differential gene
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2022 ◽  
Paulina G. Eusebi ◽  
Natalia Sevane ◽  
Thomas O’Rourke ◽  
Manuel Pizarro ◽  
Cedric Boeckx ◽  

AbstractThe reactive type of aggression is regulated mostly by the brain’s prefrontal cortex; however, the molecular changes underlying aggressiveness in adults have not been fully characterized. We used an RNA-seq approach to investigate differential gene expression in the prefrontal cortex of bovines from the aggressive Lidia breed at different ages: young three-year old and adult four-year-old bulls. A total of 50 up and 193 down-regulated genes in the adult group were identified. Furthermore, a cross-species comparative analysis retrieved 29 genes in common with previous studies on aggressive behaviors, representing an above-chance overlap with the differentially expressed genes in adult bulls. We detected changes in the regulation of networks such as synaptogenesis, involved in maintenance and refinement of synapses, and the glutamate receptor pathway, which acts as excitatory driver in aggressive responses. The reduced reactive aggression typical of domestication has been proposed to form part of a retention of juvenile traits as adults (neoteny).

José Luis Ferran ◽  
Manuel Irimia ◽  
Luis Puelles

This essay re-examines the singular case of the supposedly unique rostrally elongated notochord described classically in amphioxus. We start from our previous observations in hpf 21 larvae [Albuixech-Crespo et al., 2017] indicating that the brain vesicle has rostrally a rather standard hypothalamic molecular configuration. This correlates with the notochord across a possible rostromedian acroterminal hypothalamic domain . The notochord shows some molecular differences that specifically characterize its pre-acroterminal extension beyond its normal rostral end under the mamillary region. We explored an alternative interpretation that the putative extension of this notochord actually represents a variant form of the prechordal plate in amphioxus, some of whose cells would adopt the notochordal typology, but would lack notochordal patterning properties, and might have some (but not all) prechordal ones instead. We survey in detail the classic and recent literature on gastrulation, prechordal plate and notochord formation in amphioxus, compared the observed patterns with those of some other vertebrates of interest, and re-examine the literature on differential gene expression patterns in this rostralmost area of the head. We noted that previous literature failed at identifying the amphioxus prechordal primordia at appropriate stages. Under this interpretation, a consistent picture can be drawn for cephalochordates, tunicates, and vertebrates. Moreover, there is little evidence for an intrinsic capacity of the early notochord to grow rostralwards (it normally elongates caudalwards). Altogether, we conclude that the hypothesis of a prechordal nature of the elongated amphioxus notochord is consistent with the evidence presented.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261723
Jamie-Lee M. Thompson ◽  
Daniel W. D. West ◽  
Thomas M. Doering ◽  
Boris P. Budiono ◽  
Sarah J. Lessard ◽  

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a physiological response to disuse, aging, and disease. We compared changes in muscle mass and the transcriptome profile after short-term immobilization in a divergent model of high and low responders to endurance training to identify biological processes associated with the early atrophy response. Female rats selectively bred for high response to endurance training (HRT) and low response to endurance training (LRT; n = 6/group; generation 19) underwent 3 day hindlimb cast immobilization to compare atrophy of plantaris and soleus muscles with line-matched controls (n = 6/group). RNA sequencing was utilized to identify Gene Ontology Biological Processes with differential gene set enrichment. Aerobic training performed prior to the intervention showed HRT improved running distance (+60.6 ± 29.6%), while LRT were unchanged (-0.3 ± 13.3%). Soleus atrophy was greater in LRT vs. HRT (-9.0 ±8.8 vs. 6.2 ±8.2%; P<0.05) and there was a similar trend in plantaris (-16.4 ±5.6% vs. -8.5 ±7.4%; P = 0.064). A total of 140 and 118 biological processes were differentially enriched in plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively. Soleus muscle exhibited divergent LRT and HRT responses in processes including autophagy and immune response. In plantaris, processes associated with protein ubiquitination, as well as the atrogenes (Trim63 and Fbxo32), were more positively enriched in LRT. Overall, LRT demonstrate exacerbated atrophy compared to HRT, associated with differential gene enrichments of biological processes. This indicates that genetic factors that result in divergent adaptations to endurance exercise, may also regulate biological processes associated with short-term muscle unloading.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhenzhen Zhu ◽  
Weiqing Wang ◽  
Yang Zha ◽  
Xiaowei Wang ◽  
Lei Wang ◽  

