Aim: Literature reports suggest spirochromanone derivatives exhibit anticancer activity. Methodology: The authors designed and synthesized 18 spirochromanone derivatives (Csp 1–18). The compounds were characterized and evaluated for anticancer activity against human breast cancer (MCF-7) and murine melanoma (B16F10) cell lines. Results: The anticancer activity ranged from 4.34 to 29.31 μm. The most potent compounds, Csp 12 and Csp 18, were less toxic against the human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cell line and ∼ two/∼four fold selective toward MCF-7 than B16F10 in comparison to the reference, BG-45. Csp 12 caused 28.6% total apoptosis, leading to significant cytotoxicity, and arrested the G2 phase of the cell cycle in B16F10 cells. A molecular docking study of Csp 12 exhibited effective binding at the active site of the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of spirochromanones as anticancer agents.
Proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) are a powerful tool to hijack the endogenous ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and to degrade the intracellular proteins of therapeutic importance. Recently, two heterobifunctional degraders targeting hormone receptors headed into Phase II clinical trials. Compared to traditional drug design and common modes of action, the PROTAC approach offers new opportunities for the drug research field. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are well-established drugs for the treatment of hematological malignancies. The integration of HDAC binding motifs in PROTACs explores the possibility of targeted, chemical HDAC degradation. This review provides an overview and a perspective about the key steps in the structure development of HDAC–PROTACs. In particular, the influence of the three canonical PROTAC elements on HDAC–PROTAC efficacy and selectivity are discussed, the HDACi, the linker and the E3 ligase ligand.
Background: With constantly increasing resistance against the known antibiotics, the search for novel antibacterial compounds is a challenge. The number of synthetic antibacterial agents is limited. Materials & methods: We discovered novel small-molecule antibacterial agents that are accessible via a simple two-step procedure. The evaluation against Staphylococcus aureus showed antibacterial effects depending on the substituent positioning at the residues of the molecular scaffold. Additionally, we investigated the potential of the compounds to increase the antibacterial activity of tetracycline. Results: The most effective antibacterial compounds possessed a 3-methoxy function at an aromatic residue. In combination with tetracycline, we found a strong effect for a few compounds in boosting the antibacterial activity, so the first promising lead compounds with dual activities could be identified.
Proteolysis-targeting chimeras are a new modality of chemical tools and potential therapeutics involving the induction of protein degradation. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) protein, which is involved in cycles and transcription cycles, participates in regulation of the cell cycle, transcription and splicing. Proteolysis-targeting chimeras targeting CDKs show several advantages over traditional CDK small-molecule inhibitors in potency, selectivity and drug resistance. In addition, the discovery of molecule glues promotes the development of CDK degraders. Herein, the authors describe the existing CDK degraders and focus on the discussion of the structural characteristics and design of these degraders.
Predicting novel small molecule bioactivities for the target deconvolution, hit-to-lead optimization in drug discovery research, requires molecular representation. Previous reports have demonstrated that machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) have substantial implications in virtual screening, peptide synthesis, drug ADMET screening and biomarker discovery. These strategies can increase the positive outcomes in the drug discovery process without false-positive rates and can be achieved in a cost-effective way with a minimum duration of time by high-quality data acquisition. This review substantially discusses the recent updates in AI tools as cheminformatics application in medicinal chemistry for the data-driven decision making of drug discovery and challenges in high-quality data acquisition in the pharmaceutical industry while improving small-molecule bioactivities and properties.
Background: Vitiligo is a relatively common depigmenting skin disorder. UV light stimulation is often used to obtain repigmentation. Wnt signaling regulates melanocyte differentiation, and expression of TYR is upregulated in narrow-band UVB-treated epidermis. Manipulation of these two pathways by drugs could serve as one of the therapeutic approaches for durable repigmentation. Methods and results: CD9 was identified as a novel TYR activator by virtual screening and bioactivity assay. CD9 activated the Wnt signaling pathway through triggering translocation of β-catenin from cytoplasm to nucleus. Conclusion: The pathogenesis of vitiligo is complicated and varies with each individual, so combination therapy may be much more suitable for treatment of vitiligo. CD9 could synergize with other anti-inflammatory compounds or autoimmune suppressors to shorten repigmentation time and improve efficacy.