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Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 336
Katarzyna Najman ◽  
Anna Sadowska ◽  
Krzysztof Buczak ◽  
Hanna Leontowicz ◽  
Maria Leontowicz

Dietary supplementation with raw garlic has a preventive and healing effect in cardiovascular diseases, but it could also damage the intestinal mucosa, resulting in impairment of nutrient absorption. Garlic processing, including heat treatment, changes the content and biological activity of garlic, so it is crucial to find food-processing methods that will preserve the health-promoting properties of garlic while minimizing its negative impact on the digestive system. Therefore, in this study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) on growth parameters, plasma lipid profile, and morphological parameters in the ileum of Wistar rats subjected to various types of heat treatment (90 s blanching garlic, 10 min boiling in water, 10 min pan frying without fat, microwave heating fresh garlic, 90 s blanching and microwave heating garlic, 10 min boiling in water and microwave heating garlic, and 10 min pan frying without fat and microwave heating garlic) was determined in an atherogenic diet (containing 1% addition of cholesterol). In the conducted research, it was found that the diet supplemented with heat-treated garlic used in the atherogenic diet improved the consumption and growth parameters of rats, depending on the type and time of its use. The highest consumption was recorded in atherogenic groups supplemented with garlic subjected to a longer (10 min) heat treatment and was then heated in a microwave oven. Garlic subjected to the shortest heat treatment proved to be most effective, and a significant improvement in the lipid profiles of rats’ plasma with atherogenic was observed. Extending the time of heat treatment of garlic and, additionally, its microwaving significantly weakened the action of garlic in the body, but still retained its hypolipidemic effect. The greatest influence on the structural changes in the mucosa of the rats’ iliac intestine, manifested by degeneration of the mucosa, shortening the length of the intestinal villi, damage to the brush border, and thus impairment of the intestinal absorption, was exerted by supplementing the atherogenic diet with garlic subjected to short-term heat treatment. Among the processes used, blanching was the least favorable, and the long-lasting thermal processes (cooking, frying for 10 min) had a positive effect on the mucosa of the rats’ intestines. The results obtained in this study confirm that the selection of an appropriate method of thermal processing of garlic may allow for the maintenance of preventive and therapeutic efficacy of garlic in cardiovascular diseases, while ensuring the safety of its long-term use in the context of degenerative changes in the gastrointestinal tract.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 122
Mariusz Sapuła ◽  
Magdalena Suchacz ◽  
Andrzej Załęski ◽  
Alicja Wiercińska-Drapało

The development of metabolic derangements as a result of HIV treatment has been an important area of research since the introduction of zidovudine in the 1980’s. Antiretroviral therapy has intensely evolved in the last three decades, with new drugs gradually incorporated into everyday clinical practice. With the life expectancy of people living with HIV rapidly approaching that of their HIV-negative counterparts, the influence of these antiretrovirals on the development of the components of the metabolic syndrome remains of major interest to clinicians and their patients. In this review, we aimed to discuss the impact of cART on components of the metabolic syndrome, i.e., weight, plasma lipid levels, plasma glucose levels, and blood pressure, describing the influence of cART classes and of individual antiretrovirals. We also aimed to outline the limitations of the research conducted to date and the remaining knowledge gaps in this area.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
Vadivel Parthsarathy ◽  
Chris M. McLaughlin ◽  
Shaun J. Sharkey ◽  
Pádraigín A. Harnedy-Rothwell ◽  
Ryan A. Lafferty ◽  

There is increasing interest in dietary protein for management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. The effects of twice-daily oral administration of a salmon skin gelatin hydrolysate (SSGH, 50 mg/kg), boarfish protein hydrolysate (BPH, (50 mg/kg), metformin (200 mg/kg), or saline control, were investigated in ob/ob mice. Non-fasting blood glucose was significantly reduced with SSGH (p<0.01), BPH (p<0.001) and metformin (p<0.001), which were reflected in reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (p<0.001, p<0.01 and p<0.01, respectively). Responses to oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were improved (p<0.05-0.01), as well as circulating plasma lipid profiles (p<0.05-0.001). Chronic BPH treatment increased circulating plasma insulin (p<0.01), whereas SSGH improved insulin sensitivity (p<0.05), versus respective controls. All treatments significantly reduced energy intake (p<0.05-<0.001) versus (ob/ob) controls, without affecting overall bodyweight. These findings suggest that fish hydrolysates mediate potent anti-diabetic actions similar to metformin and might be suitable for the management and prevention of T2DM.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Anna Lessmark ◽  
Gad Hatem ◽  
Györgyi Kovacs ◽  
Marta Vitai ◽  
Emma Ahlqvist ◽  

