tooth width
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Waleed Abdualaziz Mohammad Dahag ◽  
Abdulwahab Ismail Mohamed Al-Kholani ◽  
Taghreed Ahmed M Al-Kibsi ◽  
Hussein Shoga Al-Deen ◽  
Hassan Abdulwahab Al-Shamahy ◽  

Introduction and objective: Mixed dentition space analysis methods via Tanaka-Johnston analysis are regularly used all over the world. Conversely, the appropriate of this analysis between different ethnic groups is dubious. The study aimed to test the appropriate of the Tanaka-Johnston analysis for Yemeni adults and to arise regression equations designed for Yemen population if needed.  Methods: The study included two hundred and twenty-seven (106 males and 121 females) Yemenis from Sana'a University, University of Science and Technology, and Al-Rehab Private Clinic. The mesiodistal widths of the four permanent lower canines, incisors, and premolars for the entire quadrants were determined with a digital caliper to the nearest 0.01 mm. To compare average presentation values ​​derived from this study with values ​​derived using Tanaka-Johnston equations, Student's paired t-test was used, as well as the chi-square (χ2) test used for appropriateness of fit. Result: Gender differences were observed in the total mesiodistal width of both canines and premolars in both arches as revealed by the t-test (p < 0.001). The sum of the actual mesiodistal width of the canines and premolars was compared with the expected widths derived from the Tanaka and Johnston equation and significant differences (p<0.001) were found. Regression analysis indicated that the sum of the mesiodistal width of the permanent mandibular incisors is a good predictor of that of un-erupted canines and premolars, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.51 to 0.61. Accordingly, two linear regression equations were developed to predict tooth width for Yemeni males and females. Conclusion: It was concluded from this study that the Tanaka-Johnston analysis did not accurately predict the mesiodistal width of the unruptured canines and premolars of the Yemeni population. Moreover, new regression equations have been developed for the research sample that can be a standard for Yemen. However, further studies must be performed to verify the applicability and accuracy of these equations.                   Peer Review History: Received: 10 November 2021; Revised: 12 December; Accepted: 29 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor: Dr. Asia Selman Abdullah, Pharmacy institute, University of Basrah, Iraq, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.5/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.5/10 Reviewers: Dr. A.A. Mgbahurike, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, [email protected] Rola Jadallah, Arab American University, Palestine, [email protected] Similar Articles: PREVALENCE AND CAUSES OF TRAUMATIC DENTAL INJURIES TO ANTERIOR TEETH AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SANA'A CITY, YEMEN OCCLUSAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRIMARY DENTITION AMONG A SAMPLE OF YEMENI PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

2022 ◽  
Vol 355 ◽  
pp. 01005
Xiao Wu ◽  
Yang Luo ◽  
Qinmin Li ◽  
Juanjuan Shi

Time-varying mesh stiffness (TVMS) of gear plays vital role in analysing dynamic characteristic of gear transmission. So accurately evaluating the TVMS is important and essential. In this paper, a revised method to calculate the TVMS of helical gear is proposed. Based on slice method, the helical gear is sliced into pieces along the tooth width direction. The proposed method corrects the fillet foundation stiffness within multi-tooth in contact and considers the non-linearity and load-dependence of the Hertzian contact stiffness. The effect of the axial mesh force is considered. Finally, an equivalent helical gear model is established in ANSYS to study the mesh stiffness. The results show the proposed method has high effectiveness compared with FEM (finite element method).

