adaptive immune
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2022 ◽  
Vol 74 ◽  
pp. 125-132
Jack Polmear ◽  
Kim L Good-Jacobson

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Elisa Pesce ◽  
Nicola Manfrini ◽  
Chiara Cordiglieri ◽  
Spartaco Santi ◽  
Alessandra Bandera ◽  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by beta-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has rapidly spread across the globe starting from February 2020. It is well established that during viral infection, extracellular vesicles become delivery/presenting vectors of viral material. However, studies regarding extracellular vesicle function in COVID-19 pathology are still scanty. Here, we performed a comparative study on exosomes recovered from the plasma of either MILD or SEVERE COVID-19 patients. We show that although both types of vesicles efficiently display SARS-CoV-2 spike-derived peptides and carry immunomodulatory molecules, only those of MILD patients are capable of efficiently regulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell responses. Accordingly, by mass spectrometry, we show that the proteome of exosomes of MILD patients correlates with a proper functioning of the immune system, while that of SEVERE patients is associated with increased and chronic inflammation. Overall, we show that exosomes recovered from the plasma of COVID-19 patients possess SARS-CoV-2-derived protein material, have an active role in enhancing the immune response, and possess a cargo that reflects the pathological state of patients in the acute phase of the disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
A Losada-García ◽  
SA Cortés-Ramírez ◽  
M Cruz-Burgos ◽  
M Morales-Pacheco ◽  
Carlos D Cruz-Hernández ◽  

Neoplasic transformation is a continuous process that occurs in the body. Even before clinical signs, the immune system is capable of recognizing these aberrant cells and reacting to suppress them. However, transformed cells acquire the ability to evade innate and adaptive immune defenses through the secretion of molecules that inhibit immune effector functions, resulting in tumor progression. Hormones have the ability to modulate the immune system and are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Hormones can control both the innate and adaptive immune systems in men and women. For example androgens reduce immunity through modulating the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Women are more prone than men to suffer from autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis and others. This is linked to female hormones modulating the immune system. Patients with autoimmune diseases consistently have an increased risk of cancer, either as a result of underlying immune system dysregulation or as a side effect of pharmaceutical treatments. Epidemiological data on cancer incidence emphasize the link between the immune system and cancer. We outline and illustrate the occurrence of hormone-related cancer and its relationship to the immune system or autoimmune diseases in this review. It is obvious that some observations are contentious and require explanation of molecular mechanisms and validation. As a result, future research should clarify the molecular pathways involved, including any causal relationships, in order to eventually allocate information that will aid in the treatment of hormone-sensitive cancer and autoimmune illness.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 371
Daniela Briceno Noriega ◽  
Hannah E. Zenker ◽  
Cresci-Anne Croes ◽  
Arifa Ewaz ◽  
Janneke Ruinemans-Koerts ◽  

As of late, evidence has been emerging that the Maillard reaction (MR, also referred to as glycation) affects the structure and function of food proteins. MR induces the conformational and chemical modification of food proteins, not only on the level of IgG/IgE recognition, but also by increasing the interaction and recognition of these modified proteins by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). This affects their biological properties, including digestibility, bioavailability, immunogenicity, and ultimately their allergenicity. APCs possess various receptors that recognize glycation structures, which include receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), scavenger receptors (SRs), galectin-3 and CD36. Through these receptors, glycation structures may influence the recognition, uptake and antigen-processing of food allergens by dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes. This may lead to enhanced cytokine production and maturation of DCs, and may also induce adaptive immune responses to the antigens/allergens as a result of antigen uptake, processing and presentation to T cells. Here, we aim to review the current literature on the immunogenicity of AGEs originating from food (exogenous or dietary AGEs) in relation to AGEs that are formed within the body (endogenous AGEs), their interactions with receptors present on immune cells, and their effects on the activation of the innate as well as the adaptive immune system. Finally, we review the clinical relevance of AGEs in food allergies.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 150
Wan Rong Sia ◽  
Yichao Zheng ◽  
Fei Han ◽  
Shiwei Chen ◽  
Shaohua Ma ◽  

