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Published By Siauliai University

2351-6712, 1392-3110
Updated Wednesday, 30 June 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 77-88
Author(s):  
Anželika Gumuliauskienė

The article analyzes the management of the influence of organized interests on public policy. The article reveals the concept of organized interests, the essential differences in comparing the concepts of organized interests and interest groups. The article takes the view that organized interests are a more neutral concept that better explains the nature of all actors seeking to influence public policy-making. The author of the article is of the opinion that the concept of interest groups – due to the disagreement of scientists in defining it – causes a lot of confusion when comparing the results of different researches and using the theoretical insights of other scientists. Organized interests interact with other public policy makers to influence policy outcomes. This article analyzes the ways in which organized interests can influence public policy. According to the author of the article, by identifying the ways of influencing public policy, it is possible to envisage ways to manage that influence. The article applies methods of analysis, synthesis, generalization and comparative analysis of scientific literature.


2021 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 53-76
Author(s):  
Laima Liukinevičienė ◽  
Audra Jokubauskienė

The article analyzes the implementation of the transparency principle in implementing the performance audit in the municipality. The performance audit is qualified as a specific control function in order to objectively assess the functionality of public sector entities in terms of economy, efficiency and effectiveness, initiating operational and governance advancement. It is important to investigate this object in municipalities due to the following factors: 1) according to the assessment of the transparency of Lithuanian municipalities published in 2019 by “Transparency International” of the Lithuanian branch, municipalities have become more transparent as well as the recommendations were provided to municipalities; 2) Recent research conducted in foreign countries shows broader audit opportunities for initiating positive change in organizations. The aim of the research: having established the principle of transparency as one of the most important indications of good governance, to provide for the possibilities of increasing the transparency of municipal activities during the performance audits. Research methods: analysis of scientific literature, the content of documents, qualitative analysis of the expert interview and the content of the material collected during it, and categorization.The analyzed sources show how during these two decades of developing the theoretical concept of good governance the importance of the principle of transparency has grown, it has become one of the most important features of good governance; the concept of implementing transparency in public sector organizations has developed as well. Today, the principle of operational transparency is implemented both through strictly formalized government activities and by involving citizens in public governance that requires much honesty, competencies and non-traditional solutions of civil servants. How can a performance audit contribute to this? In order to gain new insights, experts were interviewed: researchers and practicians. Recommendations from external evaluators on transparency in municipalities were used to develop the guidelines for the expert interviews. The research revealed that in municipalities it is important to create greater opportunities for the citizens to participate in monitoring and involvement in decision-making. The directions for increasing the transparency of municipal activities through performance audits that have been highlighted by experts are as follows: 1) periodic performance transparency audits by including constantly updated performance transparency criteria in the audit; 2) creation of a non-corruption organization; 3) increasing the transparency of budgeting and implementation; 4) submission of budget reports with audit conclusions; 5) attention to the clarity of the content of audit reports, diversity of accessibility; 6) periodic monitoring of the effectiveness of audit findings; 7) integration of audits of social responsibility activities into other forms of performance evaluation, thus not increasing the number of audits but seeking greater integration of the principle of transparency. The experts proposed transparency evaluation criteria that can be easily integrated into the evaluation process.


2021 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 40-52
Author(s):  
Severina Šeštokaitė ◽  
Justinas Kisieliauskas

