intraepithelial neoplasia
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2022 ◽  
Vol 77 ◽  
pp. 102099
Aivara Urbute ◽  
Christian Munk ◽  
Freja L. Sand ◽  
Federica Belmonte ◽  
Susanne K. Kjaer

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 95
Maria Antonietta Manca ◽  
Tatiana Solinas ◽  
Elena Rita Simula ◽  
Marta Noli ◽  
Stefano Ruberto ◽  

A higher expression of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) has been associated with several malignancies, including prostate cancer, implying a possible use as a diagnostic or prognostic cancer biomarker. For this reason, we examined the humoral response against different epitopes obtained from the envelope protein of HERV-K (HERV-K env-su19–37, HERV-K env-su109–126), HERV-H (HERV-H env-su229–241, HERV-H env387–399) and HERV-W (HERV-W env-su93–108, HERV-W env-su248–262) in the plasma of patients affected by prostate cancer (PCa), and compared to that of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and a borderline group of patients with atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) and prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and healthy controls. A significant antibody response was observed against HERV-K env-su109–126 (p = 0.004) and HERV-H env-su229–241 (p < 0.0001) in PCa patients compared to HCs, BPH and borderline cohorts, whilst no significance difference was found in the antibodies against HERV-W env-su93–108 and HERV-W env-su248–262 in patients with PCa. Our results provided further proof of the association between HERV-K and PCa and added new evidence about the possible involvement of HERV-H in PCa pathogenesis, highlighting their possibility of being used as biomarkers of the disease.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 389
Lauro Bucchi ◽  
Margherita Pizzato ◽  
Stefano Rosso ◽  
Stefano Ferretti

The aim of this review was an update of vulvar cancer incidence rates and trends and of all known and putative risk factors for the disease. The most recent incidence data were sought from official sources (WHO Cancer Incidence in Five Continents). To obtain an estimate of time trends in some areas, we compared data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents with the few available studies that measured incidence using comparable methods. With respect to risk factors, a systematic PubMed search identified 1585 relevant articles published between 1980 and 2021. Abstracts and full texts were screened. Sixty-nine eligible original cohort and case-control studies were selected. Information was extracted using a PRISMA predesigned form. Nineteen risk factors, or risk factor categories, were investigated by two or more original studies. Solitary, unreplicated studies addressed the putative role of eight more factors. Recent advances have provided further evidence supporting the carcinogenic model centred on human papillomavirus infection with different defects of the immune function. Conversely, the model centred on the role of vulvar lichen sclerosus and the often associated differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia has continued to be epidemiologically understudied. More research on the association between these two conditions and vulvar cancer is a priority.

Kun Fu ◽  
Ming Lei ◽  
Li-Sha Wu ◽  
Jing-Cheng Shi ◽  
Si-Yu Yang ◽  

Abstract Background The colposcopy-conization inconsistency is common in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3). No adequate method has been reported to identify the final pathology of conization. In this study, we explored the ability of PAX1 and ZNF582 methylation to predict the pathological outcome of conization in advance. Methods This was a multicenter study and included 277 histologically confirmed CIN3 women who underwent cold knife conization (CKC) from January 2019 to December 2020. The methylation levels of PAX1 (PAX1m) and ZNF582 (ZNF582 m) were determined by quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) and expressed in ΔCp. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate predictive accuracy. Results The final pathological results in 48 (17.33%) patients were inflammation or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 190 (68.59%) were high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 39 (14.08%) were squamous cervical cancer (SCC). PAX1 m and ZNF582 m increased as lesions progressed from inflammation/LSIL, HSIL to SCC. PAX1 and ZNF582 methylation yielded better prediction performance compared to common screening strategies, whether individually or combined. ΔCpZNF582 ≥19.18). A 6.53-fold increase in SCC risk was observed in patients with elevated ZNF582 methylation (ΔCpZNF582 &lt; 7.09). Conclusion DNA Methylation would be an alternative screening method to triage and predict the final outcome of conization of the CIN3 cases.

