Meyerozyma guilliermondii strain SO, a newly isolated yeast species from spoilt orange, has been used as a host to express the recombinant proteins using methylotrophic yeast promoters. However, as a novel yeast expression system, the vacuolar proteases of this yeast have not been determined, which may have contributed to the low level of heterologous protein secretions. Thus, this study aimed to determine intra- and extracellular proteolytic activity and identify the putative vacuolar proteases using bioinformatics techniques. A clear zone was observed from the nutrient agar skimmed milk screening plate. Proteolytic activity of 117.30 U/ml and 75 U/ml were obtained after 72 h of cultivation for both extracellular and intracellular proteins, respectively. Next, the Hidden Markov model (HMM) was used to detect the presence of the vacuolar proteases (PEP4 and PRB1) from the strain SO proteome. Aspartyl protease (PEP4) with 97.55% identity to Meyerozyma sp. JA9 and a serine protease (PRB1) with 70.91% identity to Candida albicans were revealed. The homology with other yeast vacuolar proteases was confirmed via evolutionary analysis. PROSPER tool prediction of cleavage sites postulated that PEP4 and PRB1 might have caused proteolysis of heterologous proteins in strain SO. In conclusion, two putative vacuolar proteases (PEP4 and PRB1) were successfully identified in strain SO. Further characterization can be done to understand their specific properties, and their effects on heterologous protein expression can be conducted via genome editing.
Abstract The viscera and other residues from fish processing are commonly discarded by the fishing industry. These by-products can be a source of digestive enzymes with industrial and biotechnological potential. In this study, we aimed at the extraction, characterization, and application of acidic proteases from the stomach of Carangoides bartholomaei (Cuvier, 1833). A crude extract from the stomachs was obtained and submitted to a partial purification process by salting-out, which obtained a Purified Extract (PE) with a specific proteolytic activity of 54.0 U⋅mg-1. A purification of 1.9 fold and a yield of 41% were obtained. The PE presents two isoforms of acidic proteases and a maximum proteolytic activity at 45 °C and pH 2.0. The PE acidic proteolytic activity was stable in the pH range of 1.5 to 7.0 and temperature from 25 °C to 50 °C. Purified Extract kept 35% of its proteolytic activity at the presence of NaCl 15% (m/v) but was totally inhibited by pepstatin A. Purified Extract aspartic proteases presented high activity in the presence of heavy metals such as Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+, Al3+, and Cu2+. The utilization of PE as an enzymatic addictive in the collagen extraction from Nile tilapia scales has doubled the process yield. The results indicate the potential of these aspartic proteases for industrial and biotechnological applications.
Abstract This work aimed to obtain aspartic proteases of industrial and biotechnological interest from the stomach of the crevalle jack fish (Caranx hippos). In order to do so, a crude extract (CE) of the stomach was obtained and subjected to a partial purification by salting-out, which resulted in the enzyme extract (EE) obtainment. EE proteases were characterized physicochemically and by means of zymogram. In addition, the effect of chemical agents on their activity was also assessed. By means of salting-out it was possible to obtain a purification of 1.6 times with a yield of 49.4%. Two acid proteases present in the EE were observed in zymogram. The optimum temperature and thermal stability for EE acidic proteases were 55 ºC and 45 °C, respectively. The optimum pH and pH stability found for these enzymes were pH 1.5 and 7.0, respectively. Total inhibition of EE acid proteolytic activity was observed in the presence of pepstatin A. dithiothreitol (DTT) and Ca2+ did not promote a significant effect on enzyme activity. In the presence of heavy metals, such as Al3+, Cd2+ and Hg2+, EE acidic proteases showed more than 70% of their enzymatic activity. The results show that it is possible to obtain, from the stomach of C. hippos, aspartic proteases with high proteolytic activity and characteristics that demonstrate potential for industrial and biotechnological applications.
Abstract. The purpose of the research. Screening of collection strains of microorganisms with enzymatic properties to accelerate the processes of microbial biodegradation of bird droppings. Research methods. The proteolytic activity of the grown cultures was studied according to GOST 20264.2-88, the total microbial number in the chicken droppings (CFU/ml) was analyzed, and the ammonium nitrogen was determined. Research results. As a result of the experiments, it was found that the highest proteolytic activity was demonstrated by the strain Pseudomonas putida 90 biovar A (171), which amounted to 74.6 units/g. When analyzing the effect of the studied collection strains on the decomposition processes of droppings, it was revealed that the largest number of microbial cells in bird droppings was achieved using Pseudomonas putida 90 biovar A (171), which was 104 CFU/ml at the beginning of the researches, and was the maximum and amounted to 1011 CFU/ml by the 15th day. The content of ammonium nitrogen in droppings treated with this culture decreased from 340 mg/l from the beginning of the experiment to 174 (15th day) and 169 mg/l (20th day) and it was the best indicator. When selecting the dose and concentration of the strain-producer Pseudomonas putida 90 biovar A (171) under introduction to bird droppings, it was found that to accelerate the process of biodegradation of bird droppings, the optimal dose for applying the studied culture is 4.0 % of organic waste mass with preliminary dilution by 2 times with water. At the same time, the optimal time of droppings keeping and the studied culture is 15 days. Scientific novelty. It was established for the first time that the treatment of chicken manure with the collection strain Pseudomonas putida 90 biovar A (171) accelerates the process of its microbial transformation.
