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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
XiaoDong Cheng ◽  
XiaoYang Kong ◽  
Yongzhao Fan ◽  
XiangYu Wang ◽  
ZiHao Li ◽  

Generally, adequate motor coordination (MC) ability is one among the critical factors for the overall development of children. In this paper, we have thoroughly analyzed the effects of equine-assistant activity (EAA) training on MC in children. For this purpose, MC test, specifically for children, was used to the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK), and a total of 100 children, particularly those in 8 to 10 age, were equally separated into equine-assistant activity group (EAAG) and control group (CG), respectively. The EAAG group has attended a 14-week EAA training program, while the CG joined in physical education activity once per week. The experimental results have indicated that four indices of KTK test (i.e., backward walk [WB], height jump [HH], jumping sideways [JS] and moving sideways [MS], and motor quotient [MQ] score) showed significant differences ( ∗ P < 0.05 ) after a 14-week EAA training. Furthermore, the indices of physical fitness test, standing long jump (SLJ), and sit and reach (SAR) showed significant differences ( ∗ P < 0.05 ), but the handgrip (HG) increased slightly without significant difference ( P > 0.05 ) after a 14-week EAA training. In conclusion, there were improvements in MC, lower limb strength, and flexibility by EAAG for those who participated in a 14-week EAA training, and this study has demonstrated the effectiveness of the KTK assessment of MC in children 8 to 10 years.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Changjun Hu ◽  
Yang Sun

In order to actively respond to the government’s call to scientifically create campus football culture, combine the characteristics of football sports, and improve people’s understanding of the mental and intellectual functions of football, this article focuses on the impact of football training on physical function and football technology. Based on the understanding of related theories, the experiment on the impact of football training on physical function and football technology was carried out. The experimental results showed that the weight, height, and BMI increased significantly during the period of football training ( P < 0.05 ). The independent sample T test showed that there were no significant differences in height, weight, and BMI between the two groups before and after training; the standing long jump performance of the control group after training showed an upward trend, but the significance level was not statistically significant. Three months later, the time for the experimental team to complete the eight-character dribble test in football training was reduced from 20.51 seconds to 15.57 seconds. The independent sample T test found that there was no significant difference in the physical fitness of the two groups before training and the changes in football skills of the subjects before and after training. Then, the clustering algorithm in the big data was used to analyze the data of the experimental group. The standing long jump has the highest performance; the second category belongs to the third level, and the third category belongs to the second level.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Vincenzo Sorgente ◽  
Erez James Cohen ◽  
Riccardo Bravi ◽  
Diego Minciacchi

Two observational learning approaches have been shown to be successful in improving children’s motor performances: one is “technique-focused”, another is “goal-focused”. In this study, we sought to compare the effectiveness of these two strategies, thus testing for the more efficient method of observational learning to enhance motor skills in primary school children. To this end, two experiments were designed. Experiment 1 involved a precision ball throwing task. Experiment 2 involved a standing long jump task. A total of 792 subjects (aged 6–11) participated in this study and were divided into technique-focus (Experiment 1 n = 200; Experiment 2 n = 66), goal-focus (Experiment 1 n = 195; Experiment 2 n = 68), and control groups (Experiment 1 n = 199; Experiment 2 n = 64). The experiments were divided into pretest, practice, and retention phases. During the practice phase, the technique-focus and goal-focus groups were given different visual instructions on how to perform the task. The results showed that children aged 10–11 belonging to the technique-focus group performed significantly better in the practice phase than both the goal-focus and the control group (p < 0.001), but only for the precision ball throwing task. These findings could be useful for training adaptation in the context of motor learning and skills acquisition.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Rosa S. Wong ◽  
Keith T. S. Tung ◽  
Bianca N. K. Chan ◽  
Frederick K. W. Ho ◽  
Nirmala Rao ◽  

AbstractThe graded association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and physical fitness is evident, but little is known about the mechanism underlying this association. This study investigated the role of early-life activities as mediators of the longitudinal relationship between early-life SES and health-related physical fitness in 168 adolescents (51.2% boys; final mean age: 12.4 years old). In Wave 1 (2011–12), their parents completed questionnaires about family socioeconomic status (SES), parent–child activities, and child screen time. In Wave 2 (2014–15), participants’ physical activity levels were assessed through parent proxy-reports. In Wave 3 (2018–19), a direct assessment of handgrip strength, standing long-jump, and 6-min walk test (6MWT) performance was conducted. After controlling for demographic factors, results of mediation analyses revealed that (a) Wave 1 SES predicted Wave 3 long-jump and 6MWT performance; (b) child physical activity level in Wave 2 mediated the relation between Wave 1 SES and standing long-jump performance in Wave 3; and (c) recreational parent–child activities and child screen time in wave 1 mediated the relation between Wave 1 SES and 6MWT performance in Wave 3. Our findings suggest that the type and frequency of early-life activities play a role in the graded association between childhood SES and physical fitness in adolescence.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 134
Ellen Williams ◽  
Anne Carter ◽  
Jacqueline Boyd

The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [...]

