Pharmacy Education
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Published By International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP)


2022 ◽  
pp. 54-62
Valerie Oji ◽  
Katherine Dillion ◽  
Salome Weaver

Background: Hybrid teaching methodologies involve the purposeful combination of traditional teaching with technology advances. Despite some challenges, they have gained popularity recently, especially during the coronavirus pandemic. This study evaluated hybrid e-learning with multiple inquiries involving students’ receptiveness, preferences, behaviours and instructor observations. Method: The methodology involved a mixed-method approach with a qualitative observational case study, surveys and interviews for problem-based learning alternatives to traditional lectures. Instruction included: 1) Assigned primary literature reading with study questions to be completed before class; 2) Out-of-class online video-clips with visual, practical application (i.e. lithium and non-lithium induced tremor assessment) and online discussion in CANVAS Learning Management System; 3) Start-of-class quiz in ExamSoft, in-class team-based application questions with instructor-led discussion; 4) Out-of-class team final exam review assignment in CANVAS. Results: Qualitative themes were student engagement, flexibility, preferences, academic and non-academic stressors, etiquette, and defining responsibility for academic success. The majority of students preferred primary literature review, video clips, followed by online CANVAS discussions. Written assignments were the least desirable. Conclusion: These experiences are useful for qualitative evaluation of teaching and learning methods.

2022 ◽  
pp. 63-72
Jutima Methaneethorn ◽  
Janthima Methaneethorn

Background: This systematic review aimed to summarise an application of team-based learning (TBL) in pharmacokinetics courses, to compare the learning outcomes of TBL to that of traditional lecture-based courses, and to identify the benefits of using a TBL strategy in pharmacokinetics courses. Method: PubMed, Scopus, and ERIC EBSCO databases were systematically searched, and 191 non-redundant articles were retrieved. Of these, seven articles were included. Results: Implementation of a TBL in pharmacokinetic courses resulted in several positive results including higher examination grades, improvement in professionalism aspects such as altruism, accountability, and honesty. Student engagement, peer learning, and the development of transferable skills could also be observed. Despite these positive benefits, some challenges exist, such as an increase in initial workload for faculty members, preparation of appropriate assignments, and suitable strategy to facilitate students. Conclusion: Future TBL implementation should be critically designed to optimise faculties’ workload and students’ engagement to the course.

2022 ◽  
pp. 41-47
Jessica Starr ◽  
Dana Carroll ◽  
Kristi Kelley ◽  
Nathan Pinner ◽  
Lynn Stevenson ◽  

Aim: To describe the development, implementation, and structure of an innovative evidence-based medicine (EBM) advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) rotation and evaluate student pharmacists’ perceptions of the course. Methods: A five-week, EBM APPE rotation was designed by seven faculty. Students worked remotely in teams and individually to complete pre- and post-assessments, journal clubs, journal scans, drug information questions, and clinical debates, as well as self- and peer-assessments. Students were asked to rate their perceptions of the course on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of eighteen students, precepted by seven faculty members, completed the rotation. Students completed three group journal clubs, three individual journal scans, one individual journal club, one drug information question, and one clinical debate. Students survey data indicated that confidence in EBM skills was high following the rotation. Conclusion: This EBM APPE rotation was successful. The structure of this rotation may be transferable to a variety of settings.

2022 ◽  
pp. 48-53
Salome Bwayo Weaver ◽  
Monika Daftary ◽  
La'Marcus Wingate ◽  
Malaika Turner

Introduction: Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are considered the gold standard for evaluating pharmacy students’ clinical skills due to their reliability and validity. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether faculty inter-variability in OSCE grading had a significant impact on a student’s overall performance. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from two cohorts of third-year pharmacy students. Descriptive statistics, simple linear regression, and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted. Results: There were 120 students that participated in the OSCE with a mean score of 66.7%. Higher scores in the Integrated Therapeutics (IT) 2 lecture series and the IT 2 lab course corresponded to better OSCE scores. Out of 17 evaluators, six were found to rate students significantly lower and one was found to rate students significantly higher in comparison to a reference evaluator who evaluated students closest to the overall mean. Conclusion: It is likely that standardised grading, and possibly additional training, may be needed to ensure a fair and appropriate evaluation of OSCE performance.

2022 ◽  
pp. 10-15
Tianrui Yang ◽  
Jessica Wooster

Introduction: Studies support incorporation of pharmacists and pharmacy students to improve health and financial outcomes during transition of care (TOC).  Standardisation of TOC educational training is currently lacking in pharmacy curricula.  Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional, descriptive study with a convenience sample at one college of pharmacy. Students participated in an anonymous Qualtrics survey including items on TOC service understanding and educational training. Results are reported as means and standard deviation for continuous data; frequencies and percentages for categorical data.  Results: Of 116 survey responses, 112 provided informed consent. Seventy-eight percent of respondents stated they have learned about TOC and 66% felt they understood what TOC entails. When asked to identify disease states commonly targeted for TOC, 77% responded incorrectly to this item. When asked to select TOC clinical activities, 66% incorrectly selected medication dispensing. Ninety-six percent of respondents replied that additional educational training on TOC would be beneficial.  Conclusion: There is a discrepancy in students’ perception of TOC services with their actual knowledge of TOC services based on survey responses.