Bats are reservoirs of a large number of viruses of global public health significance, including the ancestral virus for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although bats are natural carriers of multiple pathogenic viruses, they rarely display signs of disease. Recent insights suggest that bats have a more balanced host defense and tolerance system to viral infections that may be linked to the evolutionary adaptation to powered flight. Therefore, a deeper understanding of bat immune system may provide intervention strategies to prevent zoonotic disease transmission and to identify new therapeutic targets. Similar to other eutherian mammals, bats have both innate and adaptive immune systems that have evolved to detect and respond to invading pathogens. Bridging these two systems are innate lymphocytes, which are highly abundant within circulation and barrier tissues. These cells share the characteristics of both innate and adaptive immune cells and are poised to mount rapid effector responses. They are ideally suited as the first line of defense against early stages of viral infections. Here, we will focus on the current knowledge of innate lymphocytes in bats, their function, and their potential role in host–pathogen interactions. Moreover, given that studies into bat immune systems are often hindered by a lack of bat-specific research tools, we will discuss strategies that may aid future research in bat immunity, including the potential use of organoid models to delineate the interplay between innate lymphocytes, bat viruses, and host tolerance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 911
Andrea Hanel ◽  
Carsten Carlberg

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) belong to the innate and adaptive immune system and are highly sensitive and responsive to changes in their systemic environment. In this study, we focused on the time course of transcriptional changes in freshly isolated human PBMCs 4, 8, 24 and 48 h after onset of stimulation with the active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). Taking all four time points together, 662 target genes were identified and segregated either by time of differential gene expression into 179 primary and 483 secondary targets or by driver of expression change into 293 direct and 369 indirect targets. The latter classification revealed that more than 50% of target genes were primarily driven by the cells' response to ex vivo exposure than by the nuclear hormone and largely explained its down-regulatory effect. Functional analysis indicated vitamin D’s role in the suppression of the inflammatory and adaptive immune response by down-regulating ten major histocompatibility complex class II genes, five alarmins of the S100 calcium binding protein A family and by affecting six chemokines of the C-X-C motif ligand family. Taken together, studying time-resolved responses allows to better contextualize the effects of vitamin D on the immune system.

BMC Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Feargal J. Ryan ◽  
Christopher M. Hope ◽  
Makutiro G. Masavuli ◽  
Miriam A. Lynn ◽  
Zelalem A. Mekonnen ◽  

Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious respiratory virus which is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is increasingly clear that recovered individuals, even those who had mild COVID-19, can suffer from persistent symptoms for many months after infection, a condition referred to as “long COVID”, post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), post-acute COVID-19 syndrome, or post COVID-19 condition. However, despite the plethora of research on COVID-19, relatively little is known about the molecular underpinnings of these long-term effects. Methods We have undertaken an integrated analysis of immune responses in blood at a transcriptional, cellular, and serological level at 12, 16, and 24 weeks post-infection (wpi) in 69 patients recovering from mild, moderate, severe, or critical COVID-19 in comparison to healthy uninfected controls. Twenty-one of these patients were referred to a long COVID clinic and > 50% reported ongoing symptoms more than 6 months post-infection. Results Anti-Spike and anti-RBD IgG responses were largely stable up to 24 wpi and correlated with disease severity. Deep immunophenotyping revealed significant differences in multiple innate (NK cells, LD neutrophils, CXCR3+ monocytes) and adaptive immune populations (T helper, T follicular helper, and regulatory T cells) in convalescent individuals compared to healthy controls, which were most strongly evident at 12 and 16 wpi. RNA sequencing revealed significant perturbations to gene expression in COVID-19 convalescents until at least 6 months post-infection. We also uncovered significant differences in the transcriptome at 24 wpi of convalescents who were referred to a long COVID clinic compared to those who were not. Conclusions Variation in the rate of recovery from infection at a cellular and transcriptional level may explain the persistence of symptoms associated with long COVID in some individuals.

