allium sativum
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
P. A. A. Bacelar ◽  
L. L. Feitoza ◽  
S. E. S. Valente ◽  
R. L. F. Gomes ◽  
L. V. Martins ◽  

Abstract Allium sativum L. is an herb of the Alliaceae family with a specific taste and aroma and medicinal and nutraceutical properties that are widely marketed in several countries. Brazil is one of the largest importers of garlic in the world, despite of its production is restricted and limited to internal consumption. Thus, explore the genetic diversity of commercial garlic conserved at germplasm banks is essential to generate additional genetic information about its economically important crop. A suitable tool for this purpose is the cytogenetic characterisation of these accessions. This study aimed to characterise the cytogenetic diversity among seven accessions of garlic from a Germplasm Bank in Brazil. The karyotypes were obtained by conventional staining and with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorochromes. All accessions analysed showed chromosome number 2n = 16, karyotype formula 6M+2SM, symmetrical karyotypes, reticulate interphase nuclei, and chromosomes with uniform chromatin condensation from prophase to metaphase. The fluorochromes staining showed differences in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin along the chromosomes and between accessions studied. Based on the distribution pattern of these small polymorphisms, it was possible to separate the seven accessions into three groups. It was also possible to differentiate some of the accessions individually. One of the results obtained showed a heteromorphic distension of the nucleolar organiser region observed on the chromosome pairs 6 or 7 with peculiar characteristics. It was suggested for example, that the heteromorphic block of heterochromatin (CMA+++/DAPI-) on chromosome 6 of the “Branco Mineiro Piauí” accession can be used as a marker to identify this genotype or may be associated with some character of economic interest.

Meseret Tadelo ◽  
Tamirat Wato ◽  
Tilahun Negash

Background: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) belongs to the family Solanaceae. In Ethiopia, control of early blight is largely dependent on fungicidal application. There is a research need to identify effective botanical extracts to control Alternaria solani that cause early blight of tomato and for evaluation of plant extracts through different solvents on the target pathogen. Methods: In vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of crude extracts of 16 selected medicinal plants against Alternaria solani. Thus, crude extracts were extracted from medicinal plants with different solvents (methanol, ethanol and petroleum at (25%, 50% and 100%) concentrations. The Alternaria solani was isolated from infected tomato leaves showing early blight symptoms. Evaluation of plant extracts was carried out against Alternaria solani using food poisoned technique on PDA. Result: Results showed that most of the methanolic extract plants were showed significant inhibition of the mycelial growth as compared to ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts. A higher rate of mycelial reduction was recorded by ethanol extracts of Allium sativum at all concentrations (100%) followed by methanol extracts of Allium sativum at 25%, 50%, 100% concentration (90.02%, 97.01%, 100% respectively). The effectiveness of extracts against Alternaria solani depends on use at the higher concentrations and various solvents. For crude extracts that have shown higher inhibitory effects against Alternaria solani in vitro conditions, actual chemical compounds should be identified. Furthermore, it is also important to evaluate these plants on other microbes, study to test in vivo and to assess their real potential field condition wherever early blight is an important disease of tomato.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 224
Malyaj Prajapati ◽  
Aakansha Manav ◽  
Jitender Singh ◽  
Pankaj Kumar ◽  
Amit Kumar ◽  