Parent-of-origin effects (POE) and sex-specific parental effects have been reported for plasma lipid levels, and a strong relationship exists between dyslipidemia and obesity. We aim to explore whether genetic variants previously reported to have an association to lipid traits also show POE on blood lipid levels and obesity. Families from the Botnia cohort and the Hungarian Transdanubian Biobank (HTB) were genotyped for 12 SNPs, parental origin of alleles were inferred, and generalized estimating equations were modeled to assess parental-specific associations with lipid traits and obesity. POE were observed for the variants at the TMEM57, DOCK7/ANGPTL3, LPL, and APOA on lipid traits, the latter replicated in HTB. Sex-specific parental effects were also observed; variants at ANGPTL3/DOCK7 showed POE on lipid traits and obesity in daughters only, while those at LPL and TMEM57 showed POE on lipid traits in sons. Variants at LPL and DOCK7/ANGPTL3 showed POE on obesity-related traits in Botnia and HTB, and POE effects on obesity were seen to a higher degree in daughters. This highlights the need to include analysis of POEs in genetic studies of complex traits.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Dien Ye ◽  
Xiaofei Yang ◽  
Liwei Ren ◽  
Hong S. Lu ◽  
Yuan Sun ◽  

Objective: Elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations contributes to ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Recently, we showed that inhibiting hepatic (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] attenuated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficient mice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether inhibiting hepatic (P)RR could attenuate atherosclerosis.Approach and Results: Eight-week-old male LDLR−/− mice were injected with either saline or N-acetylgalactosamine-modified antisense oligonucleotides (G-ASOs) primarily targeting hepatic (P)RR and were fed a western-type diet (WTD) for 16 weeks. (P)RR G-ASOs markedly reduced plasma cholesterol concentrations from 2,211 ± 146 to 1,128 ± 121 mg/dL. Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) analyses revealed that cholesterol in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL)/LDL fraction were potently reduced by (P)RR G-ASOs. Moreover, (P)RR G-ASOs reduced plasma triglyceride concentrations by more than 80%. Strikingly, despite marked reduction in plasma lipid concentrations, atherosclerosis was not reduced but rather increased in these mice. Further testing in ApoE−/− mice confirmed that (P)RR G-ASOs reduced plasma lipid concentrations but not atherosclerosis. Transcriptomic analysis of the aortas revealed that (P)RR G-ASOs induced the expression of the genes involved in immune responses and inflammation. Further investigation revealed that (P)RR G-ASOs also inhibited (P)RR in macrophages and in enhanced inflammatory responses to exogenous stimuli. Moreover, deleting the (P)RR in macrophages resulted in accelerated atherosclerosis in WTD fed ApoE−/− mice.Conclusion: (P)RR G-ASOs reduced the plasma lipids in atherosclerotic mice due to hepatic (P)RR deficiency. However, augmented pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages due to (P)RR downregulation counteracted the beneficial effects of lowered plasma lipid concentrations on atherosclerosis. Our study demonstrated that hepatic (P)RR and macrophage (P)RR played a counteracting role in atherosclerosis.

Yajun Shi ◽  
Jingliu Liu ◽  
Dan Zhu ◽  
Likui Lu ◽  
Mengshu Zhang ◽  

Abstract Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been used globally among infertile couples. However, many epidemiological investigations have indicated that ART is associated with a range of long-term adverse health outcomes in offspring, including cardiovascular disease, obesity and increased plasma lipid levels. Until now, direct evidence has been limited regarding the pathological changes in vascular function in fetuses with ART. In this study, human umbilical cords were collected from healthy normal pregnancies and IVF-ET pregnancies. Vascular functional studies involving acetylcholine (ACh), antagonists of its specific receptors, and L-type calcium channel/PKC-MLC20 phosphorylation pathway specific inhibitors were conducted. Quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and methylation analyses were performed on umbilical vein samples. We found that the umbilical vein constriction induced by ACh in the IVF-ET group was significantly attenuated compared with that in the healthy normal pregnancy group, which was not only associated with the hypermethylation of ACh muscarinic receptor subtype 3 (CHRM3) and decreased expression of CHRM3, PKCβ and CaV1.2, but was also related to the reduced phosphorylation of MLC20. The present study revealed that the hypermethylation of CHRM3, leading to a reduction in CHRM3 expression and downregulation of the CaV1.2/PKC-MLC20 phosphorylation pathway, was responsible for the decreased sensitivity to ACh observed in the umbilical vein under IVF-ET conditions. The hypermethylation of CHRM3 caused by IVF-ET might play an important role in altered vasoconstriction and impact cardiovascular systems in the long run.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13410
Michele Dei Cas ◽  
Tatiana Carrozzini ◽  
Giuliana Pollaci ◽  
Antonella Potenza ◽  
Sara Nava ◽  

