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Mira Lanki ◽  
Hanna Seppänen ◽  
Harri Mustonen ◽  
Aino Salmiheimo ◽  
Ulf-Håkan Stenman ◽  

Abstract Background For prognostic evaluation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the only well-established serum marker is carbohydrate antigen CA19-9. To improve the accuracy of survival prediction, we tested the efficacy of inflammatory serum markers. Methods A preoperative serum panel comprising 48 cytokines plus high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) was analyzed in 173 stage I–III PDAC patients. Analysis of the effect of serum markers on survival utilized the Cox regression model, with the most promising cytokines chosen with the aid of the lasso method. We formed a reference model comprising age, gender, tumor stage, adjuvant chemotherapy status, and CA19-9 level. Our prognostic study model incorporated these data plus hs-CRP and the cytokines. We constructed time-dependent ROC curves and calculated an integrated time-averaged area under the curve (iAUC) for both models from 1 to 10 years after surgery. Results Hs-CRP and the cytokines CTACK, MIF, IL-1β, IL-3, GRO-α, M-CSF, and SCF, were our choices for the prognostic study model, in which the iAUC was 0.837 (95% CI 0.796–0.902), compared to the reference model’s 0.759 (95% CI 0.691–0.836, NS). These models divided the patients into two groups based on the maximum value of Youden’s index at 7.5 years. In our study model, 60th percentile survival times were 4.5 (95% CI 3.7–NA) years (predicted high-survival group, n = 34) and 1.3 (95% CI 1.0–1.7) years (predicted low-survival group, n = 128), log rank p < 0.001. By the reference model, the 60th percentile survival times were 2.8 (95% CI 2.1–4.4) years (predicted high-survival group, n = 44) and 1.3 (95% CI 1.0–1.7) years (predicted low-survival group, n = 118), log rank p < 0.001. Conclusion Hs-CRP and the seven cytokines added to the reference model including CA19-9 are potential prognostic factors for improved survival prediction for PDAC patients.

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 113
Xiufang Liu ◽  
Wenjun Zhang ◽  
Yanshu Jing ◽  
Shasha Yi ◽  
Umar Farooq ◽  

Sonoporation employs ultrasound accompanied by microbubble (MB) cavitation to induce the reversible disruption of cell membranes and has been exploited as a promising intracellular macromolecular delivery strategy. Due to the damage to cells resulting from strong cavitation, it is difficult to balance efficient delivery and high survival rates. In this paper, a traveling surface acoustic wave (TSAW) device, consisting of a TSAW chip and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel, was designed to explore single-cell sonoporation using targeted microbubbles (TMBs) in a non-cavitation regime. A TSAW was applied to precisely manipulate the movement of the TMBs attached to MDA-MB-231 cells, leading to sonoporation at a single-cell level. The impact of input voltage and the number of TMBs on cell sonoporation was investigated. In addition, the physical mechanisms of bubble cavitation or the acoustic radiation force (ARF) for cell sonoporation were analyzed. The TMBs excited by an ARF directly propelled cell membrane deformation, leading to reversible perforation in the cell membrane. When two TMBs adhered to the cell surface and the input voltage was 350 mVpp, the cell sonoporation efficiency went up to 83%.

2022 ◽  
Solveig Kärk Abildtrup Larsen ◽  
Vibeke Løgager ◽  
Catharina Bylov ◽  
Hanne Nellemann ◽  
Mads Agerbæk ◽  

Abstract Purpose Concerns of imaging-related radiation in young patients with high survival rates have increased the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in testicular cancer (TC) stage I. However, computed tomography (CT) is still preferred for metastatic TC. The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body MRI incl. diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) with contrast-enhanced, thoracoabdominal CT in metastatic TC.Methods A prospective, non-inferiority study of 84 consecutive patients (median age 33 years) with newly diagnosed metastatic TC (February 2018 - January 2021). Exclusion criteria were age <18 years, claustrophobia and MRI contraindications. Patients had both MRI and CT before and after treatment. Anonymised images were reviewed by experienced radiologists.Lesion malignancy was evaluated on a Likert scale (1 benign – 4 malignant). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated on patient and lesion level. For non-inferiority testing, the difference in sensitivity between CT and MRI was calculated. The level of significance was set at 5%. ROC curves and interobserver agreement were calculated.Results On patient level, MRI had 98% sensitivity and 75% specificity compared to CT. On lesion level within each modality, MRI had 99% sensitivity and 78% specificity, whereas CT had 98% sensitivity and 88% specificity. MRI sensitivity was non-inferior to CT (difference 0.57% (95% CI -1.4-2.5%)). The interobserver agreement was substantial between CT and MRI. Conclusion MRI with DWIBS was non-inferior to contrast-enhanced CT in detecting metastatic TC disease. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT03436901, finished July 1st 2021.