Biocelebes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 113-124
Musjaya, M Guli

The immune sistem is a way of the body’s defense sistem to save the host from the invasion of outside pathogen. Based on how respon to disease, that differentiated into two immune system are innate and adaptive system. Because it an cant throgh the stomach, these pathogenic bacteria go to the small intestin as a site infection. In the intestine, V. cholerae bactesia adhere and colonize and invasion to intestinal epihelial cells. Protection mechanism  to V. cholerae are the natural defense presence of tick mucosa on the surface of epithelial cells can  inhibit pathogene to adhere tointestinal epithelial cells. One anothet defense namely innate immune system did by phagocytic cells to attac pathogen agent and adaptive immune system involves IgA to opsonization so that can increase intestinal mucosal immune system

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Noah Isakov

Reproduction in certain deep-sea anglerfishes involves the permanent attachment of dwarf males to much larger females and fusion of their tissues leading to the establishment of a shared circulatory system. This unusual phenomenon of sexual parasitism enables anglerfishes to maximize reproductive success in the vast and deep oceans, where females and males otherwise rarely meet. An even more surprising phenomenon relates to the observation that joining of genetically disparate male and female anglerfishes does not evoke a strong anti-graft immune rejection response, which occurs in vertebrates following allogeneic parabiosis. Recent studies demonstrated that the evolutionary processes that led to the unique mating strategy of anglerfishes coevolved with genetic changes that resulted in loss of functional genes encoding critical components of the adaptive immune system. These genetic alterations enabled anglerfishes to tolerate the histoincompatible tissue antigens of their mate and prevent the occurrence of reciprocal graft rejection responses. While the exact mechanisms by which anglerfishes defend themselves against pathogens have not yet been deciphered, it is speculated that during evolution, anglerfishes adopted new immune strategies that compensate for the loss of B and T lymphocyte functions and enable them to resist infection by pathogens.

2022 ◽  
Ulrik Fahnoe ◽  
Andreas Ronit ◽  
Ronan M.G. Berg ◽  
Sofie E.G. Joergensen ◽  
Trine H. Mogensen ◽  

Background: It is unknown whether the complex immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) differs from that of non-COVID-19 ARDS. Moreover, the effects of systemic dexamethasone (DXM) treatment on pulmonary immunity in COVID-19 remain insufficiently understood. Objective: To understand immune regulation in the lungs of CARDS and critically ill non-COVID-19 patients through gene expression profiling. Methods: Transcriptomic RNA-seq analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 21 patients: 13 with CARDS (non-DXM or DXM-treated) and 8 with non-COVID-19 ARDS and/or sepsis (all non-DXM-treated). Functional analysis was performed using gene ontology and a blood transcription module, and gene expression of select pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and auto-IFN antibodies were assessed. Results: Median (range) time of COVID-19 symptoms were 11 (8-20) days and BALF was collected 32 (6-65) hours after intubation. We found 550 and 2173 differentially expressed genes in patients with non-DXM-CARDS and DXM-CARDS, respectively. DXM-CARDS was characterized by upregulation of genes related to pulmonary innate and adaptive immunity, notably B-cell and complement pathway activation, antigen presentation, phagocytosis and FC-gamma receptor signalling. Pro-inflammatory genes were not differentially expressed in CARDS vs. non-COVID-19, nor did they differ according to DXM. Most ISGs were specifically upregulated in CARDS, particularly in non-DXM-CARDS. Auto-IFN autoantibodies were detectable in BALF of some CARDS patients. Conclusion: DXM treatment was not associated with regulation of pro-inflammatory pathways in CARDS but with regulation of other specific local innate and adaptive immune responses. These results challenge the concept of a COVID-19 specific cytokine storm.

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