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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ximena Moreno ◽  
Jean Gajardo ◽  
María José Monsalves

Abstract Background Different factors are associated with late life depression and diagnosis, including gender. It has also been reported that depression among older people is underdiagnosed. As a result, the mental health needs of this group are insufficiently met. The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in the factors associated with positive screens for depression and self-reported diagnosis among older adults in Chile. Methods Data from 3786 older adults who participated in the Social Protection Survey in 2016 were analysed. PHQ-9 was used to identify screen-positive cases. Self-reported diagnosis of depression was used to determine the proportion of people with a screen-positive result who had received a diagnosis of depression. Logistic regression models were used to determine sociodemographic and health factors associated with depression and underdiagnosis in older men and women. Results The prevalence of a screen-positive result was 20.91% (5.83% major depressive disorder) among men, and 36.38% (12.43% major depressive disorder) among women. 18.77% of men and 34.11% of women with a positive depression screening had received a diagnosis. More educated men were more likely to receive a diagnosis. Older age was associated with a lower probability of diagnosis among older women. Conclusions Our results suggest that depressive disorders are undiagnosed in a high proportion of older adults in Chile. Gender is a relevant factor in the underdiagnosis of depression in this group. Further research is needed to understand the factors involved in these gaps, to improve detection and provide timely support and treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ju-Yi Hsu ◽  
Chee-Jen Chang ◽  
Jur-Shan Cheng

AbstractIndividuals diagnosed with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC) suffer worse survival rates than their metastatic non-TNBC counterparts. There is little information on survival, treatment patterns, and medical costs of mTNBC patients in Asia. Therefore, this study aimed to examine 5-year survival, regimens of first-line systemic therapy, and healthcare costs of mTNBC patients in Taiwan. Adult females newly diagnosed with TNBC and non-TNBC as well as their survival data, treatment regimens and costs of health services were identified and retrieved from the Cancer Registry database, Death Registry database, and National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database. A total of 9691 (19.27%) women were identified as TNBC among overall BC. The 5-year overall survival rate of TNBC and non-TNBC was 81.28% and 86.50%, respectively, and that of mTNBC and metastatic non-TNBC was 10.81% and 33.46%, respectively. The majority of mTNBC patients received combination therapy as their first-line treatment (78.14%). The 5-year total cost in patients with metastatic non-TNBC and with mTNBC was NTD1,808,693 and NTD803,445, respectively. Higher CCI scores were associated with an increased risk of death and lower probability of receiving combination chemotherapy. Older age was associated with lower 5-year medical costs. In sum, mTNBC patients suffered from poorer survival and incurred lower medical costs than their metastatic non-TNBC counterparts. Future research will be needed when there are more treatment options available for mTNBC patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. emermed-2021-211823
Keita Shibahashi ◽  
Kazuhiro Sugiyama ◽  
Takuto Ishida ◽  
Yuichi Hamabe

BackgroundThe duration from collapse to initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (no-flow time) is one of the most important determinants of outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Initial shockable cardiac rhythm (ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia) is reported to be a marker of short no-flow time; however, there is conflicting evidence regarding the impact of initial shockable cardiac rhythm on treatment decisions. We investigated the association between initial shockable cardiac rhythm and the no-flow time and evaluated whether initial shockable cardiac rhythm can be a marker of short no-flow time in patients with OHCA.MethodsPatients aged 18 years and older experiencing OHCA between 2010 and 2016 were selected from a nationwide population-based Japanese database. The association between the no-flow time duration and initial shockable cardiac rhythm was evaluated. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value.ResultsA total of 177 634 patients were eligible for the analysis. The median age was 77 years (58.3%, men). Initial shockable cardiac rhythm was recorded in 11.8% of the patients. No-flow time duration was significantly associated with lower probability of initial shockable cardiac rhythm, with an adjusted OR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.96 to 0.97) per additional minute. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of initial shockable cardiac rhythm to identify a no-flow time of <5 min were 0.12 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.12), 0.88 (95% CI 0.88 to 0.89) and 0.35 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.35), respectively. The positive predictive values were 0.90, 0.95 and 0.99 with no-flow times of 15, 18 and 28 min, respectively.ConclusionsAlthough there was a significant association between initial shockable cardiac rhythm and no-flow time duration, initial shockable cardiac rhythm was not reliable when solely used as a surrogate of a short no-flow time duration after OHCA.