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants exhibiting mosaics, deformation, and yellow stripes symptoms were identified in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh, India. To investigate the viruses in the garlic samples, the method of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) was used. Complete genome of the garlic virus E (GarV-E) isolate (NCBI accession No. MW925710) was retrieved. The virus complete genome comprises 8450 nucleotides (nts), excluding the poly (A) tail at the 3′ terminus, with 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of 99 and 384 nts, respectively, and ORFs encoding replicase with a conserved motif for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), TGB1, TGB2, TGB3, serine-rich protein, coat protein, and nucleic acid binding protein (NABP). The sequence homology shared 83.49–90.40% and 87.48–92.87% with those of GarV-E isolates available in NCBI at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship of this isolate from India (MW925710) with GarV-E isolate YH (AJ292230) from Zhejiang, China. The presence of GarV-E was also confirmed by RT-PCR. The present study is the first report of GarV-E in garlic cultivar Yamuna Safed-3 grown in northern India. However, further studies are needed to confirm its role in symptom development, nationwide distribution, genetic diversity, and potential yield loss to the garlic in India.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 309-314
Edmund Chidiebere Mbegbu ◽  
Rita Ifeoma Odo ◽  
Paul Tobechukwu Ozioko ◽  
Mark Ebubechukwu Awachie ◽  
Lotanna Gilbert Nwobi ◽  

Purpose: To investigate the ameliorative effect of aqueous garlic extract (AGEx) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2-induced) alterations in the blood and testicles of rats. Methods: A total of 24 male rats (160 - 200 g), randomly assigned into 4 groups (A - D; n = 6), were used to investigate the claimed protective effect of AGEx on blood and spermatogenic tissues following CdCl2-intoxication in albino rats. The rats in Group A served as controls and were given 5 mg/mL of deionized water. Group B rats were given 300 mg/kg of AGEx. Group C rats were given 2 mg/kg of CdCl2. Rats in Group D first received 2 mg/kg of CdCl2, and 300 mg/kg of AGEx 2 h later. All treatments were done every 48 h for a period of six weeks. Results: CdCl2 administration to group C rats reduced (p < 0.05) haematocrit value (PCV), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb), red cells count (RBC), total leucocytes count (tWBC), eosinophil, neutrophil, testicular weights and sperm reserves; but elevated (p < 0.05) lymphocytes count compared with the controls. AGEx 300 mg/kg in group D rats significantly reversed (p < 0.05) the altered parameters compared with the controls. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that administration of aqueous Allium sativum (garlic) extract to male rats enhances spermatogenesis, and ameliorates testicular and haematological alterations induced by cadmium poisoning. Therefore, the spermatogenic principle in AGEx is a potential candidate for the clinical management of male infertility.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 336
Katarzyna Najman ◽  
Anna Sadowska ◽  
Krzysztof Buczak ◽  
Hanna Leontowicz ◽  
Maria Leontowicz

Dietary supplementation with raw garlic has a preventive and healing effect in cardiovascular diseases, but it could also damage the intestinal mucosa, resulting in impairment of nutrient absorption. Garlic processing, including heat treatment, changes the content and biological activity of garlic, so it is crucial to find food-processing methods that will preserve the health-promoting properties of garlic while minimizing its negative impact on the digestive system. Therefore, in this study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) on growth parameters, plasma lipid profile, and morphological parameters in the ileum of Wistar rats subjected to various types of heat treatment (90 s blanching garlic, 10 min boiling in water, 10 min pan frying without fat, microwave heating fresh garlic, 90 s blanching and microwave heating garlic, 10 min boiling in water and microwave heating garlic, and 10 min pan frying without fat and microwave heating garlic) was determined in an atherogenic diet (containing 1% addition of cholesterol). In the conducted research, it was found that the diet supplemented with heat-treated garlic used in the atherogenic diet improved the consumption and growth parameters of rats, depending on the type and time of its use. The highest consumption was recorded in atherogenic groups supplemented with garlic subjected to a longer (10 min) heat treatment and was then heated in a microwave oven. Garlic subjected to the shortest heat treatment proved to be most effective, and a significant improvement in the lipid profiles of rats’ plasma with atherogenic was observed. Extending the time of heat treatment of garlic and, additionally, its microwaving significantly weakened the action of garlic in the body, but still retained its hypolipidemic effect. The greatest influence on the structural changes in the mucosa of the rats’ iliac intestine, manifested by degeneration of the mucosa, shortening the length of the intestinal villi, damage to the brush border, and thus impairment of the intestinal absorption, was exerted by supplementing the atherogenic diet with garlic subjected to short-term heat treatment. Among the processes used, blanching was the least favorable, and the long-lasting thermal processes (cooking, frying for 10 min) had a positive effect on the mucosa of the rats’ intestines. The results obtained in this study confirm that the selection of an appropriate method of thermal processing of garlic may allow for the maintenance of preventive and therapeutic efficacy of garlic in cardiovascular diseases, while ensuring the safety of its long-term use in the context of degenerative changes in the gastrointestinal tract.

