levels were more stable. In the case of each of the vaccines, the factor having the strongest impact on the level and stability of the IgG antibody titers was previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. There were no significant correlations with age, gender and blood type. Summary: mRNA vaccines induce a stronger humoral response of the immune system with the fastest loss of antibodies over time.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-S6
Dominick Gamache ◽  
Philippe Leclerc ◽  
Maude Payant ◽  
Kristel Mayrand ◽  
Marie-Chloé Nolin ◽  

The Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) retains six specific personality disorders (PDs) that can be diagnosed based on Criterion A level of impairment and Criterion B maladaptive facets. Those specific diagnoses are still underresearched, despite the preference expressed by most PD scholars for a mixed/hybrid classification. This study explores the possibility of using Criterion A and B self-report questionnaires to extract the specific AMPD diagnoses. Plausible prevalence estimates were found in three samples (outpatient PD, private practice, community; N = 766) using the facet score > 2 and t score > 65 methods for determining the presence of a Criterion B facet; diagnoses had meaningful correlations with external variables. This study provides evidence—albeit preliminary—that the extraction of the specific AMPD PDs from self-report questionnaires might be a viable avenue. Ultimately, it could promote the use and dissemination of those diagnoses for screening purposes in clinical and research settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Qian Liu ◽  
Limei Tang ◽  
Ling Chen ◽  
Peng Gao

Seamounts are features generated by hot spots and associated intraplate volcanic activity. The geochemical characteristics of igneous rocks constituting seamounts provide evidence of important details of dynamic processes in the Earth, such as mantle magma source areas, and are key to understanding how mantle plume processes control the formation and evolution of seamounts and their resulting geochemical characteristics. The Pacific Ocean contains a large number of hitherto unstudied seamounts, whose ages and geochemical characteristics remain poorly known. This study presents the geochemical characteristics of six basalt samples from five seamounts in the Western Pacific and the 40Ar/9Ar ages of three samples are determined. The new analysis yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages for seamounts samples MP3D21, MP5D11, and MP5D15A of 95.43 ± 0.33, 62.4 ± 0.26, and 99.03 ± 0.4 Ma, respectively. The geochemical profiles of seamounts samples MP3D04, MP3D21, MP5D11, MP5D15A, MPID201, and MPID202 are consistent with alkaline basalts, as evidence by alkali-rich, silicon-poor compositions along with high titanium concentrations. The primitive mantle normalized rare-earth elements and trace elements spider pattern are similar to those of ocean island basalts. The Ta/Hf and Nb/Zr ratios and La/Zr-Nb/Zr discriminant diagrams indicate that the six seamounts formed from magma that originated in the deep mantle.

2022 ◽  
Daniel Tejero-Martin ◽  
Mingwen Bai ◽  
Acacio R. Romero ◽  
Richard G. Wellman ◽  
Tanvir Hussain

Recession of environmental barrier coatings (EBC) in environments containing steam is a pressing concern that requires further research before their implementation in gas turbine engines can be realized. In this work, free-standing plasma sprayed Yb2Si2O7 coatings were exposed to flowing steam at 1350 °C and 1400 °C for 96 h. Three samples were investigated, one coating with a low porosity level (< 3 %) and 1 wt.% Al2O3 representing traditional EBCs; and two coatings with higher porosity levels (~20 %) representing abradable EBCs. Phase composition and microstructural evolution were studied in order to reveal the underlying mechanism for the interaction between high temperature steam and ytterbium disilicate. The results show depletion of Yb2SiO5 near the surface and formation of ytterbium garnet (Yb3Al5O12) on top of all three coatings due to the reaction with gaseous Al-containing impurities coming from the alumina furnace tubes. The 1 wt.% Al2O3 added to the EBC sample exacerbated the formation of garnet at 1400 °C compared to the abradable samples, which presented lower quantities of garnet. Additionally, inter-splat boundaries were visible after exposure, indicating preferential ingress of gaseous Al-containing impurities through the splat boundaries.

