coliform bacteria
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 014-026
Author(s):  
Mercy M Umokaso ◽  
Bernard JO Efiuvwevwere ◽  
Francis S Ire

Cereal-porridge(‘ogi’) was produced by spontaneous fermentation using maize and sorghum substrates. The microbiological dynamics involved were monitored over a period of 48h fermentation. Bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated. Based on the morphological, cultural and biochemical test results, the aerobic bacterial isolates were identified as Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Citrobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Proteus sp, Shigella sp, and Escherichia coli. The Lactic acid bacteria were Lactococcus sp, Enterococcus sp, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus sp. The yeast isolates were 2 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one other Saccharomyces sp and a Candida sp. The moulds were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus sp and Penicillium sp. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated were 2 strains of Lactococcus lactis, 2 Enterobacter spp, 5 strains of Lactobacillus fermentum and 1 other Lactobacillus sp. The initial total viable aerobic bacterial count at 0h in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend were 4.6 × 104, 7.3 × 104 and 2.4 × 105cfu/ml respectively. The growths rose to peaks of 6.5 × 107 and 3.9 × 107cfu/ml at 24h in maize and maize-sorghum blend, respectively. A Peak of 4.7 x 107cfu/ml was attained at 36h in sorghum. Coliform bacteria and moulds growths in the three samples attained peaks of growth at 12h and reduced till there was no growth by 48h. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts increased in numbers till the end of fermentation. The initial pH value at 0h was lowest in maize-sorghum blend sample (5.43) and highest in maize (5.75). Final values at 48h were 3.76, 3.78 and 3.75 in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend samples respectively. There were no significant differences between the microbial growth patterns, changes in pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and amylase enzymatic activities in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend samples during fermentation.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 541
Author(s):  
Luis M. Carrillo-Lopez ◽  
Bianka Y. Cruz-Garibaldi ◽  
Mariana Huerta-Jimenez ◽  
Ivan A. Garcia-Galicia ◽  
Alma D. Alarcon-Rojo

The effect of high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) system (bath, 37 kHz and 90 W/cm2; or probe, 24 kHz and 400 W) and application time (25 or 50 min, one-side exposition) on the properties of bovine Longissimus lumborum after 7 d of storage at 4 °C was studied. The bath system significantly increased the lightness of the muscle, while other color parameters (a*, b*, hue, and chroma) were not different from the control. The water holding capacity and shear force decreased significantly (3.1–5% and 0.59–0.72 kgf, respectively) in sonicated meat independently of the system, favoring the tenderization of the muscle after storage. Microstructural changes observed in the HIU-exposed surface provided evidence of a higher area of interfibrillar spaces (1813 vs. 705 µm2 in the control), producing tenderization of the muscle, compared with the control. HIU significantly increased counts of total aerobic and coliform bacteria, especially after 50 min of ultrasonication. HIU also increased lactic acid bacterial counts in the bath system. Single-sided muscle exposition to ultrasound may produce sufficient significant changes in muscle properties, which could decrease long treatment times that would be needed for the exposition of both sides. HIU in bath systems increases tenderness by modifying meat ultrastructure, with no significant changes in physicochemical parameters. Nevertheless, microbiological quality may need to be considered during the process due to a slight increase in bacterial counts.


Author(s):  
N. B. Eremeeva ◽  
N. V. Makarova

Plant extracts rich in polyphenols can be used in the food industry as natural preservatives, extending the shelf life of prepared and semi-finished foods without chemical preservatives. In this paper, we investigate the polyphenolic composition, antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of herbal extracts as part of food systems. The research objects were knot grass (Polýgonum aviculáre), marjoram (Oríganum), bur beggar-ticks (Bídenstripartíta), thyme (Thymus), whortleberry leaves (Vaccínium ida vítis), calendula (Calendula), sage (Salvia), chamomile flowers (Matricāriachamomīlla), eucalyptus (Eucalýptus) and bearberry (Arctostáphylosúva-úrsi). We determined the total content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids; the antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods; variations in the bacterial сontamination of animal raw materials over total bacterial count (TBC), coliform bacteria, yeast/fungi, salmonella and staphylococcus. Extracts of sage (1138±57 mg GA/100 g and 537±25 mg C/100 g), eucalyptus (1073±49 mg GA/100 g and 412±20 mg C/100 g), chamomile flowers (1002±36 mg GA/100 g and 493±22 mg C/100 g) and marjoram (1015±42 mg GA/100 g and 458±21 mg C/100 g) contain the largest amount of biologically active substances (phenols and flavonoids, respectively). Sage, eucalyptus and chamomile extracts demonstrate the highest antioxidant activity among the studied samples. Most of the studied extracts exhibit little or no effect on the organoleptic properties of finished products. In addition, chamomile flower, sage and eucalyptus extracts suppress the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in foods under experimental conditions. The microflora growth is significantly reduced when treating animal raw materials with calendula flowers, marjoram and thyme extracts. Extracts of sage, chamomile flowers, calendula flowers, marjoram and thyme can be recommended as components of food raw materials.


