bacterial count
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. U. Asghar ◽  
A. Rahman ◽  
Z. Hayat ◽  
M. K. Rafique ◽  
I. H. Badar ◽  

Abstract The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 45 ◽  
pp. 102465
Alexander Belov ◽  
Alexey Vasilyev ◽  
Alexey Dorokhov ◽  
Andrey Izmailov ◽  
Vladimir Storchevoy

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 014-026
Mercy M Umokaso ◽  
Bernard JO Efiuvwevwere ◽  
Francis S Ire

Cereal-porridge(‘ogi’) was produced by spontaneous fermentation using maize and sorghum substrates. The microbiological dynamics involved were monitored over a period of 48h fermentation. Bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated. Based on the morphological, cultural and biochemical test results, the aerobic bacterial isolates were identified as Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Citrobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Proteus sp, Shigella sp, and Escherichia coli. The Lactic acid bacteria were Lactococcus sp, Enterococcus sp, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus sp. The yeast isolates were 2 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one other Saccharomyces sp and a Candida sp. The moulds were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus sp and Penicillium sp. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated were 2 strains of Lactococcus lactis, 2 Enterobacter spp, 5 strains of Lactobacillus fermentum and 1 other Lactobacillus sp. The initial total viable aerobic bacterial count at 0h in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend were 4.6 × 104, 7.3 × 104 and 2.4 × 105cfu/ml respectively. The growths rose to peaks of 6.5 × 107 and 3.9 × 107cfu/ml at 24h in maize and maize-sorghum blend, respectively. A Peak of 4.7 x 107cfu/ml was attained at 36h in sorghum. Coliform bacteria and moulds growths in the three samples attained peaks of growth at 12h and reduced till there was no growth by 48h. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts increased in numbers till the end of fermentation. The initial pH value at 0h was lowest in maize-sorghum blend sample (5.43) and highest in maize (5.75). Final values at 48h were 3.76, 3.78 and 3.75 in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend samples respectively. There were no significant differences between the microbial growth patterns, changes in pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and amylase enzymatic activities in maize, sorghum and maize-sorghum blend samples during fermentation.

Maoxi Zhang ◽  
Wei Luo ◽  
Kuan Yang ◽  
cheng li

The effects of the sodium alginate (SA) coating incorporated with cinnamon essential oil nanocapsules (CEO-NPs) and Nisin, as a new edible coating, were investigated on the preservation of beef slices in the refrigerated storage for 15 days. All beef samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties (pH value, weight loss, the total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N)) and antimicrobial activity against total bacterial count (TBC). Besides, the changes in color parameters and sensory attributes of all beef samples were evaluated. The results revealed that the incorporation of the complex of CEO-NPs and Nisin retarded the growth of the microorganism and reduced lipid oxidation, as determined by pH, TVB-N, and TBC. This can extend the shelf life of beef slices to 15 days. Moreover, the treatment with the SA coating, incorporating CEO-NPs and Nisin, significantly improved the weight loss, color, odor, textural, and broth attributes of the beef samples. The results suggest that the coating treatment enriched with CEO-NPs and Nisin could significantly inhibit quality deterioration of beef slices, and the complex of CEO-NPs and Nisin can improve antioxidant, antibacterial and sensory properties of the SA coating. Thus, the new edible coating could be regarded as a potential material to preserve beef slices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 375-380
R. M. Mohamed ◽  
W. A. Bazaraa ◽  
A. M. Alian ◽  
N. M. EL-Shimi

