Major Depressive Disorder
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2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (10) ◽  
pp. 1025-1033
Jee Soo Lee ◽  
Wooyoung Kang ◽  
Youbin Kang ◽  
Aram Kim ◽  
Kyu-Man Han ◽  

Objective Advances in surface-based morphometric methods have allowed researchers to separate cortical volume into cortical thickness (CTh) and surface area (SA). Although CTh alterations in major depressive disorder (MDD) have been observed in numerous studies, few studies have described significant SA alterations. Our study aimed to measure patients’ SAs and to compare it with their CTh to examine whether SA exhibits alteration patterns that differ from those of CTh in drug-naïve patients with MDD.Methods A total of 71 drug-naïve MDD patients and 111 healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging, and SA and CTh were analyzed between the groups.Results We found a smaller SA in the left superior occipital gyrus (L-SOG) in drug-naïve patients with MDD. In the CTh analysis, the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus, left temporal superior gyrus, and right posterior cingulate showed thinner cortices in patients with MDD, while the CTh of the bilateral SOG, right straight gyrus, right posterior cingulate, and left lingual gyrus were increased.Conclusion Compared with the bilateral occipito-temporal changes in CTh, SA alterations in patients with MDD were confined to the L-SOG. These findings may improve our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of SA alteration in relation to MDD.

2021 ◽  
Lu Yin ◽  
Ting-Ting Wang ◽  
Yan-Yan Wei ◽  
Li-Gang Zhang ◽  
Shuang-Jiang Zhou ◽  

Abstract Background Suicide risk is associated with depression. Affective temperaments may play a role in this risk. We explored the relationship between affective temperaments and suicide and identified some traits that can predict suicide risk in depression. Methods We analyzed the results of Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) in 284 participants recruited from a psychiatric clinic and the community in Beijing and compared the subscale scores (cyclothymic, dysthymic, anxious, irritable and hyperthymic) among major depressive disorder (MDD) versus the general population as well as depressive patients with versus without suicide risk, using student’s test, Chi-square test, rank sum test, multivariable regression modeling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results The incidence of suicidal risk in depressive subjects was 47.62% (80/168). Being unmarried (P<0.001), unemployment (P=0.007) and temperaments of dysthymic, cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable scores (all P<0.05) were significantly more prevalent in depressive patients than in the general population. A young age (P<0.001), female sex (P=0.037), being unmarried (P=0.001), more severe depression (P<0.001), and dysthymic, anxious and cyclothymic temperament (all P<0.05) were significantly more prevalent in depressive disorder patients with suicide risk than in those without suicide risk. The logistic regression analysis showed that younger age (OR=0.937, 95% CI 0.905~0.970), female sex (OR=2.606, 95% CI 1.142~5.948), more severe depression (OR=1.145, 95% CI 1.063~1.234), cyclothymic temperament (OR=1.275, 95% CI 1.102~1.475) and dysthymic temperament (OR=1.265, 95% CI 1.037~1.542) were all independently associated with high suicidal risk in first-episode major depressive patients (P<0.05). By ROC analysis, the area under the compound factor (age, sex, HAMD score without the 3rd item, cyclothymic and dysthymic temperament) was 0.853 (95% CI 0.790~0.903). Conclusion The suicide rate in first-episode neuroleptic-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD) subjects was higher than we thought. Temperament traits differ between the general population and those with major depressive disorder. Major depressive disorder subjects with much more severe depressive symptoms and cyclothymic or dysthymic temperament were at high risk of suicide. Compound factors (age, sex, HAMD score without the 3rd item, cyclothymic and dysthymic temperament score) could be predictors of suicide risk in the clinic.

Giselli Scaini ◽  
Brittany L. Mason ◽  
Alexandre P. Diaz ◽  
Manish K. Jha ◽  
Jair C. Soares ◽  

2021 ◽  
Pengfei Xu ◽  
Gangqiang Hou ◽  
Yuxuan Zhang ◽  
Yingli Zhang ◽  
Hui Ai ◽  

Macroscopic structural abnormalities in the thalamus and thalamic circuits have been shown to contribute to the neuropathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, cytoarchitectonic properties underlying these macroscopic abnormalities remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify systematic deficits of brain architecture in depression, from structural brain network organization to microstructural properties. A multi-modal neuroimaging approach including diffusion, anatomical and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to examine structural-related alternations in 56 MDD patients compared with 35 age- and sex-matched controls. Structural networks were constructed and analyzed using seed-based probabilistic tractography. Morphometric measurements, including cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), were evaluated across the whole brain. A conjunction analysis was then conducted to identify key regions showing common structural alternations across modalities. The microstructural properties, macromolecular tissue volume (MTV) and T1 relaxation times of identified key regions were then calculated. Results showed multiple alterations of structural connectivity within a set of subcortical areas and their connections to cortical regions in MDD patients. These subcortical regions included the putamen, thalamus and caudate, which are predominately involved in the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic network (LCSPT). Structural connectivity was disrupted within and between large-scale networks, mainly including subcortical networks, default mode networks and salience/ventral attention networks. Consistently, these regions also exhibited widespread volume reductions in MDD patients, specifically the bilateral thalamus, left putamen and right caudate. Importantly, the microstructural properties, T1 relaxation time of left thalamus were increased and negatively correlated with its gray matter volume in MDD patients. The present work to date sheds light on the neuropathological disruptions of LCSPT circuit in MDD, providing the first multi-modal neuroimaging evidence for the macro-micro structural abnormalities of the thalamus in patients with MDD. These findings have implications in understanding the abnormal changes of brain structures across development of MDD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yanan Zhou ◽  
Yuejiao Ma ◽  
Qiuxia Wu ◽  
Qianjin Wang ◽  
Winson Fu Zun Yang ◽  

