gm csf
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Thomas S. McCormick ◽  
Rana B. Hejal ◽  
Luis O. Leal ◽  
Mahmoud A. Ghannoum

This review summarizes the structure and function of the alveolar unit, comprised of alveolar macrophage and epithelial cell types that work in tandem to respond to infection. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) helps to maintain the alveolar epithelium and pulmonary immune system under physiological conditions and plays a critical role in restoring homeostasis under pathologic conditions, including infection. Given the emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome, understanding basic lung physiology in infectious diseases is especially warranted. This review summarizes clinical and preclinical data for GM-CSF in respiratory infections, and the rationale for sargramostim (yeast-derived recombinant human [rhu] GM-CSF) as adjunctive treatment for COVID-19 and other pulmonary infectious diseases.

Florence Vallelian ◽  
Raphael M. Buzzi ◽  
Marc Pfefferlé ◽  
Ayla Yalamanoglu ◽  
Irina L. Dubach ◽  

AbstractHeme is an erythrocyte-derived toxin that drives disease progression in hemolytic anemias, such as sickle cell disease. During hemolysis, specialized bone marrow-derived macrophages with a high heme-metabolism capacity orchestrate disease adaptation by removing damaged erythrocytes and heme-protein complexes from the blood and supporting iron recycling for erythropoiesis. Since chronic heme-stress is noxious for macrophages, erythrophagocytes in the spleen are continuously replenished from bone marrow-derived progenitors. Here, we hypothesized that adaptation to heme stress progressively shifts differentiation trajectories of bone marrow progenitors to expand the capacity of heme-handling monocyte-derived macrophages at the expense of the homeostatic generation of dendritic cells, which emerge from shared myeloid precursors. This heme-induced redirection of differentiation trajectories may contribute to hemolysis-induced secondary immunodeficiency. We performed single-cell RNA-sequencing with directional RNA velocity analysis of GM-CSF-supplemented mouse bone marrow cultures to assess myeloid differentiation under heme stress. We found that heme-activated NRF2 signaling shifted the differentiation of bone marrow cells towards antioxidant, iron-recycling macrophages, suppressing the generation of dendritic cells in heme-exposed bone marrow cultures. Heme eliminated the capacity of GM-CSF-supplemented bone marrow cultures to activate antigen-specific CD4 T cells. The generation of functionally competent dendritic cells was restored by NRF2 loss. The heme-induced phenotype of macrophage expansion with concurrent dendritic cell depletion was reproduced in hemolytic mice with sickle cell disease and spherocytosis and associated with reduced dendritic cell functions in the spleen. Our data provide a novel mechanistic underpinning of hemolytic stress as a driver of hyposplenism-related secondary immunodeficiency.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Marcella Vassão de Almeida Baptista ◽  
Laís Teodoro da Silva ◽  
Sadia Samer ◽  
Telma Miyuki Oshiro ◽  
Iart Luca Shytaj ◽  

Abstract Background We developed a personalized Monocyte-Derived Dendritic-cell Therapy (MDDCT) for HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral treatment and evaluated HIV-specific T-cell responses. Methods PBMCs were obtained from 10 HIV+ individuals enrolled in trial NCT02961829. Monocytes were differentiated into DCs using IFN-α and GM-CSF. After sequencing each patient’s HIV-1 Gag and determining HLA profiles, autologous Gag peptides were selected based on the predicted individual immunogenicity and used to pulse MDDCs. Three doses of the MDDCT were administered every 15 days. To assess immunogenicity, patients’ cells were stimulated in vitro with autologous peptides, and intracellular IL-2, TNF, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production were measured in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Results The protocol of ex-vivo treatment with IFN-α and GM-CSF was able to induce maturation of MDDCs, as well as to preserve their viability for reinfusion. MDDCT administration was associated with increased expression of IL-2 in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells at 15 and/or 30 days after the first MDDCT administration. Moreover, intracellular TNF and IFN-γ expression was significantly increased in CD4+ T-cells. The number of candidates that increased in vitro the cytokine levels in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells upon stimulation with Gag peptides from baseline to day 15 and from baseline to day 30 and day 120 after MDDCT was significant as compared to Gag unstimulated response. This was accompanied by an increasing trend in the frequency of polyfunctional T-cells over time, which was visible when considering both cells expressing two and three out of the three cytokines examined. Conclusions MDDC had a mature profile, and this MDDCT promoted in-vitro T-cell immune responses in HIV-infected patients undergoing long-term suppressive antiretroviral treatment. Trial registration NCT02961829: (Multi Interventional Study Exploring HIV-1 Residual Replication: a Step Towards HIV-1 Eradication and Sterilizing Cure,, posted November 11th, 2016)

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262439
Deirdré Kruger ◽  
Nicola Lahoud ◽  
Yandiswa Y. Yako ◽  
John Devar ◽  
Martin Smith

