Titratable Acidity
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Nguyen Phuoc Minh

Gboma eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon) has low calorie, high phenolic and antioxidant, excellent dietary fibre and mineral content. Besides healthy effects, gboma eggplant also contained numerous anti-nutrients unbeneficial for human health. Due to high moisture content, gboma eggplant was highly perishable during post-harvest. This research observed the changes of nutritional proximate, mineral contents, acidification indexes, anti-nutrients, phytochemical and antioxidant properties, texture profiles, microbiological characteristics of both raw and pickled gboma eggplant. Gboma eggplant fruits were soaked in clean water for 2 minutes before cutting their calyx lobes. The pre-treated fruits were submerged in sterilized brine (5% salt) for 8 days. Periodically, pickled samples were taken to examine physicochemical, anti-nutritional, and microbiological attributes of pickled gboma eggplant. Results showed that nutritional proximate of moisture, ash, protein, fat, fibre, carbohydrate was varied slightly during fermentation. There was a decreasing trend of moisture and carbohydrate; meanwhile, there was an increasing trend of ash, protein, fibre during 8 days of fermentation. There was no significant difference of fat during pickling. There was a minor increment of mineral contents in all samples. There was accumulation of phenyllactic acid, ascorbic acid content and titratable acidity with exception of pH. Anti-nutrient contents like tannin, phytate, oxalate, steroidal glycoalkaloid greatly decreased in raw and pickled eggplant. Remarkable increments of total phenolic, flavonoid, DPPH free radical scavenging and FRAP ferric reducing antioxidant of raw and pickled eggplant was presented. Texture profiles of hardness, crispness, fracturability, crunchiness revealed a minor reduction of sensory scores during 8 days of fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus significantly proliferated; meanwhile, Micrococcus and S. aureus were absolutely retarded in pickled eggplant. Yeast and fungi increased in the first 4 days and decreased afterwards. There was no significant difference of proximate compositions; mineral contents; phenyllactic acid, ascorbic acid content, pH and titratable acidity; anti-nutritional contents; phytochemical and antioxidant properties; texture profile (sensory score); microbiological load (with exception of S. aureus) between pickled gloma eggplants at day 6th and day 8th of fermentation. At a quick glance, the length of fermentation could be shorted to 6 days instead of 8 days. However, at the 6th day, S. aureus load was still presented at 0.33±0.01 log CFU/g. The fermentation should be lasted to 8th day so that S. aureus load could be dropped down to zero to ensure microbial food safety. Raw gboma eggplant should be fermented in 8% brine solution for 8 days to obtain the best physicochemical, anti-nutritional, and microbiological properties of pickle. Findings of this research suggested that fermentation pickling would be an appropriate approach to improve nutritional, physicochemical and functional criteria while controlling toxic chemical residues, retarding the growth and proliferation of spoilage and pathogen microorganisms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (1) ◽  
pp. 67-72
Dilek Cemal ◽  
Gulcin Yildiz

This work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different drying temperatures ​​(50, 60 and 70 oC) and cutting types (ring and cube) on the physical, chemical and physiochemical properties of red capia pepper during storage (14 days) both at room temperature and cold storage. Convective drying (CVD) at 50, 60 and 70 oC was applied to obtain dried red capia peppers. The effects of CVD on color values (L*, a*, b*), rehydration ratio, selected chemical properties (dry matter, pH and titratable acidity) and bioactive compounds (total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity) of thirteen dried red capia peppers were compared. The samples dried at 60 oC in ring forms under cold storage (6R-CD samples) showed the highest dry matter, pH, titratable acidity and rehydration ratio (87.06%, 5.69, 807.15 mg citric acid/100 g, 6.72%, respectively). The closest L*, a*, b*values to the fresh pepper samples were achieved for 6R-CD samples (L*:29.87, a*:12.83, and b*:17.03). In addition, 6R-CD samples resulted with highest antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in all storage times.

2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (4) ◽  
Mari Räty ◽  
Riikka Keskinen ◽  
Markku Yli-Halla ◽  
Juha Hyvönen ◽  
Helena Soinne

Clay content and the ability to reversibly retain cations affect many essential chemical and physical properties of soil, such as pH buffering and carbon sequestration. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) and base saturation are also commonly used as criteria in soil classification. However, determination of CEC and particle-size distribution is laborious and not included in routine soil testing. In this study, pedotransfer functions including soil test cations (STCat; Ca2+ + Mg2+ + K+), pH and soil organic carbon (SOC, %) as explanatory variables were developed for estimating CEC, titratable acidity (TA; H+ + Al3+) and clay content (clay, %). In addition, reference values for potential CEC and its components were determined for Finnish mineral and organic soils. The mean of potential CEC extracted by 1 M ammonium acetate at pH 7.0 ranged from 14 (range 6.4−25) in coarse soils to 33 (21−45) cmol(+) kg-1 in heavy clay soils, and from 42 (24−82) in mull soils to 77 (25−138) cmol(+) kg-1 in peat soils. The average CEC of clay and SOC were 27 and 160 cmol(+) kg-1, respectively. Titratable acidity occupied 53% and around 40% of the CEC sites in organic and mineral soils, respectively, evidencing that it is a prominent component of the potential CEC in these predominantly acidic soils. STCat, pH and SOC explained 96% of the variation in potential CEC. STCat and pH can be used in estimating the clay content especially for soils containing over 30% clay. In coarse textured soils, in contrast, SOC hampers the STCat based estimation of clay content.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Ammiti Murali Krishna ◽  
Ligimol James ◽  
Athrayil Kalathil Beena ◽  
Sujjalur Nagesha Rao Rajakumar ◽  
Kollannur Aippunny Mercey