Kelly R. Laurson ◽  
Fátima Baptista ◽  
Matthew T. Mahar ◽  
Greg J. Welk ◽  
Kathleen F. Janz

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yanhua Lu ◽  
Yiyan Li ◽  
Tang Zhou ◽  
Menghao Sang ◽  
Longkai Li ◽  

Background: The results of sedentary time (ST) and health-related physical fitness (HPF) are not completely consistent and the studies concentrated on pre-schoolers are very limited.Methods: We measured ST and ST patterns (ST Bouts time, ST Breaks times) by accelerometer. The health-related physical fitness T-score (HPFT) was calculated by five indexes: height-weight standard score, 20 m shuttle-run test, grip strength, standing long jump and 2 × 10 m shuttle-run test.Results: We included 375 pre-schoolers (211 boys, 164 girls) in the final analysis. The total ST and ST Bouts times negatively correlated with HPFT in pre-schoolers. HPFT reduced by 1.69 and 0.70 points per 10 min increased in total ST and ST Bouts times, respectively. HPFT of the highest quartile group reduced by 9.85 points in total ST, and 10.54 points in ST Bouts time compared with the lowest quartile group. However, the HPFT increased by 0.09 points per 10 times increased in ST Breaks times; the HPFT increased by 16.21 and 15.59 points when moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) replaced total ST and ST Bouts time.Conclusions: HPF negatively correlated with the Total ST and ST Bouts times, but positively correlated with ST Breaks times; and HPF significantly improved when MVPA replaced ST in pre-schoolers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Altin Martiri

During the monitoring of volleyball teams in Albania during training, it was noticed that coaches pay more attention to technical elements and not to physical abilities to ages 14-18 years. The aim of this study was to find out the trend of improvement and differences with the age on physical abilities of male’s volleyball players in Albania. Methods: Participants in this study were N=43 volleyball players from two age categories; N=21, cadet (14-16 yrs.), N= 22 and junior (16-18 yrs.) Measurement for anthropometrics (body weight, body height) and physical abilities (push up test, curl-up test, standing long jump and vertical jump test) were assessed. Results: Analysis between two age categories shows significant differences. Showed results for anthropometrics and also for physical abilities showed differences between groups of volleyball players. Data of this study for jumping performance using vertical jump CMJ test between groups for cadet vs. junior data show (mean difference= 21.3 cm; Sig= 0.004) while for vertical jump Run up test between groups for cadet vs. junior data show (mean difference= 22.3 cm; Sig= 0.003). Conclusion: In the best interest of the study, it would be good if other teams were involved from different cities of Albania. Suggestions for other studies we recommend in comparing data by positions in the field. Trainers should plan training with these age groups different coordination programs not only technical. This study has limitations with regards to the sampling number of male volleyball players, which is justified for not having sufficient funds.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (6) ◽  
pp. 388-394
Irina Kriventsova ◽  
Yevgeniy Gorbachuk ◽  
Svitlana Chernigivs’ka ◽  
Marina Jagiello ◽  
Abdelkrim Bensbaa

Background and Study Aim. Training of motor actions of young athletes requires consideration the peculiarities of the sensitive period of their development. An important component of the training program is the use of training tools that do not harm the health of young athletes. The purpose of the study is to identify the dynamics of physical training and provide an assessment of technical and tactical techniques of fencers (sword) aged 9-11 years under the influence of the author's program. Material and methods. The study involved young fencers (n = 20; age 9-11 years). The study lasted one academic year. The training was held in the gym of the children's and youth sports school "Wave" (Kharkiv, Ukraine). Athletes were divided into two uniform groups: control group (n = 10) and experimental group (n = 10). Classes were held according to the author's program 4 times a week for 2 hours. A survey of trainers of trainers (n = 12) and experienced fencers (n = 30) was conducted. Parents of children agreed to participate in the study. The following tests were used: “Standing Long Jump Test (Broad Jump), cm”; “4x9 m Shuttle test, sec.”; "Hits into the target, 30 sec. points"; "Simulation exercises of a simple fencing combination, sec.". The program "Microsoft Excel" Data Analysis, SPSS was used. The level of reliability is selected p <0.05. Results. Significant changes in the indicators of the control group were obtained: “Standing Long Jump Test (Broad Jump), cm”, (p <0.05); in the test "4x9 m Shuttle test, sec." (p <0.05); both tests have assessment of technical and tactical techniques (p <0.01). In the experimental group, all tests showed positive changes (p <0.01). In comparison of two groups with each other in the tests "Standing Long Jump Test (Broad Jump), cm", "4x9 m Shuttle test, sec." and " Hits into the target, 30 sec. points" there were positive statistically significant changes (p <0.05). In the test "Simulation exercises of a simple fencing combination, sec." no significant changes occurred (p˃0.05). Conclusions. It is recommended to take into account the effects of exercise on the health of young athletes when designing a fencing training program.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (6) ◽  
pp. 374-381
Serhii Chernenko ◽  
Wladyslaw Jagiello ◽  
Olha Ivashchenko ◽  
Oleg Khudolii ◽  
Sviatoslava Pashkevich

Background and Study Aim. The objective of the study was to determine the peculiarities of impact of sports specialization on 3rd-year female students’ functional and motor fitness. Materials and methods. The study involved 3rd-year female students of the Donbas State Engineering Academy in Kramatorsk, who practiced badminton (n = 43), aerobics (n = 43), and callanetics (n = 43). To solve the tasks set, the following research methods were used: analysis of scientific literature, pedagogical observation, pedagogical testing; index method and medical-biological methods. Pedagogical methods were used to study the peculiarities of students’ functional state of the body and motor abilities; for data processing discriminant analysis was used. Sectional classes were held in groups according to the schedule – twice a week. Results. The study revealed the peculiarities of impact of attending badminton, aerobics, and callanetics sports sections on the level of 3rd-year female students’ functional and motor fitness. The female students who play badminton show better results in the 100-meter dash and the Standing long jump. In the exercise “Push-ups”, better results are shown by the female students who do aerobics. Conclusions. The results of classification of students by the level of motor and functional fitness and the analysis of multidimensional averages (centroids) point to the peculiarities of dynamics of female students’ state depending on sports specialization. The results of the following tests are most important for differentiated assessment of the state of motor and functional fitness at the first level: Romberg test (r = 0.662), 100-meter dash (r = 0.491), Push-ups (r = 0.491). At the second level – Stange test (r = 0.417), Standing long jump (r = 0.412).

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