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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Spencer Smyth ◽  
Zhenfu Zhang ◽  
Alaji Bah ◽  
Thomas Tsangaris ◽  
Jennifer Dawson ◽  
...  

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) play critical roles in regulatory protein interactions, but detailed structural/dynamics characterization of their ensembles remain challenging, both in isolation and they form dynamic fuzzy complexes. Such is the case for mRNA cap-dependent translation initiation, which is regulated by the interaction of the predominantly folded eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) with the intrinsically disordered eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BPs) in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer showed that the conformational changes of 4E-BP2 induced by binding to eIF4E are non-uniform along the sequence; while a central region containing both motifs that bind to eIF4E expands and becomes stiffer, the C-terminal region is less affected. Fluorescence anisotropy decay revealed a nonuniform segmental flexibility around six different labelling sites along the chain. Dynamic quenching of these fluorescent probes by intrinsic aromatic residues measured via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy report on transient intra- and inter-molecular contacts on nanosecond-microsecond timescales. Upon hyperphosphorylation, which induces folding of ~40 residues in 4E-BP2, the quenching rates decreased at labelling sites closest to the phosphorylation sites and within the folded domain, and increased at the other sites. The chain dynamics around sites in the C-terminal region far away from the two binding motifs were significantly reduced upon binding to eIF4E, suggesting that this region is also involved in the highly dynamic 4E-BP2:eIF4E complex. Our time-resolved fluorescence data paint a sequence-level rigidity map of three states of 4E-BP2 differing in phosphorylation or binding status and distinguish regions that form contacts with eIF4E. This study adds complementary structural and dynamics information to recent studies of 4E-BP2, and it constitutes an important step towards a mechanistic understanding of this important IDP via integrative modelling.


Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 135
Author(s):  
Yanchun Lin ◽  
Michael L. Gross

Metal ions are critical for the biological and physiological functions of many proteins. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based structural proteomics is an ever-growing field that has been adopted to study protein and metal ion interactions. Native MS offers information on metal binding and its stoichiometry. Footprinting approaches coupled with MS, including hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX), “fast photochemical oxidation of proteins” (FPOP) and targeted amino-acid labeling, identify binding sites and regions undergoing conformational changes. MS-based titration methods, including “protein–ligand interactions by mass spectrometry, titration and HD exchange” (PLIMSTEX) and “ligand titration, fast photochemical oxidation of proteins and mass spectrometry” (LITPOMS), afford binding stoichiometry, binding affinity, and binding order. These MS-based structural proteomics approaches, their applications to answer questions regarding metal ion protein interactions, their limitations, and recent and potential improvements are discussed here. This review serves as a demonstration of the capabilities of these tools and as an introduction to wider applications to solve other questions.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Edward E Large ◽  
Mark A Silveria ◽  
Tommi A White ◽  
Michael S Chapman

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small ssDNA satellite virus of high interest (in recombinant form) as a safe and effective gene therapy vector. AAV's human cell entry receptor (AAVR) contains Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) domains bound by AAV. Seeking understanding of the spectrum of interactions, goat AAVGo.1 is investigated, because its host is the species most distant from human with reciprocal cross-species cell susceptibility. The structure of AAVGo.1, solved by cryo-EM to 2.9 Å resolution, is most similar to AAV5. Through ELISA studies, it is shown that AAVGo.1 binds to human AAVR (huAAVR) more strongly than do AAV2 or AAV5, and that it joins AAV5 in a class that binds exclusively to PKD domain 1 (PKD1), in contrast to other AAVs that interact primarily with PKD2. The AAVGo.1 cryo-EM structure of a complex with a PKD12 fragment of huAAVR at 2.4 Å resolution shows PKD1 bound with minimal change in virus structure, except for disordering of a neighboring surface loop. Only 4 of the 42 capsid protein sequence differences between AAVGo.1 and AAV5 occur at the PKD1 binding interface. These result in only minor conformational changes in AAVR, including a near rigid domain rotation with maximal displacement of the receptor by ~1 Å. A picture emerges of two classes of AAV with completely different modes of binding to the same AAVR receptor, but within each class atomic interactions are mostly conserved. IMPORTANCE Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) is a small ssDNA satellite parvovirus. As a recombinant vector with a protein shell encapsidating a transgene, recombinant AAV (rAAV) is a leading delivery vehicle for gene therapy with two FDA-approved treatments and 150 clinical trials for 30 diseases. The human entry receptor huAAVR has five PKD domains. To date, all serotypes, except AAV5, have interacted primarily with the second PKD domain, PKD2. Goat is the AAV host most distant from human with cross-species cell infectivity. AAVGo.1 is similar in structure to AAV5, the two forming a class with a distinct mode of receptor-binding. Within the two classes, binding interactions are mostly conserved, giving an indication of the latitude available in modulating delivery vectors.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Samuel Pazicky ◽  
Arne Alder ◽  
Haydyn Mertens ◽  
Dmitri I. Svergun ◽  
Tim Gilberger ◽  
...  

