cyclooxygenase 2
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2022 ◽  
Vol 607 ◽  
pp. 1516-1526 ◽  
Hailong Tian ◽  
Sai Zhao ◽  
Edouard C. Nice ◽  
Canhua Huang ◽  
Weifeng He ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Vani Verma ◽  
Chetana Chandrashekar ◽  
Raghu Radhakrishnan ◽  
Monica Charlotte Solomon

Purpose:  Odontogenic cysts and tumors comprise a major component of lesions of the oral and maxillofacial region. The pathogenesis of these lesions involves the interaction between the odontogenic epithelium and the ectomesenchyme. However, the clinical behavior of these biological entities is unpredictable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in the pathogenesis and prognostication of odontogenic lesions.Material and method:  : In this study formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue section of Odontogenic Keratocyst (n=10) Dentigerous cyst (n=10), Radicular cyst (n=10) and unicystic ameloblastoma (n=10) were immunohistochemically stained with COX-2 (NCL2-COX-2- 4H12) and with Ki 67 (Ki-67 GM001) using standard staining protocols. The cytoplasmic expression of COX-2 in all the lesions was semi-quantitatively assessed. The pattern of expression of COX-2 among the different odontogenic lesions was statistical analyzed using the ANOVA test and the chi-square test.Results: All the 40 odontogenic lesions that were evaluated expressed COX-2 immunohistochemically. A high number of odontogenic epithelial cells expressed COX-2 in most of the odontogenic keratocyst, radicular cyst and unicystic ameloblastomas. The expression of COX-2 was significantly (p=0.036) higher in Unicystic Ameloblastomas and Radicular cyst compared to that of Odontogenic Keratocyst and the dentigerous cyst.Conclusion: The recognition that expression of COX-2 by odontogenic epithelial cells may indeed shed a new light on the biological mechanisms involved in the development of these benign yet aggressive lesions of the jaws. An insight into the molecular interactions occurring in the odontogenic epithelium will aid in better management of these lesions. 

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Anella Saviano ◽  
Simona De Vita ◽  
Maria Giovanna Chini ◽  
Noemi Marigliano ◽  
Gianluigi Lauro ◽  

Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) and cryptotanshinone (CRY) from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge were investigated for their inhibitory activity against the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1)/endothelial prostaglandin 3 (EP3) pathway using in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo assays. From the analysis of the docking poses, both diterpenoids were able to interact significantly with COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR), and mPGES-1. This evidence was further corroborated by data obtained from a cell-free assay, where CRY displayed a significant inhibitory potency against mPGES-1 (IC50 = 1.9 ± 0.4 µM) and 5-LO (IC50 = 7.1 µM), while TIIA showed no relevant inhibition of these targets. This was consistent with their activity to increase mice bleeding time (CRY: 2.44 ± 0.13 min, p ≤ 0.001; TIIA: 2.07 ± 0.17 min p ≤ 0.01) and with the capability to modulate mouse clot retraction (CRY: 0.048 ± 0.011 g, p ≤ 0.01; TIIA: 0.068 ± 0.009 g, p ≤ 0.05). For the first time, our results show that TIIA and, in particular, CRY are able to interact significantly with the key proteins involved not only in the onset of inflammation but also in platelet activity (and hyper-reactivity). Future preclinical and clinical investigations, together with this evidence, could provide the scientific basis to consider these compounds as an alternative therapeutic approach for thrombotic- and thromboembolic-based diseases.

Leif D. Nelin ◽  
Yi Jin ◽  
Bernadette Chen ◽  
Yusen Liu ◽  
Lynette K. Rogers ◽  

Many lung diseases are caused by an excessive inflammatory response, and inflammatory lung diseases are often modeled using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) encoded by the Ptgs2 gene is induced in response to inflammatory stimuli including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that mice deficient in COX-2 (Ptgs2-/-) will be protected from LPS-induced lung injury. Wild type (WT, CD1 mice) and Ptgs2-/- mice (on a CD1 background) were treated with LPS or vehicle for 24 hours. LPS-treatment resulted in histological evidence of lung injury, which was attenuated in the Ptgs2-/- mice. LPS-treatment increased the mRNA levels for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in the lungs of WT mice, and the LPS-induced increases in these levels were attenuated in the Ptgs2-/- mice. The protein levels of active caspase-3 and caspase-9 were lower in the LPS-treated lungs of Ptgs2-/- mice than in LPS-treated WT mice, as were the number of TUNEL positive cells in lung sections. LPS exposure resulted in greater lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (W/D) in WT mice, suggestive of pulmonary edema; while in LPS-treated Ptgs2-/- mice the W/D was not different from controls and less than in LPS-treated WT mice. These results demonstrate that COX-2 is involved in the inflammatory response to LPS, and suggest that COX-2 not only acts as a downstream participant in the inflammatory response, but also acts as a regulator of the inflammatory response likely through a feed-forward mechanism following LPS stimulation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 45 (1) ◽  
pp. 94-103
Yumi Yamamoto ◽  
Tetsuro Tago ◽  
Jun Toyohara ◽  
Yohei Saito ◽  
Fumihiko Yamamoto

Anna Cebrián-Prats ◽  
Alexandre Pinto ◽  
Àngels González-Lafont ◽  
Pedro Alexandrino Fernandes ◽  
José M Lluch

Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) are natural bioactive agents actively involved in inflammation resolution. SPMs act when uncontrolled inflammatory processes are developed, for instance, in patients of COVID-19 or other...

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 426-32
Theresia Ilyan ◽  
Dwi Retnoningrum ◽  
Meita Hendrianingtyas ◽  
Dian Widyaningrum ◽  
Banundari Rachmawati

BACKGROUND: Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression differ between breast cancer stages. Since, previous studies showed mixed results, in this study, we aimed to analyze vitamin D levels related to breast cancer stages and serum levels of COX2 and PGE2 in Indonesia.METHODS: This was a cross sectional study involving 75 breast cancer patients. Subjects were divided into 3 groups, namely operable early stage (K1), locally advanced stage (K2), and advanced stage (K3). Venous blood samples were taken from each subject, then were analyzed for the 25(OH)D, COX2, and PGE2 serum levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.RESULTS: There were significant differences in 25(OH)D among groups (p=0.012); between K1 and K2 (p=0.009) and between K1 and K3 (p=0.023). However, there was no significant difference in serum COX2 level (p=0.328). There were significant differences of PGE2 among groups (p=0.002); between K1 and K2 (p=0.036) and between K1 and K3 (p=0.001). Correlation test showed that there were differences between 25(OH)D serum levels and PGE2 serum level (r=0.306, p=0.008) and also between 25(OH)D serum level and breast cancer stage (r=-0.229; p=0.048).CONCLUSION: There were differences in serum Vitamin D and PGE2 levels at various stages of breast cancer. Serum 25(OH)D levels had weak correlation with breast cancer stage and PGE2 serum level. Serum vitamin D level in advanced breast cancer were lower than early stage breast cancer and indicate a poor prognosis.KEYWORDS: breast cancer, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, cyclooxygenase 2, prostaglandin E2

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
Morteza Sadeghi ◽  
Mehran Miroliaei ◽  
Fatemeh Fateminasab ◽  
Mohammad Moradi

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