2022 ◽  
Jacky Herzlich ◽  
Laurence Mangel ◽  
Ariel Halperin ◽  
Daniel Lubin ◽  
Ronella Marom

Abstract Purpose: To examine the outcomes of preterm infants born to women with preterm premature rupture of membranes at periviable gestational age.Methods: This is a retrospective study analyzing data on singleton deliveries complicated by prolonged premature rupture of membranes occurring before 24 weeks of gestation. Neonatal outcomes including birth weight, Apgar score, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, hearing impairment and mortality were evaluated.Results: Ninety four preterm infants who were born after a prolonged premature rupture of membranes of at least 7 days were included in the study.Median gestational week at onset of membrane rupture was 27.1 ± 4.2 weeks (range 17 - 33) and median latency period in days was 16 ± 21.8 (range 7 - 105). We found that the survival rate to discharge within neonates born after prolonged rupture of membrane at gestational week less than 24 weeks is 79.2%. These neonates did not show an increased rate of major morbidities compared to neonates born following membrane rupture at gestational week 24 to 27. Conclusion: We described a high survival rate without major morbidities following prolonged preterm membrane rupture before viability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (1) ◽  
pp. 168
Harley Araújo da Silva ◽  
Thiago Augusto Da Cunha ◽  
Veronica Telma Da Rocha Passos

The evaluation of the survival and natural regeneration of tree species in a 35-year-old plantation was carried out to identify the species established in the area, aiming at their recommendation in forest restoration plantations in the State of Acre. In the 1980s, 138 forest species were planted in two experimental units (EU), of 1.38 ha each, in the Zoobotanical Park (ZP) of the Federal University of Acre, Rio Branco campus. The main activities carried out in the area, prior to planting, were agriculture and cattle raising.  Survival status was measured through a census of all individuals planted at the time, who were still alive. In addition, all regenerating individuals from planted species were surveyed in the effective planting area of the experimental units. At the time of evaluation, living individuals of 41 and 46 species were found in experimental units 1 (EU-1) and 2 (EU-2), respectively. The species Syagrus sancona, Talisia esculenta, Acacia polyphylla, Couepia bracteosa, Mangifera indica, Syzygium cumini and Copaifera multijuga showed survival rates above 90% in at least one of the experimental units. Only Syagrus sancona and Handroanthus serratifolius presented high survival rates in both experimental. Regenerating individuals of the species Aspidosperma vargasii, Couepia bracteosa, Euterpe precatoria, Handroanthus serratifolius, Oenocarpus mapora, Onychopetalum periquino and Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum were found in the two EU.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 312
Ján Staněk ◽  
Abanoub Riad ◽  
Adam Le ◽  
Matěj Bernát ◽  
Milad Hammal ◽  

The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical performance, survival, and complications of indirect composite inlays, onlays, and overlays on posterior teeth. Digital records of 282 patients treated between 2014 and 2018 were accessed and analyzed retrospectively. The included patients received 469 composite restorations luted with seven different resin-based types of cement, i.e., Filtek Ultimate Flow, Enamel Plus, Relyx Ultimate, Harvard Premium Flow, Relyx Unicem, Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable, and Filtek Ultimate. The restorations had been clinically and radiographically evaluated annually. The mechanical and clinical complications, e.g., debonding, fracture, and secondary caries, were evaluated and recorded. The examined restorations exhibited a high survival rate (84.9%), and failure was found in only 71 cases. Fracture was the most common cause (n = 36), followed by prosthetic work release (n = 19) and secondary caries (n = 16). There was a statistically significant difference between failure and cement material (Sig. < 0.001); the composite-based cements (87.2%) had a high survival rate compared to the resin-based cement (72.7%). Similarly, the cements with high viscosity (90.2%) had significantly higher survival rates than the low-viscosity cements (78.9%). Moreover, onlays showed higher longevity compared to overlays (Sig. = 0.007), and patients aged under 55 years showed less complications (Sig. = 0.036). Indirect composite restoration was a successful solution to tooth structure loss. The material of the cementation is an important part of the success. Higher survival rate was found in our study when the fixation materials with high viscosity were used, thus suggesting using these materials with indirect restorations. Composite-based cements had significantly higher survival rate than resin-based cements.