2022 ◽  
Jeevun Sandher

Higher rates of income inequality are correlated with lower average well-being across different domains (such as health, financial security, friendship etc.) across nations. It is unclear, however, whether this pattern is driven by income differences between people or if places also play a role. In this paper, I test this by constructing a Se- nian Capability Index of well-being and then testing the relative role of personal and place-based prosperity on its domains using linked individual-area data. I find that while personal income has the strongest link to well-being domains, places also also have a significant, non-uniform, association as well. These effects differ between the labour market and neighbourhood level spatial scales. Local labour market prosperity gives its residents higher potential incomes and is associated with greater financial se- curity and more friends. Moving to a more prosperous labour market also indirectly improves well-being by increasing potential incomes. Neighbourhood prosperity is as- sociated with greater overall well-being, physical security, and a lower probability of death. These results suggest that policies aimed at improving personal and place-based characteristics are needed to create a “good life” for all citizens.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 244
Leticia Gómez-Sánchez ◽  
Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez ◽  
Rafel Ramos ◽  
Ruth Marti-Lluch ◽  
Marta Gómez-Sánchez ◽  

The aim of this study was to analyse the association of diet with arterial stiffness and vascular ageing in a Caucasian population with intermediate cardiovascular risk. We recruited 2475 individuals aged 35–75 years with intermediate cardiovascular risk. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured using a VaSera VS-1500® device. Vascular ageing was defined in two steps. Step 1: The 20 individuals who presented kidney disease, peripheral arterial disease, or heart failure were classified as early vascular ageing (EVA). Step 2: The individuals with percentiles by age and sex above the 90th percentile of baPWV among the participants of this study were classified as EVA, and the rest of the individuals were classified as non-EVA. The diet of the participants was analysed with two questionnaires: (1) the diet quality index (DQI) questionnaire and (2) the Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence questionnaire. The mean age of the sample was 61.34 ± 7.70 years, and 61.60% were men. Adherence to the MD was 53.30%. The DQI was 54.90%. Of the entire sample, 10.70% (11.15% of the men and 9.95% of the women) were EVA. In the multiple linear regression analysis, for each additional point in the DQI questionnaire, there was a decrease of −0.081 (95%CI (confidence intervals) −0.105–−0.028) in baPWV; in the MD adherence questionnaire, there was a decrease of −0.052 (95%CI −0141–−0.008). When performing the analysis, separated by sex, the association remained significant in men but not in women. In the logistic regression analysis, there was an increase in MD adherence and a decrease in the probability of presenting EVA, both with the DQI questionnaire (OR (odds ratio) = 0.65; 95%CI 0.50–0.84) and with the MD adherence questionnaire (OR = 0.75; 95%CI 0.58–0.97). In the analysis by sex, the association was only maintained in men (with DQI, OR = 0.54; 95%CI 0.37–0.56) (with MD, OR = 0.72; 95%CI 0.52–0.99). The results of this study suggest that a greater score in the DQI and MD adherence questionnaires is associated with lower arterial stiffness and a lower probability of presenting EVA. In the analysis by sex, this association is only observed in men.

Entropy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 86
Argyris Dimou ◽  
Panos Argyrakis ◽  
Raoul Kopelman

Tumor hypoxia was discovered a century ago, and the interference of hypoxia with all radiotherapies is well known. Here, we demonstrate the potentially extreme effects of hypoxia heterogeneity on radiotherapy and combination radiochemotherapy. We observe that there is a decrease in hypoxia from tumor periphery to tumor center, due to oxygen diffusion, resulting in a gradient of radiative cell-kill probability, mathematically expressed as a probability gradient of occupied space removal. The radiotherapy-induced break-up of the tumor/TME network is modeled by the physics model of inverse percolation in a shell-like medium, using Monte Carlo simulations. The different shells now have different probabilities of space removal, spanning from higher probability in the periphery to lower probability in the center of the tumor. Mathematical results regarding the variability of the critical percolation concentration show an increase in the critical threshold with the applied increase in the probability of space removal. Such an observation will have an important medical implication: a much larger than expected radiation dose is needed for a tumor breakup enabling successful follow-up chemotherapy. Information on the TME’s hypoxia heterogeneity, as shown here with the numerical percolation model, may enable personalized precision radiation oncology therapy.

2022 ◽  
pp. 197-214
Ines Lisboa ◽  
Magali Costa

Understanding the reasons of default risk is crucial to avoid the firm's bankruptcy. The purpose of this work is to analyze the impact of internationalization on firm's probability of distress. For it, this chapter aims to propose a model to predict default specific to family SMEs (small and medium enterprises). An unbalanced panel of 10,832 firms over the period from 2012-2018 is analyzed. Ex-ante criteria to classify firms in default or compliant is used. International SMEs have lower probability of default than domestic firms, and compliant firms export more. Results show that export ratio is an important determinant of the probability of default. Moreover, the ratios of liquidity, profitability, size, leverage, efficiency, cash flow, and age are also relevant. Moreover, these ratios explain default risk of both groups international and domestic SMEs. The proposed model has an accuracy of 92.9%, which increases to 95.6% if only export SMEs are analyzed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Fabian Queissert ◽  
Keith Rourke ◽  
Sandra Schönburg ◽  
Alessandro Giammò ◽  
Andreas Gonsior ◽  

