microwave heating
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2022 ◽  
Vol 374 ◽  
pp. 131772
Dorota Martysiak-Żurowska ◽  
Edyta Malinowska-Pańczyk ◽  
Małgorzata Orzołek ◽  
Bogumiła Kiełbratowska ◽  
Elena Sinkiewicz–Darol

2022 ◽  
Vol 218 ◽  
pp. 109200 ◽  
Jing Zhou ◽  
Yingguang Li ◽  
Zexin Zhu ◽  
Eyan Xu ◽  
Shengping Li ◽  

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 336
Katarzyna Najman ◽  
Anna Sadowska ◽  
Krzysztof Buczak ◽  
Hanna Leontowicz ◽  
Maria Leontowicz

Dietary supplementation with raw garlic has a preventive and healing effect in cardiovascular diseases, but it could also damage the intestinal mucosa, resulting in impairment of nutrient absorption. Garlic processing, including heat treatment, changes the content and biological activity of garlic, so it is crucial to find food-processing methods that will preserve the health-promoting properties of garlic while minimizing its negative impact on the digestive system. Therefore, in this study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) on growth parameters, plasma lipid profile, and morphological parameters in the ileum of Wistar rats subjected to various types of heat treatment (90 s blanching garlic, 10 min boiling in water, 10 min pan frying without fat, microwave heating fresh garlic, 90 s blanching and microwave heating garlic, 10 min boiling in water and microwave heating garlic, and 10 min pan frying without fat and microwave heating garlic) was determined in an atherogenic diet (containing 1% addition of cholesterol). In the conducted research, it was found that the diet supplemented with heat-treated garlic used in the atherogenic diet improved the consumption and growth parameters of rats, depending on the type and time of its use. The highest consumption was recorded in atherogenic groups supplemented with garlic subjected to a longer (10 min) heat treatment and was then heated in a microwave oven. Garlic subjected to the shortest heat treatment proved to be most effective, and a significant improvement in the lipid profiles of rats’ plasma with atherogenic was observed. Extending the time of heat treatment of garlic and, additionally, its microwaving significantly weakened the action of garlic in the body, but still retained its hypolipidemic effect. The greatest influence on the structural changes in the mucosa of the rats’ iliac intestine, manifested by degeneration of the mucosa, shortening the length of the intestinal villi, damage to the brush border, and thus impairment of the intestinal absorption, was exerted by supplementing the atherogenic diet with garlic subjected to short-term heat treatment. Among the processes used, blanching was the least favorable, and the long-lasting thermal processes (cooking, frying for 10 min) had a positive effect on the mucosa of the rats’ intestines. The results obtained in this study confirm that the selection of an appropriate method of thermal processing of garlic may allow for the maintenance of preventive and therapeutic efficacy of garlic in cardiovascular diseases, while ensuring the safety of its long-term use in the context of degenerative changes in the gastrointestinal tract.

Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Teng Lu ◽  
Faqiang Dang ◽  
Haitao Wang ◽  
Qingmin Zhao ◽  
Zhengxiao Xu

Nanoparticle-assisted microwave heating of heavy oil has the advantages of fast temperature rise and high thermal efficiency. Compared with traditional heating methods, it can reduce viscosity in a shorter time. In addition, the heavy components in the heavy oil are cracked into light components at high temperatures (this high temperature cannot be reached by conventional heating methods). This process is irreversible and avoids the problem of viscosity recovery of heavy oil after the temperature is reduced. Through absorbing microwave heating experiments, study the effect of nanoparticles on the improvement of the ability of heavy oil to absorb waves and raise temperature; through the heavy oil upgrading experiment and the four-component analysis experiment, the effect of adding hydrogen donor to assist microwave on the viscosity reduction of heavy oil upgrading by nanoparticles was studied, and the problem of viscosity recovery was determined; Through the gravity drainage experiment, the mechanism of nanoparticle-assisted microwave to improve the recovery of heavy oil is studied, and the influence of water content, nanocatalyst, and microwave power on the production of drainage is analyzed. The results show that nanoparticles can improve the wave absorption and heating capacity of heavy oil, and adding 0.6 wt% of nanomagnetic iron oxide catalyst can increase the heating rate of heavy oil in microwave by 60.6%; nanoparticle-assisted microwave heating method can effectively upgrade heavy oil and reduce viscosity. The experimental conditions are 2 wt% tetralin mass concentration, 0.5 wt% nano-Fe3O4 particle mass concentration, microwave heating time 50-60 min, and microwave power 539 W. Under this experimental condition, the viscosity is reduced by 40%. This method has viscosity recovery problems, but final viscosity reduction effect is still very significant. Obtaining the mechanism of nanoparticle-assisted microwave to enhance oil recovery, one of which is that nanoparticles improve the wave absorption and heating capacity of heavy oil and increase the heating speed of heavy oil; the second is that the nanoparticles form local high temperature under the action of microwave, which catalyzes the hydrocracking reaction between the heavy components in the heavy oil and the hydrogen donor, upgrading and reducing the viscosity of the heavy oil, and accelerating the production of heavy oil.