Abstract Vechur cow is an indigenous cattle breed of Kerala listed as a critical breed by FAO. This research communication is related to the hypothesis that the changes occurring in microbiological quality parameters of Vechur cow milk dahi (VCMD) during storage will be superior to other milk and reflective of the traditional concepts of therapeutic properties attributed to Vechur milk. Microbiological quality of the VCMD stored at room (30 ± 1°C) and refrigerated (4 ± 1°C) temperatures in terms of total viable, coliform, yeast and mold and lactococcal counts is reported in this study, together with titratable acidity and pH. Results are compared with cross-bred cow milk dahi (CCMD) as control. On refrigerated storage, despite the comparable initial microbiological quality, VCMD exhibited significantly lower total viable, lactic acid bacteria, yeast and mold counts than CCMD, from the fifth day onwards for the first two parameters and the tenth day onwards for the last parameter. VCMD exhibited significantly higher pH values than CCMD from the fifth day onwards whereas the titratable acidity was significantly lower from the tenth day onwards. Though this study does not delineate the factors contributing towards the lower microbial population observed in VCMD, it provides an impetus to further researches for scientifically validating its traditionally-reported medicinal properties.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Saad A. D. Sifat ◽  
Anuva T. Trisha ◽  
Nurul Huda ◽  
Wahidu Zzaman ◽  
Norliza Julmohammad

This research was done to optimize the influence of various egg albumin (EA) concentrations of 2, 4, and 6% as a foaming agent and whipping times of 5, 10, and 15 minutes, on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of plum powder produced using response surface methodology (RSM). Physical properties of the foam such as density, porosity, and expansion were determined. After drying and powder manufacturing, physical properties, namely, the water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI), as well as chemical characteristics such as pH, titratable acidity, and browning index, were assessed. Finally, antioxidant capabilities such as the total phenol content (TPC), DPPH scavenging activity, beta carotene, and total flavonoid content (TFC) were measured. According to the findings, both whipping duration and EA concentration had a substantial effect on the foam forming characteristics. Foam expansion increased significantly with EA concentration and whipping time increase, but foam density exhibited an inverse relationship as expected. Increases in EA concentration and whipping duration both raised pH values whereas titratable acidity exhibited an inverse tendency as variable quantity rose. The browning index dropped as EA concentration increased. Antioxidant qualities were retained in dried sample powder as compared with the fresh sample, and they were also altered by variable changes. Overall, a 4% EA concentration for 10 to 15 minutes produced the best dehydration effects with the most antioxidant retention.

2021 ◽  
Vol 67 ◽  
pp. 29-41
A. V. Dergunov ◽  
A. A. Lukyanova

Under the conditions of changing biotic properties of terroir, it is relevant to establish the patterns of influence of different norms of the load of a grape bush in its own rooted and grafted culture on the quality of grapes, as well as the aesthetic and biological value of wine products in Russia. The objects of research were grapes and wine material of the Krasnostop AZOS variety in a grafted and rooted culture with variants of different load of shoots on the bush. The experience of studying the influence of various agrotechnical methods on the productivity of a grape plant and the quality of wine material was laid in the Anapo-Taman climatic zone of the Krasnodar Territory of Russia. The highest yield of the Krasnostop AZOS variety during the years of the study was obtained in the variant of own-rooted grape growing with its load of 36-40 shoots per bush. In our studies, there is a tendency to an increase in sugar content, and a decrease in the titratable acidity of grapes when growing vineyards of the Krasnostop AZOS variety in their own rooted culture. The most optimal ratio of sugar content and titratable acidity in the experiment was possessed by grapes from a variant of own-rooted culture with a load of 36-40 shoots/bush, here the glucoacedometric parameter was 4.36. In the studied variants, the largest amount of phenolic substances was found in wine material from self-rooted grapes with a load of 36-40 shoots per bush — 4130 mg/dm3. This had a positive effect on the organoleptic evaluation of this sample. The maximum total content of substances from a number of biologically active substances was found in wine from grape raw materials obtained from a grafted culture (134.9-147.9 mg/dm3). In 2018-2019, from the organoleptic side, wine materials from grapes of own-rooted culture proved to be of the highest quality. This advantage over the grafted crop was traced in all variants of rationing the load by the shoots of grape bushes.

