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A. Pramod Reddy ◽  
Vijayarajan V.

Automatic emotion recognition from Speech (AERS) systems based on acoustical analysis reveal that some emotional classes persist with ambiguity. This study employed an alternative method aimed at providing deep understanding into the amplitude–frequency, impacts of various emotions in order to aid in the advancement of near term, more effectively in classifying AER approaches. The study was undertaken by converting narrow 20 ms frames of speech into RGB or grey-scale spectrogram images. The features have been used to fine-tune a feature selection system that had previously been trained to recognise emotions. Two different Linear and Mel spectral scales are used to demonstrate a spectrogram. An inductive approach for in sighting the amplitude and frequency features of various emotional classes. We propose a two-channel profound combination of deep fusion network model for the efficient categorization of images. Linear and Mel- spectrogram is acquired from Speech-signal, which is prepared in the recurrence area to input Deep Neural Network. The proposed model Alex-Net with five convolutional layers and two fully connected layers acquire most vital features form spectrogram images plotted on the amplitude-frequency scale. The state-of-the-art is compared with benchmark dataset (EMO-DB). RGB and saliency images are fed to pre-trained Alex-Net tested both EMO-DB and Telugu dataset with an accuracy of 72.18% and fused image features less computations reaching to an accuracy 75.12%. The proposed model show that Transfer learning predict efficiently than Fine-tune network. When tested on Emo-DB dataset, the propȯsed system adequately learns discriminant features from speech spectrȯgrams and outperforms many stȧte-of-the-art techniques.

Akitoshi Inoue ◽  
David J Bartlett ◽  
Narges Shahraki ◽  
Shannon P Sheedy ◽  
Jay P Heiken ◽  

Abstract Background We aimed to determine if patient symptoms and computed tomography enterography (CTE) and magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) imaging findings can be used to predict near-term risk of surgery in patients with small bowel Crohn’s disease (CD). Methods CD patients with small bowel strictures undergoing serial CTE or MRE were retrospectively identified. Strictures were defined by luminal narrowing, bowel wall thickening, and unequivocal proximal small bowel dilation. Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI) was recorded. Stricture observations and measurements were performed on baseline CTE or MRE and compared to with prior and subsequent scans. Patients were divided into those who underwent surgery within 2 years and those who did not. LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression models were trained and validated using 5-fold cross-validation. Results Eighty-five patients (43.7 ± 15.3 years of age at baseline scan, majority male [57.6%]) had 137 small bowel strictures. Surgery was performed in 26 patients within 2 years from baseline CTE or MRE. In univariate analysis of patients with prior exams, development of stricture on the baseline exam was associated with near-term surgery (P = .006). A mathematical model using baseline features predicting surgery within 2 years included an HBI of 5 to 7 (odds ratio [OR], 1.7 × 105; P = .057), an HBI of 8 to 16 (OR, 3.1 × 105; P = .054), anastomotic stricture (OR, 0.002; P = .091), bowel wall thickness (OR, 4.7; P = .064), penetrating behavior (OR, 3.1 × 103; P = .096), and newly developed stricture (OR: 7.2 × 107; P = .062). This model demonstrated sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 73% (area under the curve, 0.62). Conclusions CTE or MRE imaging findings in combination with HBI can potentially predict which patients will require surgery within 2 years.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Ashwin Salvi ◽  
Reed Hanson ◽  
Rodrigo Zermeno ◽  
Gerhard Regner ◽  
Mark Sellnau ◽  

Abstract Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) is a cost-effective approach to achieving diesel-like efficiencies with low emissions. The fundamental architecture of the two-stroke Achates Power Opposed-Piston Engine (OP Engine) enables GCI by decoupling piston motion from cylinder scavenging, allowing for flexible and independent control of cylinder residual fraction and temperature leading to improved low load combustion. In addition, the high peak cylinder pressure and noise challenges at high-load operation are mitigated by the lower BMEP operation and faster heat release for the same pressure rise rate of the OP Engine. These advantages further solidify the performance benefits of the OP Engine and emonstrate the near-term feasibility of advanced combustion technologies, enabled by the opposed-piston architecture. This paper presents initial results from a steady state testing on a brand new 2.7L OP GCI multi-cylinder engine designed for light-duty truck applications. Successful GCI operation calls for high compression ratio, leading to higher combustion stability at low-loads, higher efficiencies, and lower cycle HC+NOX emissions. Initial results show a cycle average brake thermal efficiency of 31.7%, which is already greater than 11% conventional engines, after only ten weeks of testing. Emissions results suggest that Tier 3 Bin 160 levels can be achieved using a traditional diesel after-treatment system. Combustion noise was well controlled at or below the USCAR limits. In addition, initial results on catalyst light-off mode with GCI are also presented.

2022 ◽  
Sophie Attwood ◽  
Cother Hajat

A shift in how we obtain protein from our diets, away from intensive farming and fishing, towards cleaner sources, be they animal or plant-based, will form an essential part of the solution to achieving the pledges formalised following COP26. This can be achieved through many different approaches including reduction, substitution, reducing the frequency of consumption, blending into hybrid products, and without the necessity of a complete eschewal of animal-based products. The new paradigm of ‘planetary health’, which focuses on the interdependence of human health, animal health and environmental health, will greatly facilitate meeting the ambitious and near-term targets set. This commentary discusses these issues in depth, with a focus on solutions to promote both planetary and human health in unison.

