functional materials
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2022 ◽  
Vol 425 ◽  
pp. 127987
Xingchen Liu ◽  
Yangxia Han ◽  
Yang Shu ◽  
Jianhua Wang ◽  
Hongdeng Qiu

2022 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
Raphael Finger ◽  
Thomas C. Hansen ◽  
Holger Kohlmann

In situ neutron diffraction is an important characterization technique for the investigation of many functional materials, e.g. for hydrogen uptake and release in hydrogen storage materials. A new sapphire single-crystal gas-pressure cell for elastic neutron scattering has been developed and evaluated; it allows conditions of 298 K and 9.5 MPa hydrogen pressure and 1110 K at ambient pressure. The pressure vessel consists of a sapphire single-crystal tube of 35 mm radius and a sapphire single-crystal crucible as sample holder. Heating is realized by two 100 W diode lasers. It is optimized for the D20 diffractometer, ILL, Grenoble, France, and requires the use of a radial oscillating collimator. Its advantages over earlier sapphire single-crystal gas-pressure cells are higher maximum temperatures and lower background at low and high diffraction angles. The deuterium uptake in palladium was followed in situ for validation, proving the potential of the type-III gas-pressure cell for in situ neutron diffraction on solid–gas reactions.

Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 145
Paweł A. Wieczorkiewicz ◽  
Halina Szatylowicz ◽  
Tadeusz M. Krygowski

Substituted heterocyclic arenes play important roles in biochemistry, catalysis, and in the design of functional materials. Exemplary six-membered heteroaromatic molecules, that differ from benzene by inclusion of one heteroatom, are pyridine, phosphorine, arsabenzene, and borabenzene. This theoretical study concerns the influence of the heteroatom present in these molecules on the properties of substituents of two types: electron-donating (ED) NH2 group and electron-accepting (EA) NO2 group, attached at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The effect is evaluated by the energy of interaction (Erel) between the substituent and the substituted system and electronic properties of the substituents described by the charge of the substituent active region (cSAR) index. In addition, several geometric descriptors of the substituent and heteroaromatic ring, as well as changes in the aromaticity, are considered. The latter are assessed using the Electron Density of Delocalized Bonds (EDDBs) property of delocalized π electrons. The obtained results show that the electronegativity (EN) of the heteroatom has a profound effect on the EA/ED properties of the substituents. This effect is also reflected in the geometry of studied molecules. The Erel parameter indicates that the relative stability of the molecules is highly related to the electronic interactions between the substituent and the heteroarene. This especially applies to the enhancement or weakening of π-resonance due to the EN of the heteroatom. Additionally, in the 2-heteroarene derivatives, specific through-space ortho interactions contribute to the heteroatom effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yuan Chiang ◽  
Ting-Wai Chiu ◽  
Shu-Wei Chang

The emerging demand for advanced structural and biological materials calls for novel modeling tools that can rapidly yield high-fidelity estimation on materials properties in design cycles. Lattice spring model , a coarse-grained particle spring network, has gained attention in recent years for predicting the mechanical properties and giving insights into the fracture mechanism with high reproducibility and generalizability. However, to simulate the materials in sufficient detail for guaranteed numerical stability and convergence, most of the time a large number of particles are needed, greatly diminishing the potential for high-throughput computation and therewith data generation for machine learning frameworks. Here, we implement CuLSM, a GPU-accelerated compute unified device architecture C++ code realizing parallelism over the spring list instead of the commonly used spatial decomposition, which requires intermittent updates on the particle neighbor list. Along with the image-to-particle conversion tool Img2Particle, our toolkit offers a fast and flexible platform to characterize the elastic and fracture behaviors of materials, expediting the design process between additive manufacturing and computer-aided design. With the growing demand for new lightweight, adaptable, and multi-functional materials and structures, such tailored and optimized modeling platform has profound impacts, enabling faster exploration in design spaces, better quality control for 3D printing by digital twin techniques, and larger data generation pipelines for image-based generative machine learning models.

2022 ◽  
Vol 01 ◽  
Santos SC ◽  
Rodrigues Jr O ◽  
Campos Ll

Background: The strategy to form functional structures based on powder technology relies on the concept of nanoparticles characteristics. Rare-earth sesquioxides (RE2O3; RE as Y, Tm, Eu) exhibit remarkable properties, and their fields of application cover energy, astronomy, environmental, medical, information technology, industry, and materials science. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the RE2O3 nanoparticles characteristics as a bottom-up strategy to form functional materials for radiation dosimetry. Methods: The RE2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by the following techniques: XRD, SEM, PCS, FTIR, ICP, EPR, and zeta potential. Results: All RE2O3 samples exhibited cubic C-type structure in accordance with the sesquioxide diagram, chemical composition over 99.9%, monomodal mean particle size distribution, in which (d50) was inferior than 130nm. Among all samples, only yttrium oxide exhibited EPR signal, in which the most intense peak was recorded at 358mT and g 1.9701. Conclusion: The evaluation of nanoparticle characteristics is extremely important taking into account a bottom-up strategy to form functional materials. The RE2O3 nanoparticles exhibited promising characteristics for application in radiation dosimetry.