Background: The pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and mechanisms underlying different responses to systemic glucocorticoids (GC) remain unclear. The major aim of this study was to explore the transcriptomic and oxidative lipidomic signatures and the effects of GC in patients with different clinical responses.Methods: Nasal polyp biopsies were obtained before and after 14-day oral GC treatment from 16 patients with CRSwNP, and normal nasal mucosa specimens were collected from 12 control subjects. RNA sequencing and oxidative lipidomics were performed, and differential gene expression analysis was conducted in the Responder and Non-responder groups at baseline and after treatment.Results: In the Responder group, GC significantly improved clinical symptoms and reduced tissue eosinophil infiltration. Meanwhile, GC led to a pronounced transcriptomic reversion with robust suppression of inflammatory responses and abnormal metabolism of extracellular matrix, as well as restoration of cilia function. However, non-responders were mainly characterized by epithelial hyperplasia and keratinization, with much less transcriptomic improvement after GC treatment. Higher expression of type 2 inflammatory molecules (CCL13, IGHE, CCL18, CCL23, CCR3, and CLC) with lower levels of LACRT, PPDPFL, DES, C6, MUC5B, and SCGB3A1 were related to a stronger clinical response to GC. Besides decreased prostaglandins and increased leukotrienes, increased dysregulation in other oxylipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids was determined in nasal polyps, which was ameliorated by GC treatment.Conclusion: Systemic GC exert anti-inflammatory effects, improve tissue remodeling, restore cilia function, and ameliorate dysregulation of oxylipid mediator pathway in CRSwNP. GC-responders exhibited different transcriptomic signatures from non-responders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Thinh T. Nguyen ◽  
Hyun-Sung Lee ◽  
Bryan M. Burt ◽  
Jia Wu ◽  
Jianjun Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Lung adenocarcinoma, the most common type of lung cancer, has a high level of morphologic heterogeneity and is composed of tumor cells of multiple histological subtypes. It has been reported that immune cell infiltration significantly impacts clinical outcomes of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. However, it is unclear whether histologic subtyping can reflect the tumor immune microenvironment, and whether histologic subtyping can be applied for therapeutic stratification of the current standard of care. Methods We inferred immune cell infiltration levels using a histological subtype-specific gene expression dataset. From differential gene expression analysis between different histological subtypes, we developed two gene signatures to computationally determine the relative abundance of lepidic and solid components (denoted as the L-score and S-score, respectively) in lung adenocarcinoma samples. These signatures enabled us to investigate the relationship between histological composition and clinical outcomes in lung adenocarcinoma using previously published datasets. Results We found dramatic immunological differences among histological subtypes. Differential gene expression analysis showed that the lepidic and solid subtypes could be differentiated based on their gene expression patterns while the other subtypes shared similar gene expression patterns. Our results indicated that higher L-scores were associated with prolonged survival, and higher S-scores were associated with shortened survival. L-scores and S-scores were also correlated with global genomic features such as tumor mutation burdens and driver genomic events. Interestingly, we observed significantly decreased L-scores and increased S-scores in lung adenocarcinoma samples with EGFR gene amplification but not in samples with EGFR gene mutations. In lung cancer cell lines, we observed significant correlations between L-scores and cell sensitivity to a number of targeted drugs including EGFR inhibitors. Moreover, lung cancer patients with higher L-scores were more likely to benefit from immune checkpoint blockade therapy. Conclusions Our findings provided further insights into evaluating histology composition in lung adenocarcinoma. The established signatures reflected that lepidic and solid subtypes in lung adenocarcinoma would be associated with prognosis, genomic features, and responses to targeted therapy and immunotherapy. The signatures therefore suggested potential clinical translation in predicting patient survival and treatment responses. In addition, our framework can be applied to other types of cancer with heterogeneous histological subtypes.

2022 ◽  
Natsuki Nakanishi ◽  
Satoko Osuka ◽  
Tomohiro Kono ◽  
Hisato Kobayashi ◽  
Shinya Ikeda ◽  

Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrinal disorder, is associated with impaired oocyte development, which leads to infertility. However, the pathogenesis of PCOS has not been completely elucidated. This study aimed to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and epigenetic changes in the oocytes of the PCOS mouse model to identify the etiological factors. In this study, RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that 90 DEGs were upregulated and 27 DEGs were downregulated in the PCOS mouse model. DNA methylation analysis revealed 30 hypomethylated and 10 hypermethylated regions in the PCOS group. However, the DNA methylation status was not correlated with differential gene expression. The pathway enrichment analysis revealed that five DEGs (Rps21, Rpl36, Rpl36a, Rpl37a, and Rpl22l1) were enriched in ribosome-related pathways in the oocytes of the PCOS mouse model, and the immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly upregulated expression levels of Rps21 and Rpl36. These results suggest that differential gene expression in the oocytes of the PCOS mouse model is related to impaired folliculogenesis. These findings improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of PCOS.

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