Accounting ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 37-46 ◽  
Tawfiq Abdel-Jalil ◽  
Ahmad Daher ◽  
Ghaleb Abu Rumman ◽  
Ahmad Bsoul

This study examined the market reaction to profitability by discussing the impact of dividends yield (DY) and earnings yield (EY) based on leverage (LVRG), as a control variable, on stocks’ prices (SP) of the industrial companies listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE), for the whole sample and the two subsamples (low and high leveraged companies). For this purpose, the data of the three samples were analyzed, for seven years from 2011 to 2017. The multiple regression analysis results showed that based on the leverage ratio (LVRG), as a control variable, there is a significant effect of DY on SP at 1% significance level, and an insignificant effect of EY on SP at 5% significance level, in the high leveraged sample. The impact of DY and EY on SP at 5% significance level in the whole and low leveraged samples is insignificant.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
L. P. S. Maior ◽  
G. J. C. Neto ◽  
P. V. M. Azevedo ◽  
L. C. C. Jesus ◽  
A. N. Souza-Filho ◽  

Abstract Agroecological production represents a new reality in vegetable farming. Thus, the study aimed to search for the presence of pesticides in agroecological samples and microbiological and parasitological contamination in Lactuca sativa L. of agroecological and conventional fairs in Alagoas. Thirty-two samples were collected, a hygienic-sanitary checklist was performed, along with coliform, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus research and Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) for pesticide research; using two methodologies for parasitological studies. Thirty-two samples were analyzed, with a sanitary adequacy level at 45% and 38% for fairs (agroecological and conventional) respectively, with three samples (9.4%) in total, being adequate to the microbiological pattern according to RDC no. 12/2001. Among the 23 samples which were tested positive for parasites, 69.5% originated from samples extracted at conventional fairs, and 53% of every positive samples presented Entamoeba coli as the main contaminant. All together, no traces of deltamethrin were detected, but in two of the samples a peak retention for diphenoconazole was detected. In conclusion, the fairs represent an adequate environment for human pathogens and indicators. Therefore greater hygiene training of vegetable traders and consumers in the state of Alagoas is required, especially in conventional fairs, which presented more critical microbiological and parasitological indexes comparing to fairs with agroecological products; however, the presence of difenoconazole in two samples of agricultural fairs suggests accidental contamination or indiscriminate use of this chemical in the production of Lactuca sativa, however, products with agroecological origin represents a better choice for the consumers.

2022 ◽  
pp. 217-232
Jolanta Burke ◽  
Majella Dempsey

The COVID-19 outbreak resulted in higher anxiety levels, in which cyberchondria played a significant role. However, little is known about the factors that helped individuals maintain their wellbeing amid the pandemic. The current chapter presents selected results from three surveys carried out with school leaders in Ireland in relation to their source of stress, and factors that helped them cope with the COVID-19 crisis. The first survey took place a week after the COVID-19-related school closure (study 1, N = 2,864). The second survey took place two months after the school closure (study 2, N = 939). The third survey took place three months after the school re-opening (study 3, N = 861). Participants were asked about their source of stress and the actions they took to maintain wellbeing. Similarities and differences were identified across all three samples using thematic analysis. Unique factors associated with specific stages of the pandemic were identified. This chapter discusses implications in relation to the policy and practice of school leaders during the school closure.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (6) ◽  
pp. 767-777
Eun Ji Lee

This study analyzed the microstructures and chemical composition of three samples of bronze mirrors excavated in the Jeollanam-do region, particularly Goheung and Damyang. Under x-ray irradiation, the analysis results confirmed the broken parts and pores caused by cracks, casting, and corrosion. Major and minor elemental analysis were performed on three mirrors by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and Inductively coupled plasma mass spe ctrome try (ICP-MS). The re sult shows that the bronze mirrors containe d Cu-Sn-Pb alloys. Alpha phase and eutectic phase were observed in the microstructure, confirming that the casting was performed without additional heat treatment. Notably, Three bronze mirrors were made early Three Kingdoms period in Korea.

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