(1) Background: This study examined outcomes of second-line ATOMS implantation after failure of the fixed male sling (FMS) AdVance/AdVance XP. (2) Methods: A retrospective multicenter cohort analysis was carried out in men implanted with an ATOMS between 2011 and 2020 after failure of an AdVance/AdVance XP. Success was assessed on the basis of objective (dryness, 0–1 pad/24 h or >20 g/24 h pad test) and subjective results (PGI-I). We performed the Wilcoxon rank sum test, Fisher’s exact test, logistic regression, and multivariate analysis. (3) Results: The study included 88 patients from 9 centers with a mean age of 71.3 years. No Clavien–Dindo > II complications occurred within the first 3 months after ATOMS implantation. A total of 10 cases (9%) required revision in the ensuing clinical course. After a mean follow-up of 42.5 months, 76.1% achieved social continence, and 56.8% used no pads at all. Mean urine leakage/24 h dropped from 422 g (3.9 pads) to 38 g (0.69 pads) and the mean ICIQ-SF decreased from 16.25 to 5.3 (p < 0.0001). PROMs (patient-reported outcome measures) showed improvement in 98.9% of cases, and 63.6% gave a “very much better” PGI-I rating. Multivariate analysis identified a lower probability of achieving maximum satisfaction for the following factors: the AdVance XP as first-line therapy (OR 0.35), a lower ICIQ-SF question 1 (OR 0.26), status post-irradiation (OR 0.14), and more severe pain prior to ATOMS implantation (OR 0.51). (4) Conclusions: Implantation of an ATOMS is an effective and safe second-line treatment option for recurrent urinary incontinence after implantation of an AdVance/AdVance XP sling. High patient satisfaction was demonstrated in a long-term follow-up.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 32
Panagiota Economopoulou ◽  
Anastasios Pantazopoulos ◽  
Aris Spathis ◽  
Ioannis Kotsantis ◽  
Anastasios Kyriazoglou ◽  

Background: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a complex disease entity that mainly predominates in endemic regions. Real-world data with immunotherapy from nonendemic regions are limited. Methods: we collected data from patients with recurrent/metastatic (R/M) NPC treated at a center in Greece and 8 centers in Italy. Between 2016 and 2021, 46 patients who were treated with at least one cycle of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) were identified. Herein, we present our results and a review of the literature. Results: assessment of response was available in 42 patients. Overall, 11 patients responded to immunotherapy (Overall Response Rate-ORR 26.2%). Three patients had complete response (CR), and 8 patients had partial response (PR). Disease control rate (DCR) was 61.9%. Median Progression Free Survival (PFS) was 5.6 months and median Overall Survival (OS) was 19.1 months. Responders to ICI improved PFS and OS as compared to that of nonresponders. A lower probability of responding to ICI was shown in patients with more than three metastatic sites (p = 0.073), metastatic disease at initial diagnosis, (p = 0.039) or EBV DNA positive before ICI initiation, (p = 0.074). Decline in EBV DNA levels was found to be statistically significant associated with best response to ICI (p = 0.049). Safety was manageable. Conclusions: among 46 patients with R/M NPC treated with immunotherapy in two nonendemic regions, ORR was 26.2% and durable responses were observed. Low disease burden could serve as a biomarker for response to ICI.

Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Kinga Izabela Stańczak-Mrozek ◽  
Adam Sobczak ◽  
Leszek Lipiński ◽  
Elżbieta Sienkiewicz ◽  
Dorota Makarewicz ◽  

In this study, we used publicly available data from the Centrum e-Zdrowia (CeZ) Polish Databank proposing a possible correlation between influenza vaccination and mortality due to COVID-19. We limited our search to the patients with positive COVID‑19 laboratory tests from 1 January 2020 to 31 March 2021 and who filled a prescription for any influenza vaccine during the 2019–2020 influenza season. In total, we included 116,277 patients and used a generalized linear model to analyze the data. We found out that patients aged 60+ who received an influenza vaccination have a lower probability of death caused by COVID-19 in comparison to unvaccinated, and the magnitude of this difference grows with age. For people below 60 years old, we did not observe an influence of the vaccination. Our results suggest a potential protective effect of the influenza vaccine on COVID-19 mortality of the elderly. Administration of the influenza vaccine before the influenza season would reduce the burden of increased influenza incidence, the risk of influenza and COVID‑19 coinfection and render the essential medical resources accessible to cope with another wave of COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a correlation between influenza vaccination and the COVID-19 mortality rate in Poland.

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