2022 ◽  
Hassan Boskabadi ◽  
Hosein Ataee Nakhaei ◽  
Nafiseh Pourbadakhshan ◽  
Azadeh Darabi ◽  
Morteza Rasti Sani

Abstract Background vitamin D deficiency is associated with respiratory problems in neonates. The late preterm or near-term neonates who have been admitted for tachypnea and fully recovered before 12 h, we called Non-specific respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of 25(OH) D administration in pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery on the incidence of NRDS in their infants. Methods This single-blind clinical trial was performed on mothers and neonates with a gestational age of 32-37 weeks who were referred with labor pains from February 20th 2021 to June29th 2021 in the obstetrics and gynecology department and intensive treatment unit of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Within 72 h of preterm delivery, a single dose of 50,000 units of intramuscular 25-hydroxy vitamin D was injected into pregnant women in the intervention group. Also a sample containing 1.5 ml of whole blood was taken from the umbilical cord of the infant and mother to assess the level of vitamin D. Results In the present study, there was a significant relationship between the two groups of control and intervention in terms of weight (P=001), first (P=0.027) and fifth minute Apgar score (P=0.001) in infant, incidence of NRDS (P=0.001) and maternal age (P=0.004). The results showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of gender (p = 0.673), type of delivery (p = 0.299), level of vitamin D of the mothers (P=0.053) and infants (P=0.805). Conclusions The single injection of vitamin D into the mother prone to preterm birth over 31 weeks of gestation reduces transient respiratory problems in these infants. Trial registration: IRCT20110807007244N7 (19/02/2021)

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Pei-Hua Wang ◽  
Jen-Hao Chen ◽  
Yufeng Jane Tseng

AbstractPharmaceutical patent analysis is the key to product protection for pharmaceutical companies. In patent claims, a Markush structure is a standard chemical structure drawing with variable substituents. Overlaps between apparently dissimilar Markush structures are nearly unrecognizable when the structures span a broad chemical space. We propose a quantum search-based method which performs an exact comparison between two non-enumerated Markush structures with a constraint satisfaction oracle. The quantum circuit is verified with a quantum simulator and the real effect of noise is estimated using a five-qubit superconductivity-based IBM quantum computer. The possibilities of measuring the correct states can be increased by improving the connectivity of the most computation intensive qubits. Depolarizing error is the most influential error. The quantum method to exactly compares two patents is hard to simulate classically and thus creates a quantum advantage in patent analysis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Mahabubul Alam ◽  
Swaroop Ghosh

Quantum machine learning (QML) is promising for potential speedups and improvements in conventional machine learning (ML) tasks. Existing QML models that use deep parametric quantum circuits (PQC) suffer from a large accumulation of gate errors and decoherence. To circumvent this issue, we propose a new QML architecture called QNet. QNet consists of several small quantum neural networks (QNN). Each of these smaller QNN’s can be executed on small quantum computers that dominate the NISQ-era machines. By carefully choosing the size of these QNN’s, QNet can exploit arbitrary size quantum computers to solve supervised ML tasks of any scale. It also enables heterogeneous technology integration in a single QML application. Through empirical studies, we show the trainability and generalization of QNet and the impact of various configurable variables on its performance. We compare QNet performance against existing models and discuss potential issues and design considerations. In our study, we show 43% better accuracy on average over the existing models on noisy quantum hardware emulators. More importantly, QNet provides a blueprint to build noise-resilient QML models with a collection of small quantum neural networks with near-term noisy quantum devices.

Quantum ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
pp. 618
Davide Vodola ◽  
Manuel Rispler ◽  
Seyong Kim ◽  
Markus Müller

Mapping the decoding of quantum error correcting (QEC) codes to classical disordered statistical mechanics models allows one to determine critical error thresholds of QEC codes under phenomenological noise models. Here, we extend this mapping to admit realistic, multi-parameter noise models of faulty QEC circuits, derive the associated strongly correlated classical spin models, and illustrate this approach for a quantum repetition code with faulty stabilizer readout circuits. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to study the resulting phase diagram and benchmark our results against a minimum-weight perfect matching decoder. The presented method provides an avenue to assess fundamental thresholds of QEC circuits, independent of specific decoding strategies, and can thereby help guiding the development of near-term QEC hardware.

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Jørgen Linde ◽  
Anne Lee Solevåg ◽  
Joar Eilevstjønn ◽  
Ladislaus Blacy ◽  
Hussein Kidanto ◽  

Background: ST-segment changes to the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) may indicate fetal acidosis. No large-scale characterization of ECG morphology immediately after birth has been performed, but ECG is used for heart rate (HR) assessment. We aimed to investigate ECG morphology immediately after birth in asphyxiated infants, using one-lead dry-electrode ECG developed for HR measurement. Methods: Observational study in Tanzania, between 2013–2018. Near-term and term infants that received bag-mask ventilation (BMV), and healthy controls, were monitored with one-lead dry-electrode ECG with a non-diagnostic bandwidth. ECGs were classified as normal, with ST-elevations or other ST-segment abnormalities including a biphasic ST-segment. We analyzed ECG morphology in relation to perinatal variables or short-term outcomes. Results: A total of 494 resuscitated and 25 healthy infants were included. ST-elevations were commonly seen both in healthy infants (7/25; 28%) and resuscitated (320/494; 65%) infants. The apparent ST-elevations were not associated with perinatal variables or short-term outcomes. Among the 32 (6.4%) resuscitated infants with “other ST-segment abnormalities”, duration of BMV was longer, 1-min Apgar score lower and normal outcomes less frequent than in the resuscitated infants with normal ECG or ST-elevations. Conclusions: ST-segment elevation was commonly seen and not associated with negative outcomes when using one-lead dry-electrode ECG. Other ST-segment abnormalities were associated with prolonged BMV and worse outcome. ECG with appropriate bandwidth and automated analysis may potentially in the future aid in the identification of severely asphyxiated infants.

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