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HortScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 57 (2) ◽  
pp. 181-190
Shih-wei Lin ◽  
Tsung-han Lin ◽  
Cynthia Kung Man Yee ◽  
Joyce Chen ◽  
Yen-wei Wang ◽  

High temperature stress is a major limiting factor for pepper productivity, which will continue to be a problem under climate change scenarios. Developing heat tolerant cultivars is critical for sustained pepper production, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. In fruiting crops, like pepper, reproductive tissues, especially pollen, are the most sensitive to high temperature stress. Typically, pollen viability and germination are assessed through staining and microscopy, which is tedious and potentially inaccurate. To increase efficiency in assessing pollen traits of pepper, the use of impedance flow cytometry (IFC) has been proposed. We conducted three independent experiments to determine the most effective methodology to use IFC for evaluating pollen traits for heat tolerance in pepper. Seven floral developmental stages were evaluated, and stages 3, 4, and 5 were found to best combine high pollen concentration and activity. Flowers in development stages 3, 4, or 5 were then heat treated at 41, 44, 47, 50, and 55 °C or not heat treated (control). The critical temperature to assess heat tolerance using IFC was found to be 50 °C, with a reduction in pollen activity and concentration occurring at temperatures greater than 47 °C. Twenty-one entries of pepper were then accessed for pollen traits using the staining and IFC methods over 2 months, April (cooler) and June (hotter). Growing environment was found to be the greatest contributor to variability for nearly all pollen traits assessed, with performance during June nearly always being lower. PBC 507 and PBC 831 were identified as being new sources of heat tolerance, based on using IFC for assessing pollen. Pollen viability determined by staining and pollen activity determined using IFC were significantly positively correlated, indicating that IFC is an efficient and accurate method to assess pollen traits in pepper. This work provides a basis for further research in this area and supports more efficient breeding of heat-tolerant cultivars.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 610
Qiang Zhu ◽  
Linfu Zhang ◽  
Chuanjie Wang ◽  
Gang Chen ◽  
Heyong Qin ◽  

As the key materials of aircraft engines, nickel-based superalloys have excellent comprehensive properties. Mircotensile experiments were carried out based on in situ digital image correlation (DIC) and in situ synchrotron radiation (SR) technique. The effects of the δ phase on the grain orientation, surface roughening, and strain localization were investigated. The results showed that the average kernel average misorientation (KAM) value of the fractured specimens increased significantly compared with that of the heat-treated specimens. The surface roughness decreased with an increasing volume fraction of the δ phase. The strain localization of specimens increased with the increasing ageing time. The size and volume fraction of voids gradually increased with the increase in plastic strain. Some small voids expanded into large voids with a complex morphology during micro-tensile deformation. The needle-like δ phase near the fracture broke into short rods, while the minor spherical δ phase did not break. The rod-like and needle-like δ phases provided channels for the propagation of the microcrack, and the accumulation of the microcrack eventually led to the fracture of specimens.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 589
Azam Beigi Kheradmand ◽  
Shamseddin Mirdamadi ◽  
Zahra Lalegani ◽  
Bejan Hamawandi

In this study, the mechanical and microstructural properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr cast alloy with 0.1% Sc under homogeneous, dissolution, and T6 and thermomechanical treatments with the aim of increasing the volume fraction of MgZn2. Al3(Sc,Zr) reinforcing precipitates were examined by hardness, microscopic examinations, tensile tests and software analysis. The results showed that, firstly, the hardness results are well proportional to the results of the tensile properties of alloys and, secondly, the strength of the alloy with thermomechanical treatments compared to T6 treatments increased from 492 MPa to 620 MPa and the elongation increased from 8% to 17% and was 100% upgraded. Microstructural and fracture cross section investigations showed that Al3(Sc,Zr) nanosize dispersoids were evenly distributed among MgZn2 dispersoids and the alloy fracture was of semi-ductile type and nanosize dispersoids less than 10 nm were observed at the end of the dimples in the fracture section. The volume fraction of nanosize dispersoids in the whole microstructure of thermomechanical treatment samples was also much higher than that of T6 heat treated samples, so that the percentage of Al3(Sc,Zr) precipitates arrived from less than 1% in T6 operation to 8.28% in the quench-controlled thermomechanical operation (with 50% deformation). The quality index (QI) in thermomechanical treatment samples is 19% higher than T6 samples, so that this index has increased from 641 in T6 operation to 760 in samples under thermomechanical treatment due to precipitate morphology, volume fraction of precipitates, their uniform distribution in the matrix, and nano sized precipitates in samples under thermomechanical treatment.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 336
Katarzyna Najman ◽  
Anna Sadowska ◽  
Krzysztof Buczak ◽  
Hanna Leontowicz ◽  
Maria Leontowicz