This paper presents an analysis of the impact that cultural activities have on community building. Recently, more and more people begin to understand the importance of community: they bring about local communities, and they begin to get involved in its activities. Cultural activities, in this case, offer a significant assistance. They are regarded as part of a typical community building stage. In this paper, the local community is perceived as a localized, cohesive social group with its own traditions, established norms, values, share the same interests, place of residence or attendance, and the most important – emotional connection. Community building begins with a motivated human leader, then leader create a group of people, that is next step on community building, and then community influenced by cultural activities and other motives is building. Cultural activities, joint celebrations have a huge impact on community building; therefore, there is a legitimate reason for further considerations. Different art projects worldwide are flexible and bring results, furthermore, they are economically effective ways to solve community building problems. The experts substantiate the cultural activity benefits for the community and confirm the importance of a leader at the primary stage of community building.The object of this thesis is a the impact of cultural activities on community building.The goal of this thesis is after a theoretical analysis of the relationship between cultural activities and the community, to carry out a study to assess the formation of the community through cultural activities.Cultural regions of Lithuania are experiencing the decline in population which results in the decline of supply of cultural activities and activities related to arts. In the context of dwindling communities and eroding communality a research question of this thesis arises: how to build a community based on cultural activities?Research methods of this thesis include different types of methods. In the first chapter a comparative theoretical analysis and synthesis of sources of literature method is used. In this part of thesis, the concepts of culture and community, the impact of cultural activities on society and community building are examined.In the second chapter of this thesis, having the intention to receive practical advice, and to acquire know-how on event planning for communities, a qualitative method has been chosen in a form of semi-structured interview with representatives of communities in Šilainiai (Kaunas microdistrict), Balsiai (in Šilalė distr.) and Akademija (in Kaunas distr.). After finishing the process of analysis of and structuring all the results of quantitative research indicate: has revealed such results: communities form for different reasons, and they face similar challenges (lack of human and financial resources), communality is expressed differently in each community, and the events are being held in accordance with the needs of the respective community.The following conclusions are published after analyzing the impact of cultural activities on the community building theoretically and qualitative studies with community presidents-experts:• The community is a group of people connected by common interests, places, communications, but the most important thing is the feeling. When we talk about the local community, we need to perceive it as a localised group of people.• In community building activities, the classic path takes place through cultural activities. Artistic cultural phenomena create more cohesive and sustainable communities, making it easier to involve people in the community. There are many art projects around the world that seek to bring divisive societies into communities through cultural activities. Such projects are flexible, proven and cost-effective ways to address community development problems.After reviewing the collected interview material, the following recommendations can be made for those who want to build a community in their place:• At the beginning of the community building, it is important person-leader with enthusiasm, energy and charisma. The leader can‘t be to strong – have just his ideas, his vision. The good leader for community is person, who can accept other ideas, who can listen community wishes, needs and say thank you to community members. It is small thing that humans needs.• It is important for people that their wishes, needs, ideas are heard and to be allowed to implement them;• It is worth involving members of the community in the process of organizing events – it is important for them to feel necessary and useful, but after involving the community, the process of organizing takes longer. And here comes challenge for leader to be able to properly moderate and distribute the work for community;• It is very important to co-create the process with community, to communicate, let them to feel like the creators of the celebration;• The number of cultural activities to be organised varies according to the needs of the community, but it is important to maintain a cyclicality, quantity and quality ratio. It is worth having a few bigger celebrations for the whole community with a variety of activities, while other events are organized for smaller and target audiences. Activities must be non-binding, but innovative, modern and;• The community is made up of people of all ages and none of them should be forgotten – everyone has to find the right activities for themselves, but young mothers and seniors usually join communities, so at the beginning of the community it is the target audience to which cultural activities must be adapted;• News about community events works best in a word-of-mouth format, but all possible channels need to be used to invite people to events: networks, local newspapers, libraries or even churches.Every community is unique and you need to know or make research to getting know what is community wishes, needs, what ideas have community members. The leader must be person that community trust.


2021 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 29-39
Author(s):  
Adomas Vincas Rakšnys ◽  
Deimantė Žilinskienė