Background/Objectives Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy associated with high metastatic risk. Prognosis remains poor even after resection. Previously our group identified biomarkers that improved diagnostic accuracy in PDAC beyond the established diagnostic tumour marker, CA19-9. Risk factors, symptoms and circulating biomarkers associated with a PDAC diagnosis may differ from those that alter disease progression and metastasis. This study aimed at assessing the risk factors, presenting symptoms and potential prognostic biomarkers in PDAC and determine their relationship with PDAC stage and/or metastatic status. Methods Seventy-two PDAC patients with imaging available for TNM staging at presentation were enrolled following informed consent. Demographic and clinical data were captured. Blood was collected and 38 cytokines/angiogenic factors measured. Nonparametric association tests, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed using STATA version 14.2. A p-value≤0.05 was considered significant and odds ratios reported for effect size. Results Most risk factors and symptoms did not differ across the stages of cancer. Although male gender and smoking are risk factors for PDAC, the majority of study patients with metastatic PDAC were non-smoking females. In addition to CA19-9, the platelet count (p<0.01), IL-15 (p = 0.02) and GM-CSF (p<0.01) were significant, independent negative predictors of metastatic PDAC. Moreover, using specific cut-off values in a combined panel, the odds in a patient with all three biomarker levels below the cut-offs is 21 times more likely to have metastatic PDAC (p<0.0001). Conclusions Platelet count, IL-15 and GM-CSF are potential prognostic indicators of metastatic disease in PDAC patients from our local South African population.

Clint Piper ◽  
Emma Hainstock ◽  
Cheng Yin-Yuan ◽  
Yao Chen ◽  
Achia Khatun ◽  

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract involvement is a major determinant for subsequent morbidity and mortality arising during graft versus host disease (GVHD). CD4+ T cells that produce GM-CSF have emerged as central mediators of inflammation in this tissue site as GM-CSF serves as a critical cytokine link between the adaptive and innate arms of the immune system. However, cellular heterogeneity within the CD4+ GM-CSF+ T cell population due to the concurrent production of other inflammatory cytokines has raised questions as to whether these cells have a common ontology or if there exists a unique CD4+ GM-CSF+ subset that differs from other defined T helper (TH) subtypes. Using single cell RNA sequencing analysis, we identified two CD4+ GM-CSF+ T cell populations that arose during GVHD and were distinguishable by the presence or absence of IFN-γ co-expression. CD4+ GM-CSF+ IFN-γ- T cells which emerged preferentially in the colon had a distinct transcriptional profile, employed unique gene regulatory networks, and possessed a non-overlapping TCR repertoire when compared to CD4+ GM-CSF+ IFN-γ+ T cells as well as all other transcriptionally defined CD4+ T cell populations in the colon. Functionally, this CD4+ GM-CSF+ T cell population contributed to pathological damage in the GI tract which was critically dependent upon signaling through the IL-7 receptor but was independent of type 1 interferon signaling. Thus, these studies help to unravel heterogeneity within CD4+ GM-CSF+ T cells that arise during GVHD and define a developmentally distinct colitogenic TH GM-CSF+ subset that mediates immunopathology.

Oncogene ◽  
2022 ◽  
Ryan J. King ◽  
Surendra K. Shukla ◽  
Chunbo He ◽  
Enza Vernucci ◽  
Ravi Thakur ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Annemarie Weissenbacher ◽  
John P. Stone ◽  
Maria Letizia Lo Faro ◽  
James P. Hunter ◽  
Rutger J. Ploeg ◽  

Kidney transplantation is the best renal-replacement option for most patients with end-stage renal disease. Normothermic machine preservation (NMP) of the kidney has been studied extensively during the last two decades and implemented in clinical trials. Biomarker research led to success in identifying molecules with diagnostic, predictive and therapeutic properties in chronic kidney disease. However, perfusate biomarkers and potential predictive mechanisms in NMP have not been identified yet. Twelve discarded human kidneys (n = 7 DBD, n = 5 DCD) underwent NMP for up to 24 h. Eight were perfused applying urine recirculation (URC), four with replacement of urine (UR) using Ringer's lactate. The aim of our study was to investigate biomarkers (NGAL, KIM-1, and L-FABP), cells and cytokines in the perfusate in context with donor characteristics, perfusate hemodynamics and metabolic parameters. Cold ischemia time did not correlate with any of the markers. Perfusates of DBD kidneys had a significantly lower number of leukocytes after 6 h of NMP compared to DCD. Arterial flow, pH, NGAL and L-FABP correlated with donor creatinine and eGFR. Arterial flow was higher in kidneys with lower perfusate lactate. Perfusate TNF-α was higher in kidneys with lower arterial flow. The cytokines IL-1β and GM-CSF decreased during 6 h of NMP. Kidneys with more urine output had lower perfusate KIM-1 levels. Median and 6-h values of lactate, arterial flow, pH, NGAL, KIM-1, and L-FABP correlated with each other indicating a 6-h period being applicable for kidney viability assessment. The study results demonstrate a comparable cytokine and cell profile in perfusates with URC and UR. In conclusion, clinically available perfusate and hemodynamic parameters correlate well with donor characteristics and measured biomarkers in a discarded human NMP model.