Saranphong Yimklan ◽  
Yothin Chimupala ◽  
Sutsiri Wongngam ◽  
Nippich Kaeosamut

A three-dimensional coordination polymer, poly[hexaaqua(μ4-glutarato)bis(μ3-sulfato)dineodymium(III)], [Nd2(H2O)6(glutarato)(SO4)2] n (glutarato2– = C5H6O4 2–), 1, consisting of cationic {Nd2(H2O)6(SO4)2} n 2n+ layers linked by bridging glutarate ligands, was synthesized by the microwave-heating technique within few minutes. The crystal structure of 1 consists of two crystallographically independent TPRS-{NdIIIO9} (TPRS is tricapped trigonal–prismatic geometry) units that form an edge-sharing dinuclear cluster interconnected to neighbouring dimers by the μ3-SO4 2– anions, yielding a cationic two-dimensional {Nd2(H2O)6(SO4)2} n 2n+ sheet. Adjacent cationic layers are then linked via the μ4-glutarato2– ligands into a three-dimensional coordination network. Strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds are the predominant interaction in the crystal structure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 128 (2) ◽  
Yuan He ◽  
Shenghui Guo ◽  
Shiwei Li ◽  
Libo Zhang ◽  
Shaohua Yin

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
pp. 70-76
Yelong Lei ◽  
Jiaxi Xu

Alkyl 2-diazo-3-oxoalkanoates generate alkoxycarbonylketenes, which undergo an electrophilic ring expansion with aziridines to afford alkyl 2-(oxazolin-2-yl)alkanoates in good to excellent yields under microwave heating. The method is a convenient and clean reaction without any activators and catalysts and can be also applied in the synthesis of 2-(oxazolin-2-yl)alkanamides and 1-(oxazolin-2-yl)alkylphosphonates.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 316
Aimin Sha ◽  
Baowen Lou ◽  
Diego Maria Barbieri ◽  
Inge Hoff

The microwave heating/healing technique is regarded as a green maintenance approach for asphalt pavements thanks to its promising environmental and economic benefits. However, the main concern about this technology is represented by the possible aging effect generated on bituminous binders. Currently, there is a significant lack of studies dealing with this topic. Based on these premises, the main purpose of this study is to appraise the feasibility of implementing microwave-based maintenance operations considering the associated aging effect. The assessment of fatigue life after cyclic microwave heating (MH) based on a linear amplitude sweep (LAS) test and the changes in the chemical groups detected through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy document the aging phenomenon. The results indicate that the microwave aging degree on bituminous binder is nonlinear with MH cycles. The microwave radiation causes a distinct aging impact on binders during the first 10 cycles, then the values become constant. Furthermore, a feasibility analysis of MH technology is developed, encompassing four main multidisciplinary aspects: evaluation of microwave aging degree, working mechanism of MH equipment, safety assessment, and economic and ecological considerations. Despite the associated aging issue, the MH method is an efficient technology, considering its various advantages (i.e., rapidity of execution, uniform and non-pollutant treatment, and deep penetration). Meanwhile, the use of steel slag as a microwave absorber bolsters the sustainability of MH technology. This study provides a new perspective to evaluate the microwave heating technique in road engineering comprising the generated aging effect. Practice-oriented recommendations are also formulated regarding the safe implementation of MH technical operations.

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