Moyamoya arteriopathy (MA) is a rare cerebrovascular disorder characterized by ischemic/hemorrhagic strokes. The pathophysiology is unknown. A deregulation of vasculogenic/angiogenic/inflammatory pathways has been hypothesized as a possible pathophysiological mechanism. Since lipids are implicated in modulating neo-vascularization/angiogenesis and inflammation, their deregulation is potentially involved in MA. Our aim is to evaluate angiogenic/vasculogenic/inflammatory proteins and lipid profile in plasma of MA patients and control subjects (healthy donors HD or subjects with atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease ACVD). Angiogenic and inflammatory protein levels were measured by ELISA and a complete lipidomic analysis was performed on plasma by mass spectrometry. ELISA showed a significant decrease for MMP-9 released in plasma of MA. The untargeted lipidomic analysis showed a cumulative depletion of lipid asset in plasma of MA as compared to HD. Specifically, a decrease in membrane complex glycosphingolipids peripherally circulating in MA plasma with respect to HD was observed, likely suggestive of cerebral cellular recruitment. The quantitative targeted approach demonstrated an increase in free sphingoid bases, likely associated with a deregulated angiogenesis. Our findings indicate that lipid signature could play a central role in MA and that a detailed biomarker profile may contribute to untangle the complex, and still obscure, pathogenesis of MA.

Medicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 100 (49) ◽  
pp. e28172
Xueyuan Zeng ◽  
Weimin Zhao ◽  
Yunlong Xu ◽  
Chengwei Zhang ◽  
Junliang Wu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shang Cao ◽  
Linchen Liu ◽  
Qianrang Zhu ◽  
Zheng Zhu ◽  
Jinyi Zhou ◽  

Background: Diet research focuses on the characteristics of “dietary patterns” regardless of the statistical methods used to derive them. However, the solutions to these methods are both conceptually and statistically different.Methods: We compared factor analysis (FA) and latent class analysis (LCA) methods to identify the dietary patterns of participants in the Chinese Wuxi Exposure and Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study that included 818 patients and 935 healthy controls. We examined the association between dietary patterns and plasma lipid markers and the breast cancer risk.Results: Factor analysis grouped correlated food items into five factors, while LCA classified the subjects into four mutually exclusive classes. For FA, we found that the Prudent-factor was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer [4th vs. 1st quartile: odds ratio (OR) for 0.70, 95% CI = 0.52, 0.95], whereas the Picky-factor was associated with a higher risk (4th vs. 1st quartile: OR for 1.35, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.81). For LCA, using the Prudent-class as the reference, the Picky-class has a positive association with the risk of breast cancer (OR for 1.42, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.90). The multivariate-adjusted model containing all of the factors was better than that containing all of the classes in predicting HDL cholesterol (p = 0.04), triacylglycerols (p = 0.03), blood glucose (p = 0.04), apolipoprotein A1 (p = 0.02), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p = 0.02), but was weaker than that in predicting the breast cancer risk (p = 0.03).Conclusion: Factor analysis is useful for understanding which foods are consumed in combination and for studying the associations with biomarkers, while LCA is useful for classifying individuals into mutually exclusive subgroups and compares the disease risk between the groups.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Fatemah Sakr ◽  
Martin Dyrba ◽  
Anja U. Bräuer ◽  
Stefan Teipel ◽  

Background: Lipidomics may provide insight into biochemical processes driving Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis and ensuing clinical trajectories. Objective: To identify a peripheral lipidomics signature associated with AD pathology and investigate its potential to predict clinical progression. Methods: We used Bayesian elastic net regression to select plasma lipid classes associated with the CSF pTau/Aβ42 ratio as a biomarker of AD pathology in preclinical and prodromal AD cases from the ADNI cohort. Consensus clustering of the selected lipid classes was used to identify lipidomic endophenotypes and study their association with clinical progression. Results: In the APOE4-adjusted model, ether-glycerophospholipids, lyso-glycerophospholipids, free-fatty acids, cholesterol esters, and complex sphingolipids were found to be associated with the CSF pTau/Aβ 42 ratio. We found an optimal number of five lipidomic endophenotypes in the prodromal and preclinical cases, respectively. In the prodromal cases, these clusters differed with respect to the risk of clinical progression as measured by clinical dementia rating score conversion. Conclusion: Lipid alterations can be captured at the earliest phases of AD. A lipidomic signature in blood may provide a dynamic overview of an individual’s metabolic status and may support identifying different risks of clinical progression.

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