Photochem ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 32-57
Shashikana Paria ◽  
Prasenjit Maity ◽  
Rafia Siddiqui ◽  
Ranjan Patra ◽  
Shubhra Bikash Maity ◽  

Luminescent micelles are extensively studied molecular scaffolds used in applied supramolecular chemistry. These are particularly important due to their uniquely organized supramolecular structure and chemically responsive physical and optical features. Various luminescent tags can be incorporated with these amphiphilic micelles to create efficient luminescent probes that can be utilized as “chemical noses” (sensors) for toxic and hazardous materials, bioimaging, drug delivery and transport, etc. Due to their amphiphilic nature and well-defined reorganized self-assembled geometry, these nano-constructs are desirable candidates for size and shape complementary guest binding or sensing a specific analyte. A large number of articles describing micellar fluorogenic probes are reported, which are used for cation/anion sensing, amino acid and protein sensing, drug delivery, and chemo-sensing. However, this particular review article critically summarizes the sensing application of nitroaromatic (e.g., trinitrotoluene (TNT), trinitrobenzene (TNB), trinitrophenol (TNP), dinitrobenzene (DNB), etc.) and nitramine explosives (e.g., 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane, trivially named as “research department explosive” (RDX), 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane, commonly known as “high melting explosive” (HMX) etc.). A deeper understanding on these self-assembled luminescent “functional materials” and the physicochemical behavior in the presence of explosive analytes might be helpful to design the next generation of smart nanomaterials for forensic applications. This review article will also provide a “state-of-the-art” coverage of research involving micellar–explosive adducts demonstrating the intermolecular charge/electron transfer (CT/ET) process operating within the host–guest systems.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 487
Yang Zhang ◽  
Wanbo Qu ◽  
Guyang Peng ◽  
Chenglong Zhang ◽  
Ziyu Liu ◽  

Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-STEM) has evolved into the most powerful characterization and manufacturing platform for all materials, especially functional materials with complex structural characteristics that respond dynamically to external fields. It has become possible to directly observe and tune all kinds of defects, including those at the crucial atomic scale. In-depth understanding and technically tailoring structural defects will be of great significance for revealing the structure-performance relation of existing high-property materials, as well as for foreseeing paths to the design of high-performance materials. Insights would be gained from piezoelectrics and thermoelectrics, two representative functional materials. A general strategy is highlighted for optimizing these functional materials’ properties, namely defect engineering at the atomic scale.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 483
Sorin David ◽  
Mihaela Gheorghiu ◽  
Sanaa Daakour ◽  
Raluca-Elena Munteanu ◽  
Cristina Polonschii ◽  

Cross linked gold-dynamic constitutional frameworks (DCFs) are functional materials of potential relevance for biosensing applications, given their adaptivity and high responsivity against various external stimuli (such as pH, temperature) or specific interactions with biomolecules (enzymes or DNA) via internal constitutional dynamics. However, characterization and assessment of their dynamic conformational changes in response to external stimuli has never been reported. This study proves the capability of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) assays to analyse the adaptive structural modulation of a functional matrix encompassing 3D gold-dynamic constitutional frameworks (Au-DCFs) when exposed to pH variations, as external stimuli. We analyse Au-DCFs formed from Au nanoparticles, (AuNP) connected through constitutionally dynamic polymers, dynamers, with multiple functionalities. For increased generality of this proof-of-concept assay, Au-DCFs, involving DCFs designed from 1,3,5-benzene-tricarbaldehyde (BTA) connecting centres and polyethylene glycol (PEG) connectors, are covalently attached to standard SPR sensing chips (Au nanolayers, carboxyl terminated or with carboxymethyl dextran, CMD top-layer) and analysed using state-of-the art SPR instrumentation. The SPR effects of the distance from the Au-DCFs matrix to the Au nanolayer of the sensing chip, as well as of Au-DCFs thickness were investigated. This study reveals the SPR response, augmented by the AuNP, to the conformational change, i.e., shrinkage, of the dynamer and AuNP matrix when decreasing the pH, and provides an unexplored insight into the sensing applicability of SPR real-time analysis of adaptive functional materials.

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