Jun Xiong ◽  
Yangli Zhu ◽  
Xing Wang ◽  
Haisheng Chen ◽  
Junfeng Wang

Flow field of shroud leakage flow for a single-stage axial turbine has been investigated in this article. The spiral groove seal (SGS) is adopted for shrouded rotor blade to reduce tip leakage and improve turbine aerodynamic performance. A series of three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to investigate leakage characteristics and flow mechanism of various configurations with different angle, depth, width, and grooves number of the SGS. The original staggered labyrinth seal (LS) is also calculated for comparison. The results illustrate that small spiral groove angle can create more axial flow resistance; meanwhile, it will increase grooves number existing in the axial direction. Groove depth and tooth width will influence the number, shape, and strength of vortex in the groove. The leakage mass flow can be reduced by 36% and isentropic efficiency of the turbine can be increased by 0.26% when spiral groove angle, depth, and width of the SGS are 1.5°, 1.8 mm, and 0.8 mm, respectively. Overall, the optimal SGS can influence vortex generation and enhance energy dissipation in shroud cavity to reduce the leakage and suppress mixing loss of leakage flow with the main flow to some extent. It can be attributed to the combination of throttling effect and pumping effect of the SGS that realize leakage reduction and efficiency improvement. As a result, the SGS can effectively improve tip leakage flow of shrouded blade in axial turbine.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 8511
Himayat Ullah Jan ◽  
Faisal Khan ◽  
Basharat Ullah ◽  
Muhammad Qasim ◽  
Malak Adnan Khan ◽  

This paper presents a Hybrid Excited Double-Sided Linear Flux Switching Machine (HEDSLFSM) with a crooked tooth modular stator. Generally, the conventional stators are made of a full-length iron core, increasing manufacturing costs and iron losses. Higher iron losses result in lower efficiency and lower overall performance. A U-shaped modular stator with a crooked tooth is used to lower iron consumption and increase the machine’s efficiency. Ferrite magnets are used to replace rare earth magnets, which also reduces the machine cost. Two DC excitation windings are used above and below the ferrite magnet to reduce the PM volume. 2D electromagnetic performance analysis is done to observe the key performance indices. Geometric optimization is used to optimize the Split Ratio (S.R), DC winding slot area (DCw), and AC winding slot area (ACw). Stator Tooth Width (STW), space between the modules (S.S.), and crooked angle (α) are optimized through JMAG in-built Genetic Algorithm (G.A.) optimization. High thrust force density and modular stator make it a good candidate for long-stroke applications like railway transits. The thermal analysis of the machine is performed by FEA analysis and then validated by 2D LPMC (Lumped Parametric Magnetic Equivalent Circuit) model. Both analyses are compared, and an error percentage of less than 4% is achieved.

2021 ◽  
Yuqi Zhu ◽  
Wei Yuan ◽  
Qianjian Guo ◽  
Liguo Zhang ◽  
Wenhua Wang ◽  

Abstract The initial defects have greatly affected the gear transmission under harsh working conditions in the fields of wind power and ships. The influence of linear initial defects on the evolution of wear characteristics of helical gears was studied. The laser marking device was used to process the linear initial defect along the tooth width direction, and the gear without initial defect was used for comparison. It can be concluded that the linear initial defect changed the meshing state of the gear tooth, and greatly shortened the normal wear life of the gear, the normal wear life of the gear is shortened by about 45%, and the wear rate in the stable wear stage is increased by about 56%, a great deal of pitting corrosion and plastic flow on the tooth surface occurred in the pitch circle position of the defective gear. In addition, the lubrication condition deteriorated in the later period caused by lubricating oil pollution and the hard particles falling off the gearbox bearings entered the meshing surface and the emerged crack, which further accelerated the wear process of gear.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (21) ◽  
pp. 7274
Noman Ullah ◽  
Faisal Khan ◽  
Abdul Basit ◽  
Mohsin Shahzad

Linear Flux Switching Machines (LFSMs) possess the capability to generate adhesive thrust force, thus problems associated with conventional rotatory electric machines and mechanical conversion assemblies can be eliminated. Additionally, the unique features of high force/power density, efficiency, and a robust secondary structure make LFSMs a suitable candidate for linear motion applications. However, deficiency of controllable air-gap flux, risk of PM demagnetization, and increasing cost of rare earth PM materials in case of PMLFSMs, and inherent low thrust force capability of Field Excited LFSMs compels researchers to investigate new hybrid topologies. In this paper, a novel Double-Sided Hybrid Excited LFSM (DSHELFSM) with all three excitation sources, i.e., PMs, DC, and AC windings confined to short moving primary and segmented secondary providing short flux paths is designed, investigated, and optimized. Secondly, unequal primary tooth width optimization and additional end-teeth at all four corners of the primary equip proposed design with balanced magnetic circuit and reduced end-effect and thrust force ripples. Thirdly, the measured experimental results of the manufactured proposed machine prototype are compared with corresponding simulated model results and shows good agreements, thus validating the theoretical study.