As the decline of malaria cases stalled over the last five years, novel targets in Plasmodium falciparum are necessary for the development of new drugs. Glycogen Synthase Kinase (PfGSK3) has been identified as a potential target, since its selective inhibitors were shown to disrupt the parasite's life cycle. In the uncanonical N‑terminal region of the parasite enzyme, we identified several autophosphorylation sites and probed their role in activity regulation of PfGSK3. By combining molecular modeling with experimental small-angle X-ray scattering data, we show that increased PfGSK3 activity is promoted by conformational changes in the PfGSK3 N‑terminus, triggered by N‑terminal phosphorylation. Our work provides novel insights into the structure and regulation of the malarial PfGSK3.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ian Winfield ◽  
Kerry Barkan ◽  
Sarah Routledge ◽  
Nathan J. Robertson ◽  
Matthew Harris ◽  
...  

The first intracellular loop (ICL1) of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has received little attention, although there is evidence that, with the 8th helix (H8), it is involved in early conformational changes following receptor activation as well as contacting the G protein β subunit. In class B1 GPCRs, the distal part of ICL1 contains a conserved R12.48KLRCxR2.46b motif that extends into the base of the second transmembrane helix; this is weakly conserved as a [R/H]12.48KL[R/H] motif in class A GPCRs. In the current study, the role of ICL1 and H8 in signaling through cAMP, iCa2+ and ERK1/2 has been examined in two class B1 GPCRs, using mutagenesis and molecular dynamics. Mutations throughout ICL1 can either enhance or disrupt cAMP production by CGRP at the CGRP receptor. Alanine mutagenesis identified subtle differences with regard elevation of iCa2+, with the distal end of the loop being particularly sensitive. ERK1/2 activation displayed little sensitivity to ICL1 mutation. A broadly similar pattern was observed with the glucagon receptor, although there were differences in significance of individual residues. Extending the study revealed that at the CRF1 receptor, an insertion in ICL1 switched signaling bias between iCa2+ and cAMP. Molecular dynamics suggested that changes in ICL1 altered the conformation of ICL2 and the H8/TM7 junction (ICL4). For H8, alanine mutagenesis showed the importance of E3908.49b for all three signal transduction pathways, for the CGRP receptor, but mutations of other residues largely just altered ERK1/2 activation. Thus, ICL1 may modulate GPCR bias via interactions with ICL2, ICL4 and the Gβ subunit.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 858
Author(s):  
Sali Anies ◽  
Vincent Jallu ◽  
Julien Diharce ◽  
Tarun J. Narwani ◽  
Alexandre G. de Brevern

Integrin αIIbβ3, a glycoprotein complex expressed at the platelet surface, is involved in platelet aggregation and contributes to primary haemostasis. Several integrin αIIbβ3 polymorphisms prevent the aggregation that causes haemorrhagic syndromes, such as Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT). Access to 3D structure allows understanding the structural effects of polymorphisms related to GT. In a previous analysis using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of αIIb Calf-1 domain structure, it was observed that GT associated with single amino acid variation affects distant loops, but not the mutated position. In this study, experiments are extended to Calf-1, Thigh, and Calf-2 domains. Two loops in Calf-2 are unstructured and therefore are modelled expertly using biophysical restraints. Surprisingly, MD revealed the presence of rigid zones in these loops. Detailed analysis with structural alphabet, the Proteins Blocks (PBs), allowed observing local changes in highly flexible regions. The variant P741R located at C-terminal of Calf-1 revealed that the Calf-2 presence did not affect the results obtained with isolated Calf-1 domain. Simulations for Calf- 1+ Calf-2, and Thigh + Calf-1 variant systems are designed to comprehend the impact of five single amino acid variations in these domains. Distant conformational changes are observed, thus highlighting the potential role of allostery in the structural basis of GT.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhenyu Li ◽  
Tian Li ◽  
Meisui Liu ◽  
Tijana Ivanovic