Author(s):  
Mehtap Çiftçi ◽  
Nilgün Öncül

Since coliform bacteria are common both in the intestine and in nature (soil, plant, etc.), they are considered as a sanitation indicator in the food industry. It is known that the majority of bacteria defined as fecal coliform in the coliform group are Escherichia coli. The presence of E. coli or fecal coliform bacteria in any sample is an indication that the necessary hygienic measures are not taken during production, storage, and sale. That means the sample is directly or indirectly contaminated with faeces, and/or other intestinal pathogens may also exist. In this study, raw milk, freshly squeezed fruit juices, unpackaged ice cream, shaved ice, and ice-cold samples were purchased from the famous touristic destination Fethiye and analyzed for coliform bacteria. For this purpose, the samples were purchased from local marketplaces, buffets, cafes, patisseries, restaurants, and roadsides at Fethiye. In total 60 samples were analyzed using Violet Red Bile (VRB) Agar. The results of coliform bacteria ranged


Food systems ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 259-268
Author(s):  
G. M. Sviridenko ◽  
M. B. Zakharova ◽  
N. V. Ivanova

The article presents the research results of studying the influence of various groups of microorganisms — coliform bacteria, lactic acid microorganisms, yeast, and spore bacteria — on the quality and storage capacity of cream used as a raw material for buttermaking. The objects of study were the following: cream as a raw material before and after pasteurization, as well as pasteurized cream seeded with testing cultures of various types of spoilage microorganisms. The samples were stored at temperature conditions of 30 ± 1 °C, 10 ± 1 °C, and 4 ± 2 °C. To evaluate the quality and storage capacity of cream used as a raw material, its microbiological and physicochemical indicators were determined by standardized methods: bacterial number, titratable acidity, indicators of oxidative spoilage of the fat phase. Organoleptic characteristics were evaluated in terms of taste, consistency and appearance. Research results have shown that the greatest microbiological risks during storage of cream used as a raw material are associated with lactococci, coliform bacteria and yeast. Microbiological risks caused by seeding of cream with thermophilic streptococcus, spore bacteria of the genus Bacillus and spore anaerobic microorganisms of the genus Clostridium are less significant, which is associated with the lack of development and metabolism of these groups of microorganisms at storage temperatures of 10 ± 1 °C and 4 ± 2 °C. At the same time, the reason for the rejection of cream contaminated with these testing cultures, at a storage temperature of 4 ± 2 °C, is primarily a decrease in organoleptic indicators, and at a temperature of 10 ± 1 °C — an excess in bacterial number.


Author(s):  
Doaa A. Qasim ◽  

Bovine milk is one of the richest nutrients that contain minerals and vitamins that enhance immunity, especially in children, but because many children do not want to drink the raw milk, therefore this study aimed to enhance the sensory characteristics of raw milk by using hibiscus plant extract, which is characterized by red color and distinctive flavor as well as studying the effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, by using three concentrations of the aqueous extract (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%), where the statistical results showed a significant difference (P≤0.05) between the concentrations in color, texture and general acceptance, and the best results appeared when using a concentration of 1.0%, while the results showed an insignificant difference in flavor values with different concentrations of the extract added to milk, Because the hibiscus plant, it is considered an acidic plant, which affected the degree of acceptance of the product. As for the inhibition of the growth of microorganisms, the results showed that the growth of microorganisms was inhibited after keeping in refrigeration for 24 hours, where the growth of the total number of bacteria was inhibited to (6 × 10-7), while we note a decrease in colon bacteria to (2 ×10-6) either Fecal coliform bacteria, the result showed a decrease in numbers to (2×10-4), then was noticed a slight decrease in numbers continuously after incubation for 7 days in the refrigerator, where the results showed a decrease in the total number of bacteria (1×10-7) and coliform bacteria (1×10-6) while for fecal coliform was (1×10-4).