Dietary supplementation with raw garlic has a preventive and healing effect in cardiovascular diseases, but it could also damage the intestinal mucosa, resulting in impairment of nutrient absorption. Garlic processing, including heat treatment, changes the content and biological activity of garlic, so it is crucial to find food-processing methods that will preserve the health-promoting properties of garlic while minimizing its negative impact on the digestive system. Therefore, in this study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) on growth parameters, plasma lipid profile, and morphological parameters in the ileum of Wistar rats subjected to various types of heat treatment (90 s blanching garlic, 10 min boiling in water, 10 min pan frying without fat, microwave heating fresh garlic, 90 s blanching and microwave heating garlic, 10 min boiling in water and microwave heating garlic, and 10 min pan frying without fat and microwave heating garlic) was determined in an atherogenic diet (containing 1% addition of cholesterol). In the conducted research, it was found that the diet supplemented with heat-treated garlic used in the atherogenic diet improved the consumption and growth parameters of rats, depending on the type and time of its use. The highest consumption was recorded in atherogenic groups supplemented with garlic subjected to a longer (10 min) heat treatment and was then heated in a microwave oven. Garlic subjected to the shortest heat treatment proved to be most effective, and a significant improvement in the lipid profiles of rats’ plasma with atherogenic was observed. Extending the time of heat treatment of garlic and, additionally, its microwaving significantly weakened the action of garlic in the body, but still retained its hypolipidemic effect. The greatest influence on the structural changes in the mucosa of the rats’ iliac intestine, manifested by degeneration of the mucosa, shortening the length of the intestinal villi, damage to the brush border, and thus impairment of the intestinal absorption, was exerted by supplementing the atherogenic diet with garlic subjected to short-term heat treatment. Among the processes used, blanching was the least favorable, and the long-lasting thermal processes (cooking, frying for 10 min) had a positive effect on the mucosa of the rats’ intestines. The results obtained in this study confirm that the selection of an appropriate method of thermal processing of garlic may allow for the maintenance of preventive and therapeutic efficacy of garlic in cardiovascular diseases, while ensuring the safety of its long-term use in the context of degenerative changes in the gastrointestinal tract.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 207
Jana van Rooyen ◽  
Senay Simsek ◽  
Samson Adeoye Oyeyinka ◽  
Marena Manley

Heat treatment is used as a pre-processing step to beneficially change the starch properties of wheat flour to enhance its utilisation in the food industry. Heat-treated wheat flour may provide improved eating qualities in final wheat-based products since flour properties predominantly determine the texture and mouthfeel. Dry heat treatment of wheat kernels or milled wheat products involves heat transfer through means of air, a fluidising medium, or radiation—often resulting in moisture loss. Heat treatment leads to changes in the chemical, structural and functional properties of starch in wheat flour by inducing starch damage, altering its molecular order (which influences its crystallinity), pasting properties as well as its retrogradation and staling behaviour. Heat treatment also induces changes in gluten proteins, which may alter the rheological properties of wheat flour. Understanding the relationship between heat transfer, the thermal properties of wheat and the functionality of the resultant flour is of critical importance to obtain the desired extent of alteration of wheat starch properties and enhanced utilisation of the flour. This review paper introduces dry heat treatment methods followed by a critical review of the latest published research on heat-induced changes observed in wheat flour starch chemistry, structure and functionality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Alexandra E. Hall ◽  
Carmen I. Moraru

AbstractThe effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and heat treatment on the digestibility of protein and starch in pea protein concentrate (PPC) were investigated. Samples of PPC with 5% (5 P) and 15% (15 P) protein were treated by HPP (600 MPa/5 °C/4 min) or heat (95 °C/15 min) and their in vitro static and dynamic digestibility were compared to untreated controls. HPP-treated PPC underwent a greater degree of proteolysis and showed different peptide patterns after static gastric digestion compared to untreated and heat-treated PPC. Differences in protein digestibility among treatments during dynamic digestion were only significant (p < 0.05) during the first 20 min of jejunal, ileal, and total digestion for 5 P, and during the first 60 min of ileal digestion for 15 P. Neither static nor dynamic starch digestibility were dependent on treatment. HPP did not reduce trypsin inhibitor activity, whereas heat treatment reduced it by ~70%. HPP-induced structural modifications of proteins and starch did not affect their overall in vitro digestibility but enhanced gastric proteolysis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 784-794
Ekaterina Statsenko ◽  
Oksana Litvinenko ◽  
Galina Kodirova ◽  
Galina Kubankova ◽  
Nadezhda Korneva ◽  