L‑glutaminase (L‑glutamine amidohydrolase EC3.5.1.2) is the key enzyme in enhancing the taste and aroma of oriental fermented foods by increasing their glutamic acid content and as a result imparting a palatable taste. Beef burgers were prepared using different levels of the partially purified L- glutaminase (2.0 to10.0 U/100 g) prepared from Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 32567. Beef burgers treated with 6.0 U/100g and the others treated with monosodium glutamate (5000 ppm) were chemically, sensory and microbiologically evaluated and compared to untreated control during frozen storage at –18 ºC for 3 months. Treatment with L‑glutaminase (6 U/100g) resulted in an increase of 443% in glutamic acid and a reduction of 63% in glutamine contents resulting in an enhanced preferable taste and odor of the prepared beef burgers. Burgers treated with 6.0 U/100g exhibited the best odor, texture, taste and overall quality scores when compared to the untreated control and samples treated with monosodium glutamate (5000 ppm). During the frozen storage of all samples, an expected slight, but significant (p≤0.05), increase in the total mesophilic bacterial count was evident and such increase was quite acceptable since numbers did not exceed the limit of 5.7x103 cfu/g. Similarly, the total psychrotrophs did not exceed 3.7x102 cfu/g.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-8
Priyanka Bist ◽  
Sangeeta Choudhary ◽  

Background: Heavy metal containing wastes reaches to the food chain either directly or indirectly. These ingested toxic elements manifest direct impact on the gut ecosystem and its overall functioning. The present study explores the alteration in mice gut bacteria on exposure to mixture of toxic heavy metals through drinking water. Methods: Twelve experimental groups of Swiss albino male and female mice were exposed to the metal mixture of varying concentrations. Profiling of gut bacterial flora was done by periodical collection of fecal samples via culture-based technique. Redox status of all experimental animals was analyzed in blood samples collected on the day 30. Results: In comparison to the controls, nearly a 10-fold decline in colony forming units/ml was observed at higher modal concentrations (50× & 100×) at the end of 15 days, but 100-fold reduced bacterial count was recorded following 30 days of dosing. Sex specific significant alteration in the bacteria count and diversity was also observed. Overall experimental results showed a heavy metal dose-dependent decline in bacterial count and loss in diversity. Disturbance in the oxidative stress markers was recorded in response to high dose of metal mixture. In group receiving 100× dose, malondialdehyde levels were increased in the erythrocytes (P<0.05), and all of the other antioxidant parameters were decreased (P<0.05), except for reduced glutathione in both male and female mice. Conclusion: The present work is the first report on the multiple heavy metals induced gut microbiota alterations and its correlation to oxidative stress.

Miss. Kolekar Aparna Sandipan

Abstract: Milk is one of the most common causes of food allergies among children under one year of age. No specific therapy exists for this allergy, and thus the only feasible response is to avoid assumption of milk and derived products. Studies conducted on the serum of children with hypersensi-tivity to milk have shown that caseins are the proteins with the greater allergenic potential. However, in some cases, children have also shown hypersensitivity to the β-lactoglobulines and to the α-lactal- bumins. When food intolerance is diagnosed in an infant, it is often necessary to impose a period of total parenteral feeding, followed by breast feeding, considered the most correct method of re-feeding. When human milk can not be given, alternative food sources must be sought. Clinical studies have demonstrated that donkey milk could substitute breast feeding in infants affected by severe Ig-E me- diated milk allergies. In these subjects, donkey milk is not only useful, but also safer than other types of milk. In fact donkey milk composition in lipids (high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid) and pro-teins (low caseins content) is very close to human milk. Lysozyme content in donkey milk resulted to be very high (mean value 1.0 mg/ml) if compared to bovine (traces), caprine (traces) and human milk. The high lysozyme content of donkey milk may be responsible of the low bacterial count reported in literature and also makes this milk suitable to prevent intestine infections to infants. Among seropro-teins, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin content in donkey milk was respectively 3.75 and 1.80 mg/ml and remained substancially the same during the different stages of lactation. Keywords: Donkey milk, Milk quality, Milk chemical compositions, antibacterial activity, bioactivity, health benefits , therapeutic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 27-30
Ibrahim Alkali Allamin ◽  
Hussaini Shettima ◽  
Hafsat Muhammad Abdullahi ◽  
Usman Ali Bukar ◽  
Amina Umar Faruk ◽  