Relevance and problem of the topic. Global product and service innovations are driving changes in consumer behavior. Business organizations try to apply a variety of marketing strategies to take into account changing consumer values and behaviors, to form new relationships and emotional experiences for their clientele (Cova, Dalli, 2009, p. 315; Sanz-Marcos, 2020, p. 473). Retrospectively, modernized society was dominated by developed and stable social structures and hierarchies, while postmodern society was dominated by social networks of micro-groups, in which individuals establish strong emotional connections and attitudes toward life. In order to ensure effective attraction of new customers and loyalty of existing customers in a postmodern society, business organizations should take into account and acess cultural change, societal fragmentation, and declining social connections. Renewing these social connections in the form of a consumer tribe in connection with the consumption of a product or service is a marketing opportunity and necessity. The concept of tribal marketing in the context of marketing application is related to the recurring quasi-archaic values of consumers: group identity, religiosity, syncretism, group narcissism (Necualaesei, 2017, pp. 122–125; Pinto de Lima, Brito, 2012, p. 293; Cova, Cova, 2002, p. 4). The reintegration of these values in the new conditions is extremely important, especially emphasizing the long-term tendencies of social rationalization of society in many spheres of life, the importance of qualitative indicators in the modernist period. In postmodern society, there is a growing impulse to distance oneself from rational forms of life and return to a natural or primitive state, and this need can be exploited through tribal marketing, when analyzing tribal communities in surfing, where marketing ideals become freedom, simplicity, escape from everyday life and strong impressions. (Canniford, Shankar, 2011, p. 35–46). Other significant tribes such as the Goths, (Cova, Dalli, 2009, p. 323), Harley-Davidson motorcyclists, pipe collectors, and smokers can also be mentioned (Pace et al., 2011, pp. 314-320). V. Badrinarayanan, et. al., is of the opinion that communities of various online games can also be assigned to tribes (Barnes and Mattsson, 2016, p. 98).The problem analyzed in this article can be defined by the following questions: What promotes the formation of tribal marketing and what are the specifics of its application? What are the differences between tribal marketing and traditional marketing? How virtual tribe could formed?The object of the article is the development of tribal marketing and application possibilitiesThe aim of the article is to find out the development and application possibilities of tribal marketing in the postmodern society.Tasks: 1) to theoretically define the concept and essential principles of tribal marketing; 2) to reveal the cultural origins of tribal marketing and the reasons for its formation; 3) to identify the essential differences of tribal marketing in comparison with traditional marketing tools; 4) to reveal the changes related to the transition to the formation of virtual tribes.Methods: methods of analysis, synthesis, generalization and comparative analysis of scientific literature. An analysis of the scientific literature has revealed that tribal marketing is a theory that focuses on specific subcultures, and specific products or services become cult objects and emblems that represent belonging to these subcultures, encouraging individual consumption behavior. Tribal subcultures are characterized by strong emotional ties and experiences, common interests, and specific activities. These individuals exist in a peculiar subculture characterized by peculiar myths, values, rituals, language, and hierarchy. It is important to understand that individuals can belong to several tribes at the same time, and tribes are not limited by physical boundaries. The cultural origins of tribal marketing are related to the fragmented and individualized state of postmodern society and the need to reconstruct social ties. In postmodern society, the reintegration of archaic relations takes place under new conditions. The structure of tribal marketing integrates cultural aspects, linking them with the sentiments of primitive society, nostalgia for naturalness, the need for a closer social relationship with the group.However, with the changing technological environment and socio - cultural changes, the formation of tribes is moving into a virtual space. Technological changes have led to the formation of virtual tribes. In a virtual space, individuals and their groups can share the same emotions, opinions, information about a brand, product, or service. Technological change has made it possible for individuals from all over the world to find a group or groups united by common cultural elements. The essential criteria of a virtual tribe are that the tribe has a collective consciousness, rituals and traditions, duties, a sense of commitment to both the whole tribal community and its members. When analyzing virtual tribes, it is useful to rely on the 8E model, as it covers a systematic perspective in assessing the structure and functioning of virtual tribes. The processes of creating new social connections and forms are intensified by modern technologies. Users can interact with each other, regardless of territorial barriers, share information, form virtual tribes (Pinto de Lima, Brito, 2012, pp. 291– 292). It is becoming more important for business organizations not only to take advantage of traditional tribal marketing opportunities, but also to adapt to the opportunities provided by virtual space. However, the topic of tribal marketing is poorly researched in Lithuania.


2021 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 8-26
Author(s):  
Aurimas Šidlauskas

Following the entry into force of the General Data Protection Regulation (hereafter referred to as the GDPR), organizations that process personal data must ensure and demonstrate compliance with all of its principles. A new post, known as the Data Protection Officer (hereafter referred to as the DPO), has been created. The appointment of this official may be one of the measures necessary to implement the principle of accountability. The purpose of the article is to analyze the institute of the DPO as part of the regulatory framework laid down in the Regulation, and to provide generalized recommendations to organizations.


2020 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 5-14
Author(s):  
Giedrė Balkytė ◽  
Milda Kvekšienė ◽  
Lina Striaukaitė

Metinis finansinių ataskaitų rinkinys rengiamas apibendrinant visų finansinių metų duomenis. Finansinės ataskaitos turi būti rengiamos laikantis finansinę atskaitomybę reglamentuojančių teisės aktų: LR įmonių finansinės atskaitomybės įstatymo ir Verslo apskaitos standartų nuostatų. Finansinėse ataskaitose pateikiamos informacijos patikimumas svarbus įmonių valdytojams, investuotojams, kreditoriams ir kitiems informacijos vartotojams. Straipsnyje nagrinėjama labai mažų ir mažų įmonių finansinių ataskaitų rinkinių, pateiktų Visuotiniam akcininkų susirinkimui ir Juridinių asmenų registrui, sudėties atitiktis bei atskirų finansinių ataskaitų straipsnių atitikimas Verslo apskaitos standartų nuostatoms.