Introduction. Fermented milk beverages with various vegetable additives expand the range of functional foods with probiotics, vitamins, and minerals. The research objective was to develop a new technology for fermented milk drinks fortified with soy protein. Study objects and methods. Heat-treated cow’s milk with Direct Vat Set bacterial starter served as the control sample, while the experimental samples featured fermented milk fortified with soy additives. The soy protein ingredient was obtained from powdered sprouted soybean. Soybeans were pre-germinated in a thermostat at 26°C for 24 h and blanched with steam for 15 min. After that, 1–9% of the soy substance was added to pasteurized milk and fermented at 38–40°C for 6–8 h. The resulting sample was tested for quality indicators and physicochemical composition. Results and discussion. The best sensory properties belonged to the sample with 5% mass fraction of the soy additive. As a result, the soy-fortified beverages entitled Bifivit and Immunovit had a better nutritional value: protein – by 1.92 and 1.79 g, fat – by 0.77 and 0.75 g, vitamin E – by 0.16 mg, choline – by 23.82 mg, potassium – by 149 mg, phosphorus – by 19 and 22 mg, calcium – by 25 and 24 mg, magnesium – by 22 and 23 mg, respectively. One portion (100 g) of these drinks contained over 15% of recommended daily intake of protein, vitamin B2, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus. The content of lactic acid and bifidobacteria remained above the norm (1×108) both in fresh products and by the end of their shelf life. Conclusion. The article introduces a technology of new functional soy-fortified fermented milk drinks with improved chemical and sensory properties.

Maryam Razavipour ◽  
Jean-Gabriel Legoux ◽  
Dominique Poirier ◽  
Bruno Guerreiro ◽  
Jason D. Giallonardo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 1049 ◽  
pp. 117-123
Rida Gallyamova ◽  
Rustam Safiullin ◽  
Vladimir Dokichev ◽  
Fanil F. Musin

Carbon fibers have been TiO2 coated. Previously, the carbon fiber surface has been heat-treated to remove the sizing. The TiO2 layer has been formed on the fiber surface using the sol-gel technique by immersion in a solution. After coating, the samples have been dried at room temperature and annealed at 500 °C in air for 30 minutes. The phase composition of the coating obtained has been studied using X-ray diffraction. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating and sol has shown that the rutile phase and the average size of TiO2 crystallites grow with an increase in the annealing temperature. The results of studying TiO2 coating antioxidative properties within 500-800 °C are given. Studying the morphology of the TiO2 coating on the fiber surface and the burnout rate (weight change) have shown that the coating exhibits good oxidation resistance up to 600 °C.

Niwut Juntavee ◽  
Apa Juntavee ◽  
Thipradi Phattharasophachai

Abstract Objective Different post-sintering processes are expected to be a reason for alteration in the strength of zirconia. This study evaluated the effect of post-sintering processes on the flexural strength of different types of monolithic zirconia. Materials and Methods A total of 120 classical- (Cz) and high-translucent (Hz) monolithic zirconia discs (1.2 mm thickness and 14 mm in Ø) were prepared, sintered, and randomly divided into four groups to be surface-treated with (1) as-glazed (AG); (2) finished and polished (FP); (3) finished, polished, and overglazed (FPOG); and (4) finished, polished, and heat-treated (FPHT) technique (n = 15). Biaxial flexural strength (σ) was determined on a piston-on-three ball in a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical Analysis Analysis of variance, and post hoc Bonferroni multiple comparisons were determined for significant differences (α = 0.05). Weibull analysis was applied for survival probability, Weibull modulus (m), and characteristic strength (σ0). The microstructures were examined with a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Results The mean ± standard deviation value of σ (MPa), m, and σ0 were 1,626.43 ± 184.38, 9.51, and 1,709.79 for CzAG; 1,734.98 ± 136.15, 12.83, and 1,799.17 for CzFP; 1,636.92 ± 130.11, 14.66, and 1,697.63 for CzFPOG; and 1,590.78 ± 161.74, 10.13, and 1,663.82 for CzFPHT; 643.30 ± 118.59, 5.59, and 695.55 for HzAG; 671.52 ± 96.77, 3.28, and 782.61 for HzFP; 556.33 ± 122.85, 4.76, and 607.01 for HzFPOG; and 598.36 ± 57.96, 11.22, and 624.89 for HzFPHT. The σ was significantly affected by the post-sintering process and type of zirconia (p < 0.05), but not by their interactions (p > 0.05). The Cz indicated a significantly higher σ than Hz. The FP process significantly enhanced σ more than other treatment procedures. Conclusion Post-sintering processes enabled an alteration in σ of zirconia. FP enhanced σ, while FPOG and FPHT resulted in a reduction of σ. Glazing tends to induce defects at the glazing interface, while heat treatment induces a phase change to tetragonal, both resulted in reducing σ. Finishing and polishing for both Cz and Hz monolithic zirconia is recommended, while overglazed or heat-treated is not suggested.

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