2022 ◽  
JinTao Guan ◽  
Anran Xi ◽  
DU Jin ◽  
XiaoYue Mou ◽  
Zhenghao Xu

Objective: We performed a meta analysis in order to determine safety of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM CSF) antibodies on COVID 19. Methods: We searched from the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, biorxiv and medrxiv databases beginning in the COVID-19 outbreak on December 1, 2019 until August 29, 2021. The primary outcomes included death, the incidence of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), ventilation requirement, and secondary infection. Results: 6 eligible literature involving 1501 COVID 19 patients were recruited, and they were divided into experimental group (n = 736) and control group (n = 765). Using a random effect model, we found that the GM CSF antibodies treatment was associated with a 3.8-26.9% decline of the risk of mortality[odd ratio (OR) = 0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11, -0.01, p =0.02], a 5.3-28.7% reduction of incidence of IMV [OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.95, p =0.03], and a 23.3-50.0% enhancement of ventilation improvement [OR = 11.70, 95% CI: 1.99, 68.68, p=0.006]. There were no statistically significant differences in the association between two groups in second infection. Conclusion: Severe COVID 19 patients may benefit from GM CSF antibodies.

2022 ◽  
Vassiliki Boussiotis ◽  
Anthos Christofides ◽  
Xanthi-Lida Katopodi ◽  
Carol Cao ◽  
Halil-Ibrahim Aksoylar ◽  

Abstract PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor induces T cell inactivation by recruiting SHP-2. However, T cell-specific SHP-2-deficient mice do not have improved anti-tumor immunity. We generated mice with conditional targeting of the Ptpn11 gene (encoding for Shp-2) in T cells (Shp2f/fLckCre) or myeloid cells (Shp2f/fLysMCre), and found that Shp2f/fLysMCre mice had diminished tumor growth. As determined by RNA-seq, this was paralleled by the presence of inflammatory neutrophils and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) with molecular signatures of enhanced differentiation, phagocytosis and antigen-processing and presentation. SHP-2 deficient TAMs also had increased monocyte and dendritic cell (DC) specification transcription factors, chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of immunostimulatory molecules that promote T cell recruitment and activation. Monocytes from tumor-bearing Shp2f/fLysMCre mice suppressed tumor growth after transfer to naïve recipients indicating development of innate immune memory. In bone marrow myelocytes, GM-CSF, induced PD-1 expression, phosphorylation and interaction with SHP-2, the Src family kinase Lyn, and GM-CSF receptor beta chain, indicating that the PD-1:SHP-2 axis targets a key pathway of myelocyte differentiation. In contrast, SHP-2 deletion or antibody-mediated blockade of the PD-1:PD-L1 pathway enhanced phosphorylation of the transcription factors HOXA10 and IRF8 that regulate myeloid differentiation and monocytic/moDC lineage commitment, respectively. Thus, SHP-2 and the PD-1:SHP-2 axis pose a signaling restrain to myeloid differentiation and monocyte lineage commitment resulting in a myeloid landscape that suppresses anti-tumor immunity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Seul Hye Ryu ◽  
Hyun Soo Shin ◽  
Hye Hyeon Eum ◽  
Ji Soo Park ◽  
Wanho Choi ◽  

Dendritic cells (DCs) are key antigen-presenting cells that prime naive T cells and initiate adaptive immunity. Although the genetic deficiency and transgenic overexpression of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling were reported to influence the homeostasis of DCs, the in vivo development of DC subsets following injection of GM-CSF has not been analyzed in detail. Among the treatment of mice with different hematopoietic cytokines, only GM-CSF generates a distinct subset of XCR1-33D1- DCs which make up the majority of DCs in the spleen after three daily injections. These GM-CSF-induced DCs (GMiDCs) are distinguished from classical DCs (cDCs) in the spleen by their expression of CD115 and CD301b and by their superior ability to present blood-borne antigen and thus to stimulate CD4+ T cells. Unlike cDCs in the spleen, GMiDCs are exceptionally effective to polarize and expand T helper type 2 (Th2) cells and able to induce allergic sensitization in response to blood-borne antigen. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis and adoptive cell transfer assay reveal the sequential differentiation of classical monocytes into pre-GMiDCs and GMiDCs. Interestingly, mixed bone marrow chimeric mice of Csf2rb+/+ and Csf2rb-/- demonstrate that the generation of GMiDCs necessitates the cis expression of GM-CSF receptor. Besides the spleen, GMiDCs are generated in the CCR7-independent resident DCs of the LNs and in some peripheral tissues with GM-CSF treatment. Also, small but significant numbers of GMiDCs are generated in the spleen and other tissues during chronic allergic inflammation. Collectively, our present study identifies a splenic subset of CD115hiCD301b+ GMiDCs that possess a strong capacity to promote Th2 polarization and allergic sensitization against blood-borne antigen.

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