2022 ◽  
pp. 33-40
Dalal Hammoudi Halat ◽  
Jihan Safwan ◽  
Marwan Akel ◽  
Mohamad Rahal

Introduction: The health and economic crisis in Lebanon during the COVID-19 pandemic has had detrimental effects on many sectors including higher education. This report presents the major changes in teaching/learning undertaken by three departments of the bachelor programme in a school of pharmacy in Lebanon to cope with uncertain times. Description: The educational process was modified from autumn 2019/20 to spring 2020/21, with economical instabilities and the emergence of COVID-19, where regular teaching and summative assessments were completely and forcefully switched to remote and online. Evaluation: Although a grade trend showed some changes in evaluation with the crisis, grades returned nearly to normal upon adopting the completely online system. Technical support and training for the faculty were required to help cross transitioning periods and maintain the quality of the programme. Conclusion: The crisis and the pandemic influenced pharmacy education, but gave students and faculty the chance to learn and utilise modern information and communication technology (ICT) educational tools.

2022 ◽  
pp. 16-22
Elaine V. Nguyen ◽  
So Hyun Kim ◽  
Mohammed A. Islam ◽  
Youngil Chang ◽  
Judy Aoyagi ◽  

Objective: To implement and assess innovation and entrepreneurship (IE) learning experience in professional pharmacy students using presentations based on the Shark Tank model. Methods: First-year doctor of pharmacy students were invited to participate in an IE learning experience emphasising the importance of self-care needs of the society during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Students’ proposals were assessed by Sharks (inquisitors) based on a grading rubric, and a post-activity survey captured students’ reflections of their experience. Results: Twelve students participated in the IE activity, and presented their proposals virtually in a Shark Tank style format. Students’ scores for the proposals ranged from 87.5% (capable entrepreneurs) to 56.8% (incapable entrepreneurs), with the winner receiving a gift certificate. Survey ratings given by students on a scale of one to five for the IE activity were overwhelmingly favourable, with both the activity (4.73 (1.09)) and presentation style (4.27 (0.37)) viewed to be timely and relevant. Conclusion: An IE learning activity was implemented and assessed in the pharmacy programme using Shark Tank style presentations. The authors believe such initiatives, conducted either virtually or face-to-face, could serve as prototypes for professional pharmacy schools interested in creating exciting ways to implement IE activities in their programmes.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Nur Farah Diyaanah Ibrahim ◽  
Ernieda Hatah ◽  
Siti Azdiah Abd Aziz ◽  
Shairyzah Ahmad Hisham ◽  
Irma Wati Ngadimon ◽  

Objective: The pharmaceutical industry has been portrayed as a promising sector for pharmacy graduates. Nonetheless, little is known about pharmacy students’ preferences, knowledge, and attitudes toward careers in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the factors that may influence them.     Method: A self-developed questionnaire was administered to pharmacy students in public and private universities in Malaysia from October to November 2018 via online platforms.     Results: Only 38.8% out of 433 students who completed the survey stated their preference for working in the pharmaceutical industry. The mean (SD) of knowledge, perceived syllabus, and attitudes related to pharmaceutical industry career preferences were 8.73 (1.77) (full score of 12), 28.50 (5.83) (full score of 40), and 30.59 (4.32) (full score of 50), respectively. Students from private universities, those in years one and three of study, and those with higher attitude scores were more likely to choose the pharmaceutical industry as their career option.    Conclusion: Increasing exposure to pharmaceutical industry careers that involve patient contact and clinical knowledge application is needed to improve students’ attitudes toward pursuing a career in this field.

2022 ◽  
pp. 23-32
Hanis Hanum Zulkifly ◽  
Izzati Abdul Halim Zaki ◽  
Mahmathi Karuppannan ◽  
Zakiah Mohd Noordin

In response to the inability to conduct conventional face-to-face objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) due to the COVID-19 lockdown, this study explored options to design virtual OSCE (vOSCE) that meets the objectives and standards of effective competency-based assessment for a large cohort of pharmacy students. The vOSCE required advanced planning of the actual assessment and technical conduct. The development of a master plan consisting of the types of competencies to test, topics and number of cases, and assessment rubrics, guided the team members to develop an adequate OSCE assessment module. Technical aspects included recruitment of examiners, simulated patients (SP), technical support, and a platform for vOSCE. The main challenges were to ensure well-ordered vOSCE and a stable internet connection for examiners, SP, and students. Google Meet was utilised due to its functionality, familiarity, and low internet consumption to all parties involved. Feedback was obtained from stakeholders to improve future OSCE conduct.

2021 ◽  
pp. 845-854
Mohammed Salim Karattuthodi ◽  
Shabeer Ali Thorakkattil ◽  
Sainul Abideen Parakkal ◽  
Ajmal Karumbaru Kuzhiyil ◽  
Anitha Jose Subin ◽  

Pharmacy practice continues to evolve, and knowledge update is necessary to facilitate better and safer patient care. This article provides information about certificates and certification programmes hosted for international pharmacists to support their scope in advanced pharmacy practices. A pilot online survey to 59 pharmacists revealed preferences towards Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS), American Society of Health-system Pharmacists (ASHP) certificate, Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacy (SIDP) Antimicrobial stewardship certificate programmes, University of Florida pharmacy certificate programmes, and Medication therapy management programme (MTM) for their certification programme. Grey literature and authentic websites of each programme were collected to provide information on each programme. This article serves as a guide for international pharmacists to know further information about certificates and certification programmes available to support them in advancing their practice.

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