Understanding mechanisms of resistance to antiviral inhibitors can reveal nuanced features of targeted viral mechanisms and, in turn, lead to improved strategies for inhibitor design. Arbidol is a broad-spectrum antiviral which binds to and prevents the fusion-associated conformational changes in the trimeric influenza hemagglutinin (HA). The rate-limiting step during HA-mediated membrane fusion is the release of the hydrophobic fusion peptides from a conserved pocket on HA. Here, we investigated how destabilizing or stabilizing mutations in or near the fusion peptide affect viral sensitivity to Arbidol. The degree of sensitivity was proportional to the extent of fusion peptide stability on the pre-fusion HA: stabilized mutants were more sensitive, and destabilized ones resistant to Arbidol. Single-virion membrane fusion experiments for representative Wild Type and mutant viruses demonstrated that resistance is a direct consequence of fusion-peptide destabilization not dependent on reduced Arbidol binding to HA at neutral pH. Our results support the model whereby the probability of individual HAs extending to engage the target membrane is determined by the composite of two critical forces: a "tug" on the fusion peptide by the extension of the central coiled-coil on HA, and the key interactions stabilizing fusion peptide in the pre-fusion pocket. Arbidol increases the free-energy penalty for coiled-coil extension, but destabilizing mutations decrease the free-energy cost for fusion peptide release, accounting for the observed resistance. Our findings have broad implications for fusion-inhibitor design, viral mechanisms of resistance, and our basic understanding of HA-mediated membrane fusion.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Matthew Martinez ◽  
William David Chen ◽  
Marta Cova ◽  
Petra Andrea Molnár ◽  
Shrawan Kumar Mageswaran ◽  
...  

Apicomplexan parasites secrete the contents of rhoptries into host cells to permit their invasion and establishment of an infectious niche. The rhoptry secretory apparatus (RSA), which is critical for rhoptry secretion, was recently discovered in Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium. It is positioned at the cell apex and associates with an enigmatic apical vesicle (AV), which docks one or two rhoptries at the site of exocytosis. The interplay among the rhoptries, the AV, and the parasite plasma membrane for secretion remains unclear. Moreover, it is unknown if a similar machinery exists in the deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we use in situ cryo-electron tomography to investigate the rhoptry secretion system in P. falciparum merozoites. We identify the presence of an RSA at the cell apex and a morphologically distinct AV docking the tips of the two rhoptries to the RSA. We also discover two new organizations: one in which the AV is absent with one of the two rhoptry tips docks directly to the RSA, and a second in which the two rhoptries fuse together and the common tip docks directly to the RSA. Interestingly, rhoptries among the three states show no significant difference in luminal volume and density, suggesting that the exocytosis of rhoptry contents has not yet occurred, and that these different organizations likely represent sequential states leading to secretion. Using subtomogram averaging, we reveal different conformations of the RSA structure corresponding to each state, including the opening of a gate-like density in the rhoptry-fused state. These conformational changes of the RSA uncover structural details of a priming process for major rhoptry secretion, which likely occur after initial interaction with a red blood cell. Our results highlight a previously unknown step in the process of rhoptry secretion and indicate a regulatory role for the conserved apical vesicle in host invasion by apicomplexan parasites.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Geetika Singh ◽  
Cristina D. Guibao ◽  
Jayaraman Seetharaman ◽  
Anup Aggarwal ◽  
Christy R. Grace ◽  
...  

AbstractBCL-2 proteins regulate mitochondrial poration in apoptosis initiation. How the pore-forming BCL-2 Effector BAK is activated remains incompletely understood mechanistically. Here we investigate autoactivation and direct activation by BH3-only proteins, which cooperate to lower BAK threshold in membrane poration and apoptosis initiation. We define in trans BAK autoactivation as the asymmetric “BH3-in-groove” triggering of dormant BAK by active BAK. BAK autoactivation is mechanistically similar to direct activation. The structure of autoactivated BAK BH3-BAK complex reveals the conformational changes leading to helix α1 destabilization, which is a hallmark of BAK activation. Helix α1 is destabilized and restabilized in structures of BAK engaged by rationally designed, high-affinity activating and inactivating BID-like BH3 ligands, respectively. Altogether our data support the long-standing hit-and-run mechanism of BAK activation by transient binding of BH3-only proteins, demonstrating that BH3-induced structural changes are more important in BAK activation than BH3 ligand affinity.


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