Lisa K. Nees ◽  
Sabine Heublein ◽  
Sahra Steinmacher ◽  
Ingolf Juhasz-Böss ◽  
Sara Brucker ◽  

AbstractEndometrial hyperplasia (EH) is the precursor lesion for endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (EC), which represents the most common malignancy of the female reproductive tract in industrialized countries. The most important risk factor for the development of EH is chronic exposure to unopposed estrogen. Histopathologically, EH can be classified into EH without atypia (benign EH) and atypical EH/endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN). Clinical management ranges from surveillance or progestin therapy through to hysterectomy, depending on the risk of progression to or concomitant EC and the patient´s desire to preserve fertility. Multiple studies support the efficacy of progestins in treating both benign and atypical EH. This review summarizes the evidence base regarding risk factors and management of EH. Additionally, we performed a systematic literature search of the databases PubMed and Cochrane Controlled Trials register for studies analyzing the efficacy of progestin treatment in women with EH.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Teruhiko Terasawa ◽  
Satoyo Hosono ◽  
Seiju Sasaki ◽  
Keika Hoshi ◽  
Yuri Hamashima ◽  

AbstractTo compare all available accuracy data on screening strategies for identifying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade ≥ 2 in healthy asymptomatic women, we performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to October 2020 for paired-design studies of cytology and testing for high-risk genotypes of human papillomavirus (hrHPV). The methods used included a duplicate assessment of eligibility, double extraction of quantitative data, validity assessment, random-effects network meta-analysis of test accuracy, and GRADE rating. Twenty-seven prospective studies (185,269 subjects) were included. The combination of cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or higher grades) and hrHPV testing (excepting genotyping for HPV 16 or 18 [HPV16/18]) with the either-positive criterion (OR rule) was the most sensitive/least specific, whereas the same combination with the both-positive criterion (AND rule) was the most specific/least sensitive. Compared with standalone cytology, non-HPV16/18 hrHPV assays were more sensitive/less specific. Two algorithms proposed for primary cytological testing or primary hrHPV testing were ranked in the middle as more sensitive/less specific than standalone cytology and the AND rule combinations but more specific/less sensitive than standalone hrHPV testing and the OR rule combination. Further research is needed to assess these results in population-relevant outcomes at the program level.

2022 ◽  
pp. 242-248
O. V. Khoperskaya ◽  
E. V. Enkova ◽  
E. V. Kiseleva ◽  
S. V. Shamarin ◽  
E. Y. Sentsova

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is widespread among patients of the reproductive period, the peak of the incidence occurs at a young age, often when the reproductive function has not yet been performed. The oncological alertness of the medical community is justified: the incidence of cervical cancer has increased by 24.6% over the past ten years, and in the structure of cancer mortality in the age group of 30–39 years cervical cancer occupies the 1st place accounting for 23%. Тhe same time aggressive management of the disease in patients who have not yet performed their reproductive function is associated with the loss of significant volume of cervical tissues and an increase in the frequency of premature birth. The most acute issue is the tactics of managing cervical neoplasia of the second degree of severity, when there is still hope for the regression of the disease, but at the same time there is a high risk of transition to dysplasia of the third degree of severity and subsequently to invasive cancer. The search for diagnostic markers that allow predicting the probability of regression and, conversely, the unfavorable course of the disease is the most important task solution of which will allow optimizing tactics in controversial clinical cases and avoiding unnecessary surgical aggression, improving the perinatal outcomes of patients undergoing surgical treatment. The search for new economically feasible and diagnostically valuable markers allowing us to predict the course of the disease and determine the amount of necessary surgical treatment continues, but the most significant at this moment is still the determination of the coexpression of p16 and Ki-67 in immunocytochemical studies and p16INK4a in immunohistochemical studies. The diagnostic sensitivity of determining the co-expression of p16INK4a/Ki67 is 98.5%, and the expression of p16INK4a in CIN II indicates that in 81% of cases there is a tendency to a progressive course of the disease.

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