Abnormal thyroid function in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been studied extensively, but the results still remain inconsistent. In China, few large-scale studies have investigated the differences in the levels of thyroid hormones between patients with MDD and healthy controls (HCs). In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, 535 MDD patients and 998 HCs were included. We compared the levels of thyroid hormones (FT3, FT4, and TSH) between the two groups, as well as investigated the distribution of levels of thyroid hormones within and outside normal ranges. The results showed that all the three hormones were significantly lower in MDD patients than in HCs, which was also true in different gender and age subgroups. The proportion of subjects with levels of all the three hormones outside the normal range in the MDD group was higher than that in the HC group (all p &lt; 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in clinical/subclinical hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism between the two groups (p &gt; 0.05). Our study showed that the levels of thyroid hormones were lower in MDD patients, suggesting that there was an association between abnormal thyroid function and depression. The higher rate of thyroid dysfunction in MDD patients indicated the importance of regular monitoring of thyroid function.

Peter Zhukovsky ◽  
John A.E. Anderson ◽  
Gillian Coughlan ◽  
Benoit H. Mulsant ◽  
Andrea Cipriani ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Zhiyun Yang ◽  
Lingyu Jian ◽  
Hui Qiu ◽  
Chaoqing Zhang ◽  
Song Cheng ◽  

AbstractBrain function relies on efficient communications between distinct brain systems. The pathology of major depressive disorder (MDD) damages functional brain networks, resulting in cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed the associations between brain functional connectome changes and MDD pathogenesis. We also highlighted the utility of brain functional connectome for differentiating MDD from other similar psychiatric disorders, predicting recurrence and suicide attempts in MDD, and evaluating treatment responses. Converging evidence has now linked aberrant brain functional network organization in MDD to the dysregulation of neurotransmitter signaling and neuroplasticity, providing insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of the disease and antidepressant efficacy. Widespread connectome dysfunctions in MDD patients include multiple, large-scale brain networks as well as local disturbances in brain circuits associated with negative and positive valence systems and cognitive functions. Although the clinical utility of the brain functional connectome remains to be realized, recent findings provide further promise that research in this area may lead to improved diagnosis, treatments, and clinical outcomes of MDD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kuk-In Jang ◽  
Sungkean Kim ◽  
Soo Young Kim ◽  
Chany Lee ◽  
Jeong-Ho Chae

Background: Psychiatric diagnosis is formulated by symptomatic classification; disease-specific neurophysiological phenotyping could help with its fundamental treatment. Here, we investigated brain phenotyping in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD) by using electroencephalography (EEG) and conducted machine-learning-based classification of the two diseases by using EEG components.Materials and Methods: We enrolled healthy controls (HCs) (n = 30) and patients with SZ (n = 34) and MDD (n = 33). An auditory P300 (AP300) task was performed, and the N1 and P3 components were extracted. Two-group classification was conducted using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Positive and negative symptoms and depression and/or anxiety symptoms were evaluated.Results: Considering both the results of statistical comparisons and machine learning-based classifications, patients and HCs showed significant differences in AP300, with SZ and MDD showing lower N1 and P3 than HCs. In the sum of amplitudes and cortical sources, the findings for LDA with classification accuracy (SZ vs. HCs: 71.31%, MDD vs. HCs: 74.55%), sensitivity (SZ vs. HCs: 77.67%, MDD vs. HCs: 79.00%), and specificity (SZ vs. HCs: 64.00%, MDD vs. HCs: 69.67%) supported these results. The SVM classifier showed reasonable scores between SZ and HCs and/or MDD and HCs. The comparison between SZ and MDD showed low classification accuracy (59.71%), sensitivity (65.08%), and specificity (54.83%).Conclusions: Patients with SZ and MDD showed deficiencies in N1 and P3 components in the sum of amplitudes and cortical sources, indicating attentional dysfunction in both early and late sensory/cognitive gating input. The LDA and SVM classifiers in the AP300 are useful to distinguish patients with SZ and HCs and/or MDD and HCs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 21-26
Ranjan Das ◽  
Om Prakash Singh ◽  
Rajarshi Guha Thakurta ◽  
Sreyashi Sen

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
Verinder Sharma ◽  
Sapna Sharma ◽  
Minakshi Doobay

Background: In this report, we describe a case of domperidone withdrawal in a woman with a history of major depressive disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who experienced a recurrence of these disorders after stopping domperidone. Case presentation: The symptoms improved after the restarting of domperidone and disappeared gradually as the drug was tapered and discontinued. Clinicians should consider domperidone withdrawal a differential diagnosis in women with a history of depression or anxiety who present with an acute onset of these symptoms following the abrupt discontinuation of domperidone. Conclusion: A gradual taper off of the drug may be effective in minimizing withdrawal symptoms and obviate the need for psychotropic drug use.

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