2021 ◽  
pp. 241-249
Aleksey Borisovich Gorbunov ◽  
Tat'yana Abdulkhailovna Kukushkina

The aim of the work was study of the variability of fruit chemical composition of O. palustris (2 samples) and O. macrocarpus (6 samples) cultivars and forms introduced in CSBG depending on the conditions of the year. Biochemical research of the content of dry substance, ascorbic acid, sugars, titratable acidity, anthocyanins, pectins, protopectins and catechins in berries of these samples were conducted. The chemical composition was analyzed by conventional methods. O. palustris surpasses O. macrocarpus in the content of ascorbic acid and titratable acidity, but is inferior to it in the accumulation of anthocyanins, pectins and protopectins. In comparison with the studied samples of both species, the native O. palustris accumulates the greatest amount of ascorbic acid and the least amount of sugars. The early cultivars of O. macrocarpus exceeds the mid-season cultivars and are close to late-maturing ones in terms of ascorbic acid content. The difference in the accumulation of other ingredients in the fruits of both O. palustris and O. macrocarpus is not statistically significant. According to the chemical composition of berries, O. palustris and O. macrocarpus are promising for introduction in the South of Western Siberia.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 11869
Patrick Marcuzzo ◽  
Federica Gaiotti ◽  
Marco Lucchetta ◽  
Lorenzo Lovat ◽  
Diego Tomasi

Potassium concentration in grape berries can affect acidity and pH in must and wines. Under the current warming scenario, where preserving equilibrated value for these grape parameters is increasingly challenging, K fertilization could represent a tool to manage grape composition. In this study, the effect of potassium fertilization was investigated over 4 years (2013–2016) in field-grown grapevines (Vitis vinifera cv. Glera). Four different potassium rates (0, 15, 30, 60 kg K2O ha−1 year−1) were tested and agronomic responses, grape quality as well as K concentration in the berry were recorded over the four years. At harvest, yield parameters and total soluble solids were unaffected by potassium fertilization. On the contrary, the titratable acidity of the musts was increased by the higher rate of potassium (K60), and both tartaric and malic acids showed higher values when the K rate was higher. K fertilization did not affect the pH, as all the treatments displayed comparable pH values and in an optimal range for winemaking. Overall, in our experimental conditions, medium potassium inputs showed better results on Glera grape quality compared to low K rates, by promoting higher titratable acidity levels without altering the pH in musts.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2534
Juan Fernández-Novales ◽  
Ignacio Barrio ◽  
María Paz Diago

Hyperspectral imaging offers enormous potential for measuring grape composition with a high degree of representativity, allowing all exposed grapes from the cluster to be examined non-destructively. On-the-go hyperspectral images were acquired using a push broom hyperspectral camera (400–100 nm) that was mounted in the front part of a motorized platform moving at 5 km/h in a commercial Tempranillo vineyard in La Rioja, Spain. Measurements were collected on three dates during grape ripening in 2018 on the east side of the canopy, which was defoliated in the basal fruiting zone. A total of 144 grape clusters were measured for Total soluble solids (TSS), Titratable acidity (TA), pH, Tartaric and Malic acid, Anthocyanins and Total polyphenols, using standard wet chemistry reference methods, throughout the entire experiment. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was used to build calibration, cross validation and prediction models for the grape composition parameters. The best performances returned determination coefficients values of external validation (R2p) of 0.82 for TSS, 0.81 for Titratable acidity, 0.61 for pH, 0.62 for Tartaric acid, 0.84 for Malic acid, 0.88 for Anthocyanins and 0.55 for Total polyphenols. The promising results exposed in this work disclosed a notable methodology on-the-go for the non-destructive, in-field assessment of grape quality composition parameters along the ripening period.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7518
Charikleia Tsanasidou ◽  
Ioanna Kosma ◽  
Anastasia Badeka ◽  
Michael Kontominas

Τhe present study was carried out to evaluate wheat bread of three different flour compositions prepared by replacing water with untreated cheese whey (WCB). Bread prepared with water was taken as the control (CB). All breads were stored at 24 ± 1 °C for up to 6 days. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory analyses were determined as a function of storage time. WCB had lower total viable counts (TVC) (3.81 log cfu/g for CB and 2.78 log cfu/g for WCB on day 2 of storage) and showed delayed mold growth by 1 day (day 4 for CB and day 5 for WCB). WCB also had lower pH (5.91 for CB and 5.71 for WCB on day 0), higher titratable acidity values (TTA) (2.5–5.2 mL NaOH/10 g for CB and 4.5–6.8 mL NaOH/ 10 g for WCB), and higher protein content (PC) (PC 7.68% for CB and 8.88% for WCB). WCB was characterized by a more intense flavor, reduced hardness but similar cohesiveness, springiness, and adhesiveness compared to CB. Based primarily on sensory (appearance/mold formation) data, the shelf life of WCB was 4–5 days compared to 3–4 days for CB stored at 24 ± 1 °C. The proposed use of whey in bread preparation contributes decisively to the environmentally friendly management of whey.

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