Author(s):  
Katarína Veszelits Lakticova ◽  
Mária Vargova ◽  
František Zigo

Food is essential for a person's life, it is a source of energy and substances that enable the activity of all his organs. However, food is also a biological substance, which itself is subject to certain changes, sometimes targeted in their production or cooking, sometimes undesirable changes due to the activity of certain food components or the action of microorganisms.The primary role of each food processing plant should be to ensure daily proper cleaning and sanitation, thus ensuring perfect hygiene of the premises in operation due to the prevention of foodborne diseases. Based on the results obtained in our study, we can concluce that the sanitation regime in the evaluated premises of paff pastry production is at a good level and the disinfection in the production of puff pastry is effective. Aspiral Persteril 15 disinfectant at 0.4 % concentration and time exposure of 30 minutes was effective on all evaluated surfaces in individual monitored parts of production with the exception of puff pastry production part, where we recorded on technology, specifically on slicing knife 35 CFU (colony forming units) of total count of bacteria and 3 CFU of coliform bacteria after disinfection. The situation did not improve even until the begining of production, the total count of bacteria increase to 45 CFU and coliform bacteria to 4 CFU.


Author(s):  
Mária Vargová ◽  
František Zigo ◽  
Katarína Veszelits Laktičová

Nowdays, one of the most important issues is the issue of food safety. There are many problems with the control of food safety and creation of appropriate legislation that protects food of animal origin. Hygiene and sanitation should be effectively applied and should be controlled at each step during production in food processing plants. The aim of study was to evaluate the surface microorganisms in the monitored parts of the slaughterhouse before slaughter and during slaughter but also after disinfection by disinfectant Virkon S. Disinfectant was used in a 1 % concentration and applied by spraying. Virkon S was effective on all monitored surfaces except the table for organs, where were detected 2x102 colony forming units per 10 cm2 of total count of bacteria, 2x102 colony forming units per 10cm2 of coliform bacteria and 1x102 colony forming unit per 10cm2 of moulds after disinfection. The sanitation program should be thoroughly planned, actively enforced, and effectively supervised. Disinfection has its meaning since, everything that comes into contact with the raw material can contribute to outbreaks of food borne illness.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 263
Author(s):  
Žarko Koboević ◽  
Darijo Mišković ◽  
Romana Capor Hrošik ◽  
Nikša Koboević

In this study, we analysed the sea pollution caused by sewage from vessels. The Dubrovnik aquatorium was chosen as a typical sea area that accommodates a variety of vessels in different locations. We sampled the sea at eight different coastal locations over 14 months and then analysed the samples to determine the presence of the indicators of fecal pollution. Simultaneous with the sampling of the sea, we recorded the number and type of vessels accommodated at the port. These data were applied in chi-square tests, which were used to determine the existence of the relationship of certain types of vessels with fecal coliform bacteria in the sea for each location. The correlation was determined between smaller vessels such as boats, yachts, megayachts, and smaller cruise ships in national navigation with bacteria at sea at the sampling locations. The results can provide an improved understanding of sea pollution due to sewage from vessels.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 1550-1556
Author(s):  
Mohammad Zobaidul Alam

Mobile phone is an essential part of everyday life in modern days. Mobile phones act as vehicles for transmitting pathogenic bacteria due to lack of awareness and widespread use. This study aimed to investigate the bacterial contamination of mobile phones of different categories people at Chattogram city, Bangladesh. During the present study, 40 swab samples were collected from the mobile phones of students, businessmen, fishermen, and hospital patients for the isolation, identification of mobile phone associated bacteria, and their antibiogram. In our study, total viable count (TVC) was performed by the pour plate method and total coliform count (TCC) by the most probable number (MPN) method. Besides these, five selective media were used to isolate pathogenic bacteria from mobile phones and then identified. Antibiotic sensitivity assay was performed by disc diffusion method with 10 different antibiotics. Mobile phones of hospital patients (20165 cfu/ml) and students (1578 cfu/ml) showed the highest and lowest TVC respectively. Coliform bacteria were detected from the mobile phones of 100% hospital patients, 90% from both businessmen, and fishermen but only 30% from students. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found the most prevalent bacteria but Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp., E. coli, Salmonella sp., Citrobacter sp., Serratia sp., Proteus sp., and Enterobacter sp. were also detected. Almost all the isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, rifampin, erythromycin and sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, azithromycin, and tetracycline. Our findings ensure that mobile phones act as an important source of pathogenic organisms for humans and can serve as a vehicle for cross-transmission of microbiota. So, washing hands before and after handling food and also personal hygiene is very important.


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