Frederik Mieth ◽  
Carsten Ulrich ◽  
Berthold Schlecht

AbstractIn order to be able to carry out an optimal gear design with the aim of cost reduction and the careful handling of resources, load capacity is an important criterion for the evaluation of a gear. For the calculation of the flank and root load capacity, a precise loaded tooth contact analysis (LTCA) is necessary. With LTCA software like BECAL, influence numbers are used to calculate the deformation of the gear. These influence numbers are calculated with a BEM-module and considered for calculating the local root stress. This method simplifies the coupling stiffness in tooth width direction with a decay function and neglects the influence of local differences in tooth stiffness. In this publication, this simplification shall be questioned and evaluated.Therefore, a new method for calculating stress with FEM influence vectors is presented. This method enables the calculation of full stress tensors at any desired location in the gear with the efficiency of the influence number method. Additionally, the influence of local stiffness variations in the gear is taken into account. Various gear examples show the influence of material connections at the pinion root and the influence of the rim thickness of a wheel on the root stress. To validate the accuracy and the time efficiency of the new calculation method and to compare the results to current state-of-the-art simulations, a well-documented series of tests from the literature is recalculated and evaluated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 7-13
Umesh Parajuli ◽  
Alok Kumar Jaiswal ◽  
Manish Bajracharya ◽  
Manju Pandey ◽  
Sapna Laxmi Tuladhar

Introduction: The tooth size ratios may vary among different ethnic groups and different malocclusion groups. The objective of this study is to see the tooth size discrepancies in two major ethnic groups of Nepal; Indo-Aryans and Tibeto-Burmans and different malocclusion groups and compare it with the Bolton’s study. Materials and Method: The anterior and overall ratios were compared between Indo-Aryans and Tibeto-Burmans according to different malocclusion groups with Bolton’s study with one sample t-test. The differences in ratios in ethnic groups and gender were seen with one sample t-test. The differences in mesio-distal tooth width amongst the two ethnic groups were seen. One sample ANOVA was used to see any correlation between the ethnic groups and the different malocclusion groups. Result: The anterior ratio and overall ratio in Indo- Aryans and Tibeto-Burmans in all the malocclusion groups were greater than the Bolton’s study but was not statistically significant. There was significant differences in anterior ratio between Indo-Aryans (77.63 + 2.74%) and Tibeto-Burmans (78.51 + 2.76%), p value= 0.024. There were no statistical significant differences in the anterior and overall ratio amongst males and females. The mesio-distal tooth size was greater in Tibeto-Burmans as compared to Indo-Aryans expect for maxillary right and left central incisors. Conclusion: The Tibeto-Burmans had higher anterior ratio as compared to Indo-Aryans. The Tibeto-Burmans had broader teeth as compared to Indo-Aryans except for maxillary central incisors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 263 (5) ◽  
pp. 1275-1285
Joshua Götz ◽  
Sebastian Sepp ◽  
Michael Otto ◽  
Karsten Stahl

One important source of noise in drive trains are transmissions. In numerous applications, it is necessary to use helical instead of spur gear stages due to increased noise requirements. Besides a superior excitation behaviour, helical gears also show additional disadvantageous effects (e.g. axial forces and tilting moments), which have to be taken into account in the design process. Thus, a low noise spur gear stage could simplify design and meet the requirements of modern mechanical drive trains. The authors explore the possibility of combining the low noise properties of helical gears with the advantageous mechanical properties of spur gears by using spur gears with variable tip diameter along the tooth width. This allows the adjustment of the total length of active lines of action at the beginning and end of contact and acts as a mesh stiffness modification. For this reason, several spur gear designs are experimentally investigated and compared with regard to their excitation behaviour. The experiments are performed on a back-to-back test rig and include quasi-static transmission error measurements under load as well as dynamic torsional vibration measurements. The results show a significant improvement of the excitation behaviour for spur gears with variable tip diameter.

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