FEMS Microbes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Yimeslal Atnafu Sema ◽  
Teshale Areda Waktola

Abstract In Ethiopia, the impacts of malaria continue to cause a many number of morbidity and mortality that accounts to most outpatient observations. Ethiopia recently designed to attain nationwide malaria control by 2030 by beginning sub-national elimination in districts with low malaria transmission. However, the rises of drug-resistant parasites, especially Plasmodium falciparum hinder the malaria containment strategies. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, dispersed all over the Ethiopia and accounting for 60% and 40% of malaria cases respectively. The aim of this report was to overview the phytochemical constituents, diversity and effect of some compound extracts on drug resistant plasmodium species. Many plant species, a total 200 identified by 82 studies, are used in traditional malaria treatments throughout the country. Allium sativum, Croton macrostachyus and Carica papaya were the more frequently used medicinal plants species. There are so many phytochemicals constituents found in medicinal plants used to treat malaria. Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Phenolics, Terpenoid and Glycosides are the most reported for their effective activity on drug resistant malaria.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1048 ◽  
pp. 493-501
Khanh Duy Huynh ◽  
Van Thinh Pham ◽  
Van Khang Tran ◽  
Hoang Danh Pham ◽  
Tri Nhut Pham

Garlic is a globally used spice due to its pungent taste and a fishy deodorant and digestive stimulator. Owing to the widespread use of garlic in both Oriental and Western medicine, further investigations on garlic extracts might carry important implications in the industry. In this study, we conducted extraction of garlic extraction by two conventional methods and an ultrasonic assisted method. The processes were optimized with respect to various quality parameters including polyphenol, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. The results showed that extracting garlic under the ultrasonic support will show higher efficiency than the non-ultrasonic extraction. The optimal extraction parameters are: 70% ethanol solvent, 10/1 solvent / material ratio, 40 °C temperature and 40 minutes time. Keywords: Allium Sativum L., Garic, Polyphenol, Flavonoid, Antioxidant

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (6) ◽  
pp. 757-766
Huai-Ting Huang ◽  
Po-Tsang Lee ◽  
Zhen-Hao Liao ◽  
Cheng-Ting Huang ◽  
Hsiang-Yin Chen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Pramudita Riwanti ◽  
Burhan Ma’arif ◽  
Miftah Zulfa Jannah

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  
pp. 124-131
Muhammad Alief Harun ◽  
Sultan Buraena ◽  
Eny Arlini Wello ◽  
Hasta Handayani Idrus ◽  
Andi Sitti Fahirah Arsal

Background: Diarrhea is still one of the global issues especially in developing countries. Diarrhea can be caused by either an infectious agent or a non-infectious agent. Escherichia coli is one of the infectious agents that is responsible for causing diarrhea. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a plant that has a good antibacterial activity potential because of its organosulfur and phenolic compound. Black garlic is the product of spontaneous fermentation of garlic that has improved its bioactive compounds. Content: Antibacterial potency of black garlic extract on Escherichia coli is shown on the resistance zone that formed where the lowest zone diameter is 9,67 mm while the highest zone is 24 mm. The fermentation of black garlic happened at the temperature of 70-80°C with 75-80% for 28-40 days. Conclusion: Black garlic is shown to exhibit antibacterial activity against bacteria such as Escherichia coli. This fermented product has the potential to be a therapeutic agent for diseases caused by Escherichia coli.

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