Our study explores whether BMSC-exosomes overexpressing miR-141 can regulate Wnt signal to inhibit the malignant biological behavior of glioma cells. Thirty healthy mice were selected to construct a glioma mouse model and assigned randomly into the control group, miR-141 NC group, and
miR-141 mimic group followed by analysis of cell proliferation, apoptosis, protein expression and mRNA expression by MTT method, flow cytometry, Western blot and RT-PCR methods. Compared with the other two groups, miR-141 mimic group showed reduced number of cell proliferation at 24 h and
48 h, decreased cell migration and invasion ability, and the increased cell apoptosis rate (P < 0.05). In miR-141 mimic group, the protein expression of miR-141 was the highest, while the protein expression of β-catenin, survivin and c-myc was the lowest (P <
0.05). In conclusion, BMSC-exosomes overexpressing miR-141 can inhibit the malignant biological behavior of GC cells possibly by inhibiting the activation of Wnt signaling pathway.
Despite impressive results in restoring physical performance in rodent models, treatment with renin–angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors, such as Lisinopril, have highly mixed results in humans, likely, in part, due to genetic variation in human populations. To date, the genetic determinants of responses to drugs, such as RAS inhibitors, remain unknown. Given the complexity of the relationship between physical traits and genetic background, genomic studies which predict genotype- and age-specific responses to drug treatments in humans or vertebrate animals are difficult. Here, using 126 genetically distinct lines of Drosophila melanogaster, we tested the effects of Lisinopril on age-specific climbing speed and endurance. Our data show that functional response and sensitivity to Lisinopril treatment ranges from significant protection against physical decline to increased weakness depending on genotype and age. Furthermore, genome-wide analyses led to identification of evolutionarily conserved genes in the WNT signaling pathway as being significantly associated with variations in physical performance traits and sensitivity to Lisinopril treatment. Genetic knockdown of genes in the WNT signaling pathway, Axin, frizzled, nemo, and wingless, diminished or abolished the effects of Lisinopril treatment on climbing speed traits. Our results implicate these genes as contributors to the genotype- and age-specific effects of Lisinopril treatment and because they have orthologs in humans, they are potential therapeutic targets for improvement of resiliency. Our approach should be widely applicable for identifying genomic variants that predict age- and sex-dependent responses to any type of pharmaceutical treatment.
Colorectal cancer is the third most diagnosed disease in the world population and current chemotherapy has been used for targeting the cell proliferation and metastasizing ability of tumor cells. Potent chemotherapeutic drugs for colorectal cancer are capecitabine, fluorouracil, irinotecan, etc. which have toxic effects in normal tissues and adverse effects in multiple organs leading to major obstacles in clinical use. The aim of the study is the use of plant-derived compounds that improve the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics with lower and alleviate toxic side effects and reduce the risk of tumor progression.
The current study is performed using Vitex negundo leaf which has been demonstrated to have positive effects against colorectal cancer. The use of computational approaches will help improve the identification and screening of lead molecules using AutoDock 4.2 and AutoDock Vina. Using computational approaches will help to improve lead identification and screening. Herein, we have retrieved six phytochemicals from published literature and investigated their inhibitory effect with Wnt-associated signaling proteins. Authentication of phytocompounds and Wnt-associated signaling proteins was done using AutoDock.4.2.
The results are screened based on the number of hydrogen bonds, binding energy, and interacting amino acids. The Isoorientin, luteolin, and Chrysophanol get the highest binding energy with target receptors. The binding energy is calculated with all target receptors from the range of − 6.0 to − 8.9 kcal/mol. The In-silico drug likeliness properties are predicted to be the best interacting compounds based on Lipinski Rule of 5 and ADMET analysis. Hence, we propose that Isoorientin, luteolin, and Chrysophanol are the potential inhibitors of Wnt signaling inhibitors, and preclinical studies are needed to confirm the promising therapeutic ability of colorectal cancer.
During canonical Wnt signaling, the Lrp6 and Frizzled co-receptors bind to the Wnt growth factor and the complex is endocytosed and sequestered together with Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3), Dishevelled (Dvl), and Axin inside the intraluminal vesicles of late endosomes, known as multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Here we present experiments showing that Wnt causes the endocytosis of focal adhesion (FA) proteins and depletion of Integrin β 1 (ITGβ1) from the cell surface. FAs and integrins link the cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Wnt-induced endocytosis caused ITGβ1 depletion from the plasma membrane and was accompanied by striking changes in the actin cytoskeleton. In situ protease protection assays in cultured cells showed that ITGβ1 was sequestered within membrane-bounded organelles that corresponded to Wnt-induced MVBs containing GSK3 and FA-associated proteins. An in vivo model using Xenopus embryos dorsalized by Wnt8 mRNA showed that ITGβ1 depletion decreased Wnt signaling. The finding of a crosstalk between two mayor signaling pathways, canonical Wnt and focal adhesions, should be relevant to human cancer and cell biology.
AbstractAbnormal WNT signaling increases MYC expression in colon cancer cells in part via oncogenic super-enhancer-(OSE)-mediated gating of the active MYC to the nuclear pore in a poorly understood process. We show here that the principal tenet of the WNT-regulated MYC gating, facilitating nuclear export of the MYC mRNA, is regulated by a CTCF binding site (CTCFBS) within the OSE to confer growth advantage in HCT-116 cells. To achieve this, the CTCFBS directs the WNT-dependent trafficking of the OSE to the nuclear pore from intra-nucleoplasmic positions in a stepwise manner. Once the OSE reaches a peripheral position, which is triggered by a CTCFBS-mediated CCAT1 eRNA activation, its final stretch (≤0.7 μm) to the nuclear pore requires the recruitment of AHCTF1, a key nucleoporin, to the CTCFBS. Thus, a WNT/ß-catenin-AHCTF1-CTCF-eRNA circuit enables the OSE to promote pathological cell growth by coordinating the trafficking of the active MYC gene within the 3D nuclear architecture.
Wnt signaling plays important roles in development, homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Mutations in β-catenin that activate Wnt signaling have been found in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinomas. However, the dynamics of wild-type and mutant forms of β-catenin are not fully understood. Here, we genome-engineered fluorescently tagged alleles of endogenous β-catenin in a colorectal cancer cell line. Wild-type and oncogenic mutant alleles were tagged with different fluorescent proteins, enabling the analysis of both variants in the same cell. We analyzed the properties of both β-catenin alleles using immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy approaches, revealing distinctly different biophysical properties. In addition, activation of Wnt signaling by treatment with a GSK3β inhibitor or a truncating APC mutation modulated the wild-type allele to mimic the properties of the mutant β-catenin allele. The one-step tagging strategy demonstrates how genome engineering can be employed for the parallel functional analysis of different genetic variants.