Salterns are hypersaline environments that are inhabited by diverse halophilic microorganisms, including fungi. In this study, we isolated a fungal strain SK1-1 from a saltern in the Republic of Korea, which was identified as Asperillus reticulatus. This is the first reported saline-environment-derived A. reticulatus that belongs to the Aspergillus penicillioides clade and encompasses xerophilic fungi. SK1-1 was halophilic, obligately requiring NaCl for growth, with a maximum radial growth of 6%–9% (w/v) NaCl. To facilitate the biotechnological application of halophilic fungi, we screened the SK1-1 strain for proteolytic activity. Proteases have widespread applications in food processing, detergents, textiles, and waste treatment, and halophilic proteases can enable protein degradation in high salt environments. We assessed the proteolytic activity of the extracellular crude enzyme of SK1-1 using azocasein as a substrate. The crude protease exhibited maximum activity at 40–50 °C, pH 9.5–10.5, and in the absence of NaCl. It was also able to retain up to 69% of its maximum activity until 7% NaCl. Protease inhibitor assays showed complete inhibition of the proteolytic activity of crude enzymes by Pefabloc® SC. Our data suggest that the halophilic A. reticulatus strain SK1-1 produces an extracellular alkaline serine protease.
Objective: To evaluate the mechanical stability and the proteolytic activity of bonds created by a two-step, etch-and-rinse adhesive applied to cross-linked and air-dried etched dentin.
Methods: Flat dentin surfaces were produced in 64 extracted sound human molars. The dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds, and then the teeth were divided into groups according to the cross-linking solution applied on the etched dentin. Group 1: 5% grape seed extract (GSE), Group 2: 5% glutaraldehyde, Group 3: Gluma Desensitizer, or Group 4: deionized water (control). Solutions were applied for 60 seconds, followed by rinse and blot drying. Then, the teeth were separated into two subgroups where the etched dentin was kept moist or air-dried. The adhesive was applied followed by a composite resin buildup. After 24 hours, the teeth were cut into beams (0.81 mm2) that were tested for microtensile strength immediately or after 12 months of aging in a 37°C saliva-like buffer. Additional teeth (n=32) were bonded as described and cut into 0.5-mm-thick slabs. The slabs were prepared for nanoleakage (scanning electron microscopy) and in situ zymography (EnzChek Protease Assay Kit). Bond strength data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05).
Results: Significant reduction in immediate bond strength (ca 65%) and increase in proteolytic activity was seen when the etched dentin was air dried without previous cross-linking biomodification. Conversely, bond strengths did not differ from those produced on wet dentin when collagen was cross-linked before air drying, irrespective of the solution applied. For both moist and air-dried etched dentin, collagen cross-linking resulted in mechanically stable bonds and reduced proteolytic activity after 12 months of storage.
Conclusion: Bonds produced by the application of a two-step, etch-and-rinse adhesive to cross-linked, air-dried, etched dentin were mechanically stable and revealed reduced proteolytic activity after 1 year of aging.
In this focused review, we address the role of the kallikrein-related peptidase 3 (KLK3), also known as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in the regulation of angiogenesis. Early studies suggest that KLK3 is able to inhibit angiogenic processes, which is most likely dependent on its proteolytic activity. However, more recent evidence suggests that KLK3 may also have an opposite role, mediated by the ability of KLK3 to activate the (lymph)angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D, further discussed in the review.
Dysbiosis in subgingival microbial communities, resulting from increased inflammatory transudate from the gingival tissues, is an important factor in initiation and development of periodontitis. Dysbiotic communities are characterized by increased numbers of bacteria that exploit the serum-like transudate for nutrients, giving rise to a proteolytic community phenotype. Here we investigate the contribution of interactions between members of a sub-gingival community to survival and development of virulence in a serum environment—modelling that in the subgingival pocket.
Growth and proteolytic activity of three Porphyromonas gingivalis strains in nutrient broth or a serum environment were assessed using A600 and a fluorescent protease substrate, respectively. Adherence of P. gingivalis strains to serum-coated surfaces was studied with confocal microscopy and 2D-gel electrophoresis of bacterial supernatants used to investigate extracellular proteins. A model multi-species sub-gingival community containing Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus constellatus, Parvimonas micra with wild type or isogenic mutants of P. gingivalis was then created and growth and proteolytic activity in serum assessed as above. Community composition over time was monitored using culture techniques and qPCR.
The P. gingivalis strains showed different growth rates in nutrient broth related to the level of proteolytic activity (largely gingipains) in the cultures. Despite being able to adhere to serum-coated surfaces, none of the strains was able to grow alone in a serum environment. Together in the subgingival consortium however, all the included species were able to grow in the serum environment and the community adopted a proteolytic phenotype. Inclusion of P. gingivalis strains lacking gingipains in the consortium revealed that community growth was facilitated by Rgp gingipain from P. gingivalis.
In the multi-species consortium, growth was facilitated by the wild-type and Rgp-expressing strains of P. gingivalis, suggesting that Rgp is involved in delivery of nutrients to the whole community through degradation of complex protein substrates in serum. Whereas they are constitutively expressed by P. gingivalis in nutrient broth, gingipain expression in the model periodontal pocket environment (serum) appeared to be orchestrated through signaling to P. gingivalis from other members of the community, a phenomenon which then promoted growth of the whole community.