2020 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 26-34
Author(s):  
Šarūnas Banevičius

Medicinos turizmo organizacijas galima vadinti kompleksinėmis sociotechninėmis organizacijomis, kurios veikia sudėtingoje dinaminėje aplinkoje. Todėl šios organizacijos yra veikiamos išorinių ir vidinių rizikos veiksnių, kuriuos reikia identifikuoti / analizuoti / vertinti / prioretizuoti ir valdyti. Šiame straipsnyje autorius sprendė problemą – kaip veiksmingai valdyti medicinos turizmo rizikos veiksnius. Analizuodamas mokslinę literatūrą autorius nustatė, kad užtikrinti sėkmingą rizikos valdymo procesą galima laikantis šio nuoseklumo: rizikos analizė; galimų nelaimingų įvykių / veiksnių numatymas; strateginis planavimas; kontrolės ir grįžtamojo ryšio užtikrinimas; rizikos profilio sudarymas, kurio metu visi galimi rizikos veiksniai yra klasifikuojami ir prioretizuojami.


2020 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 15-25
Author(s):  
Justinas Statkus ◽  
Zita Tamašauskienė

Nuo XX a. devintojo dešimtmečio pradžios labai pasikeitė pajamų pasiskirstymas. Ypač sumažėjo darbui tenkanti nacionalinių pajamų dalis visame pasaulyje. Nors yra atlikta daug tyrimų apie asmeninių pajamų pasiskirstymo pokyčius, funkcinio pajamų pasiskirstymo problema yra nepakankamai ištirta. Darbo užmokesčio pajamų dalies mažėjimas paskatino ekonomistų ir politikų diskusijas dėl darbo užmokesčio pajamų dalies apskaičiavimo, mažėjimo priežasčių, poveikio paklausai, ekonomikos augimui ir pajamų nelygybei. Straipsnyje analizuojami moksliniai tyrimai, kuriuose buvo vertintas funkcinio pajamų pasiskirstymo kitimo poveikis bendrajai paklausai. Aptariami pagrindiniai mokslininkų empiriniuose tyrimuose įtraukti bendrosios paklausos komponentes lemiantys veiksniai. Atskleidžiama, kuriose šalyse bendroji paklausa yra pelno, o kuriose darbo užmokesčio skatinama.


2020 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 58-68
Author(s):  
Giedrius Nemeikšis

Ekonominės krizės, pandemijos turi neigiamos įtakos verslams, todėl banko garantijos, kaip saugiausio prievolių įvykdymo užtikrinimo instrumento dėl solvet et repete principo, poreikis ir reikšmė pasaulyje auga, o kartu tai skatina tinkamai įvertinti Lietuvos ir kitų šalių reguliavimus šiuo klausimu, kai Lietuvos teisės doktrinoje tokių tyrimų nėra. Todėl šiame straipsnyje apžvelgiami solvet et repete principo reikšmė banko garantijos teisiniuose santykiuose tarptautinėje komercinėje praktikoje ir jo reguliavimo problematika Lietuvos teisėje ir kitų šalių kontekste.


2020 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 32-44
Author(s):  
Kristina Kulikauskienė ◽  
Diana Šaparnienė

Straipsnyje nagrinėjami esminiai teoriniai skaitmeninės įtraukties aspektai ir analizuojamos viešųjų bibliotekų veiklos skaitmeninės įtraukties didinimo srityje: nemokamos prieigos prie IKT ir interneto suteikimas, skaitmeninių kompetencijų ugdymas ir skaitmeninių paslaugų teikimas. Atliktas empirinis tyrimas parodė, kad negalią turinčių asmenų ir senjorų dalyvavimas bibliotekų siūlomose skaitmeninės įtraukties didinimo veiklose nėra pakankamas. Jie retai naudojasi bibliotekų vykdomomis veiklomis dėl tokių priežasčių kaip asmeninės motyvacijos stoka, skaitmeninių kompetencijų trūkumas, bibliotekų infrastruktūros ir technologinės įrangos nepritaikymas bei informacijos apie šias veiklas nepakankamumas. Siekiant spręsti šias problemas, viešosioms bibliotekoms rekomenduojama tobulinti skaitmeninės įtraukties didinimui skirtas veiklas plečiant paslaugų prieinamumą, turinio įvairovę, aktyvinant informacijos viešinimo iniciatyvas bei intensyvinant bendradarbiavimą su šioms tikslinėms grupėms atstovaujančiomis organizacijomis. Tai galėtų paskatinti aktyvesnį negalią turinčių asmenų ir senjorų įsitraukimą į bibliotekų veiklas.


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