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
N. B. Gauthier ◽  
F. S. Goes ◽  
L. Quaresma ◽  
V. F. Pedrosa ◽  
F. Roselet ◽  

Abstract The yellow clam is a sand-burrowing bivalve that inhabits the dissipative beaches from southern Brazil to the north coast of Argentina. In the last decades, populations of this species have been impacted by mass mortality events, overfishing and other anthropogenic activities. The production of juveniles in captivity would allow feasibility studies to be carried out to restore the natural stock as well as the production in aquaculture systems. Given the scarcity of studies on the maintenance of this species in captivity, a culture system and a management protocol were developed and tested. Wild-caught clams (total length ≥50 mm) were used in a series of 14 day-long trials. Survival was higher in clams that were allowed to bury into the sand. A permanent ink marker covered with a thin layer of a quick-hardening adhesive proved to be a reliable method to tag clams. The maintenance of yellow clams in this system resulted in high survival and growth, increases in the condition factor and oocyte diameter, and a relative advancement of gonadal development.

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 44
Juanshan Zheng ◽  
Mei Du ◽  
Wei Jiang ◽  
Jianbo Zhang ◽  
Wenxiang Shen ◽  

Cattle-yak milk is an important raw material and an indispensable source of high-quality food for local farmers and herdsmen to produce ghee, milk residue, yogurt, and other dairy products. In this study, Lactobacillus strains were isolated from cattle-yak milk for potential probiotic candidates using a series of in vitro tests, including probiotic characterization and safety evaluation (antibiotic susceptibility and hemolytic ability). The results found that the Lactobacillus rhamnosus CY12 strain showed a high survival rate in bile salts, under acid conditions, and in the gastrointestinal juice environment, as well as showing high antimicrobial activity and adhesive potential. The safety evaluation showed that all strains were considered non-hemolytic. In addition, the whole-genome sequencing indicated that the strain CY12 spanned 2,506,167 bp, with an average length of 881 bp; the GC content in the gene region (%) was 47.35, contained 1347 protein-coding sequences, and accounted for 85.72% of the genome. The genome annotation showed that genes mainly focused on the immune system process, metabolic process, carbohydrate utilization, carbon metabolism, galactose metabolism, and biological adhesion, etc. This study revealed that the Lactobacillus rhamnosus CY12 strain might be an excellent potential probiotic in the development of feed additives for animals and has the ability to promote health.

2021 ◽  
Mashair Sir El Khatim Mustafa ◽  
Zairi Jaal ◽  
Sumia Abu Kashawa ◽  
Siti Azizah Mohd Nor

Abstract BackgroundFrequent monitoring of mosquito vector population is a strategy of great importance for reducing risks of disease occurrence. In Sudan, malaria is still a big threat to public health. Insecticide-based control has been undertaken for years, but there is no noticeable decrease of malaria infection nationwide.ObjectiveTo overcome this situation, a better understanding of the breeding ecology of the vectors is relevant. Here, we investigate the species composition of malaria vectors, seasonal abundance and population structure in two different villages.MethodologyMonthly samplings were performed in Abu Algoni (Sennar State) and Algerif West (Khartoum State) from June 2010 to May 2011. During each visit, immature stages were collected from potential breeding sites using dipping technique. In addition, adults were collected indoors from houses by aspiration and indoor pyrethrum spray methods. Mosquitoes were identified morphologically, the Anopheles gambiae complex diagnosed using PCR and the physiological status of females determined based on appropriate techniques. Environmental parameters namely temperature, rainfall and humidity were measured.ResultsA total of 4,932 mosquitoes comprising of 3047 larvae and 1885 adults (males and females combined) were sampled. Of these, 88.9% were collected from Abu Algoni while 11.1% were from Algerif West. Two species, An. rufipes and An. arabiensis were encountered. Anopheles rufipes was only found in Abu Algoni, while the latter was found in both villages, where it represented more than 99% of the total collection.Mosquitoes were found breeding in many types of places including canals, temporary pools of water, animal hooves, water from broken pipes, and water storage containers. No significant correlation was found between female and temperature (p>0.05). Significant correlation difference was observed between number of females of An. arabiensis and rainfall (p<0.05) and humidity (p<0.01).ConclusionsAnopheles arabiensis is the only member of An. gambiae complex detected in the present study. Seasonal abundance of An. arabiensis was observed with most during the wet rainy season in both villages. This could be associated with the availability of more breeding sites created by the rainfall. The majority were parous which indicates high survival rates and thus high vectorial capacity in transmitting malaria.

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