This study was conducted to know the population of rhizobacteria in both irrigation and non-irrigation sites of the dam. The dense population of these organism indirectly promote plant growth and development. Five sites (A, B, C, D and E) were used to collect soil samples randomly and transported to the laboratory for analysis. Total heterotrophic bacterial count was done using nutrient agar (NA) and nitrogen fixing bacteria was counted using Ashbey’s media (AM). The result shows that highest number of total heterotrophic bacteria in site C (46.0×106) cfu/g in irrigation site whereas higher count in non-irrigation site was (13.0×106) site D, the nitrogen fixing bacterial count in irrigation site was higher at site E with (12.0×106) and for the non-irrigation site was higher at site D with (14.0×106) The total heterotrophic bacteria isolated in the soil sample are the species of Bacillus alvei, Bacillus alvei, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Klebsiella aeruginosa and Enterobacter aeruginosa. Likewise, the Nitrogen fixing bacteria isolated are the species of Rhizobium leguminosarum, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus lentus, Azotobacter nigricans, Azotobacter tropicalis, Azotobacter spp, and Azotobacter tropicalis. The long history of agricultural activities in the lake area has directly influenced the diversity of microbial population in the area.

Deeptimayee Mahapatra ◽  
Mamoni Das

Background: Probiotic food has evolved as the new trend among the health fanatics because of their proven benefits in preventing many diseases. With change in time the way of consuming probiotics has also changed. Unlike past dairy is not the only option for commercial probiotic production, recently fruit juices have become the popular choice for it. So the current study aimed to assess the feasibility of orange juice (Citrus reticulate) as a potential probiotic carrier for the production of probiotic orange juice with lactic acid bacteria. Methods: Three test samples (TS) were developed with different combination of lactic acid probiotic bacteria viz. test sample 1 (TS1) (L. bulgaricus and L. casei), TS2 (L. bulgaricus, L. casei and L. gasseri) and TS3 (L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. gasseri and L. fermentum). The orange juice was pasteurized for 2 min at 90°C and was inoculated at a rate of 10% inoculum. All the test samples were fermented for 4 hrs at 37°C and the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics were evaluated along with their in vitro hypocholesterolemic and in vitro hypoglycemic efficacies. Result: The probiotic orange test samples did not show inferior properties than the control in terms of physicochemical and nutritional properties. The bacterial count was decreased with time but remained above standard limit (107cfu/100ml) until 28th day of refrigerated storage. All the test samples showed promising antioxidant activity, in vitro hypocholesterolemic activity and in vitro hypoglycemic activities. Hence orange juice could be used as a suitable probiotic carrier for production of novel probiotic beverages.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Nahla Ayoub ◽  
Nadia Badr ◽  
Saeed S Al-Ghamdi ◽  
Arwa Alzahrani ◽  
Rahaf Alsulaimani ◽  

Introduction. Salvadora persica L. (S. persica, Siwak) has been used for many centuries as oral hygiene tools, particularly in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of S. persica petroleum ether extract (SPE) as an intracanal bactericidal for endodontic treatment against Enterococcus faecalis. Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 gold standard intracanal medicament was used for comparison. Methods. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was carried out to identify the components of SPE. First, the consistency of SPE was accomplished according to ANSI/ADA specification no 57. Forty-five single-rooted mandibular premolars were infected with that of E. faecalis suspension. Colony-forming units (CFU) were counted before the medicaments’ application (CFU-1) and after seven days of their applications (CFU-2). Group I: SPE, Group II: positive control Ca(OH)2, and Group III: saline solution negative control. The microdilution method was applied to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of SPE. Results. Thirty-two compounds were identified (89.09%), with main components of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) (33.32%) and steroids (34%). CFU before and after using SPE and Ca(OH)2 recorded a statistically significant reduction in bacterial count ( P = 0.006 ) and ( P = 0.01 ), respectively. There was an insignificant difference between CFU after using SPE and Ca(OH)2 ( P = 0.210 ). On the contrary, comparing both medicaments with the negative control saline group resulted in significant differences, ( P = 0.001 ) and ( P = 0.007 ), respectively. Moreover, the equality of minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of SPE is recorded. Conclusion. This finding could be referred to the high content of bactericidal BITC in synergism with other antimicrobial components, representing 70.71% of SPE. Thus, SPE is a good candidate as an intracanal medicament, which warrants further investigation.

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