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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jing Liu ◽  
David A. Dean

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical syndrome that leads to acute respiratory failure and accounts for over 70,000 deaths per year in the United States alone, even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. While its molecular details have been teased apart and its pathophysiology largely established over the past 30 years, relatively few pharmacological advances in treatment have been made based on this knowledge. Indeed, mortality remains very close to what it was 30 years ago. As an alternative to traditional pharmacological approaches, gene therapy offers a highly controlled and targeted strategy to treat the disease at the molecular level. Although there is no single gene or combination of genes responsible for ARDS, there are a number of genes that can be targeted for upregulation or downregulation that could alleviate many of the symptoms and address the underlying mechanisms of this syndrome. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of ARDS and how gene therapy has been used for prevention and treatment. Strategies for gene delivery to the lung, such as barriers encountered during gene transfer, specific classes of genes that have been targeted, and the outcomes of these approaches on ARDS pathogenesis and resolution will be discussed.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Jiaxin Fan ◽  
Mengying Chen ◽  
Shuai Cao ◽  
Qingling Yao ◽  
Xiaodong Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Ischemic stroke (IS) is a principal contributor to long-term disability in adults. A new cell death mediated by iron is ferroptosis, characterized by lethal aggregation of lipid peroxidation. However, a paucity of ferroptosis-related biomarkers early identify IS until now. This study investigated potential ferroptosis-related gene pair biomarkers in IS and explored their roles in immune infiltration. Results In total, we identified 6 differentially expressed ferroptosis-related genes (DEFRGs) in the metadata cohort. Of these genes, 4 DEFRGs were incorporated into the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network, including 78 lncRNA-miRNA and 16 miRNA-mRNA interactions. Based on relative expression values of DEFRGs, we constructed gene pairs. An integrated scheme consisting of machine learning algorithms, ceRNA network, and gene pair was proposed to screen the key DEFRG biomarkers. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve witnessed that the diagnostic performance of DEFRG pair CDKN1A/JUN was superior to that of single gene. Moreover, the CIBERSORT algorithm exhibited immune infiltration landscapes: plasma cells, resting NK cells, and resting mast cells infiltrated less in IS samples than controls. Spearman correlation analysis confirmed a significant correlation between plasma cells and CDKN1A/JUN (CDKN1A: r = − 0.503, P < 0.001, JUN: r = − 0.330, P = 0.025). Conclusions Our findings suggested that CDKN1A/JUN could be a robust and promising gene-pair diagnostic biomarker for IS, regulating ferroptosis during IS progression via C9orf106/C9orf139-miR-22-3p-CDKN1A and GAS5-miR-139-5p/miR-429-JUN axes. Meanwhile, plasma cells might exert a vital interplay in IS immune microenvironment, providing an innovative insight for IS therapeutic target.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 128
Keiichi Asano ◽  
Anna Cantalupo ◽  
Lauriane Sedes ◽  
Francesco Ramirez

About 20% of individuals afflicted with thoracic aortic disease have single-gene mutations that predispose the vessel to aneurysm formation and/or acute aortic dissection often without associated syndromic features. One widely studied exception is Marfan syndrome (MFS) in which mutations in the extracellular protein fibrillin-1 cause additional abnormalities in the heart, eyes, and skeleton. Mouse models of MFS have been instrumental in delineating major cellular and molecular determinants of thoracic aortic disease. In spite of research efforts, translating experimental findings from MFS mice into effective drug therapies for MFS patients remains an unfulfilled promise. Here, we describe a series of studies that have implicated endothelial dysfunction and improper angiotensin II and TGFβ signaling in driving thoracic aortic disease in MFS mice. We also discuss how these investigations have influenced the way we conceptualized possible new therapies to slow down or even halt aneurysm progression in this relatively common connective tissue disorder.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 74-78
N. G. Lozhkina ◽  
A. N. Spiridonov

Familial hypercholesterolemia is a hereditary autosomal dominant disease characterized by a violation of cholesterol metabolism. This nosology was first described in the late 1930s by the Norwegian clinician Karl Moeller, he proposed the idea that hypercholesterolemia and tendon xanthomas are associated with cardiovascular diseases through the inheritance of a single gene. In 1964, two clinical phenotypes of familial hypercholesterolemia were discovered: heterozygous and homozygous, associated with an unfavorable prognosis. To date, it is known that the long-running process of accumulation of low-density lipoproteins in the intima of blood vessels may not have clinical symptoms for many years due to the developed system of collaterals and the absence of hemodynamically significant stenosis. However, without timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy, this condition inevitably leads to the development of a cardiovascular event. The article presents a clinical case demonstrating the development of myocardial infarction in a patient with a late diagnosis of this disease.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 158
Ming-Jen Lee ◽  
Inyoul Lee ◽  
Kai Wang

The development of new sequencing technologies in the post-genomic era has accelerated the identification of causative mutations of several single gene disorders. Advances in cell and animal models provide insights into the underlining pathogenesis, which facilitates the development and maturation of new treatment strategies. The progress in biochemistry and molecular biology has established a new class of therapeutics—the short RNAs and expressible long RNAs. The sequences of therapeutic RNAs can be optimized to enhance their stability and translatability with reduced immunogenicity. The chemically-modified RNAs can also increase their stability during intracellular trafficking. In addition, the development of safe and high efficiency carriers that preserves the integrity of therapeutic RNA molecules also accelerates the transition of RNA therapeutics into the clinic. For example, for diseases that are caused by genetic defects in a specific protein, an effective approach termed “protein replacement therapy” can provide treatment through the delivery of modified translatable mRNAs. Short interference RNAs can also be used to treat diseases caused by gain of function mutations or restore the splicing aberration defects. Here we review the applications of newly developed RNA-based therapeutics and its delivery and discuss the clinical evidence supporting the potential of RNA-based therapy in single-gene neurological disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 784
Mingwei An ◽  
Xueling Chen ◽  
Zhuhong Yang ◽  
Jianyu Zhou ◽  
Shan Ye ◽  

The voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) β subunit (Cavβ) protein is a kind of cytosolic auxiliary subunit that plays an important role in regulating the surface expression and gating characteristics of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels. Ditylenchus destructor is an important plant-parasitic nematode. In the present study, the putative Cavβ subunit gene of D. destructor, namely, DdCavβ, was subjected to molecular characterization. In situ hybridization assays showed that DdCavβ was expressed in all nematode tissues. Transcriptional analyses showed that DdCavβ was expressed during each developmental stage of D. destructor, and the highest expression level was recorded in the third-stage juveniles. The crucial role of DdCavβ was verified by dsRNA soaking-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). Silencing of DdCavβ or HVA Cavα1 alone and co-silencing of the DdCavβ and HVA Cavα1 genes resulted in defective locomotion, stylet thrusting, chemotaxis, protein secretion and reproduction in D. destructor. Co-silencing of the HVA Cavα1 and Cavβ subunits showed stronger interference effects than single-gene silencing. This study provides insights for further study of VGCCs in plant-parasitic nematodes.

Anthony V. Pensa ◽  
Jayson R. Baman ◽  
Megan J. Puckelwartz ◽  
Jane Wilcox

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common atrial arrhythmia and is subcategorized into numerous clinical phenotypes. Given its heterogeneity, investigations into the genetic mechanisms underlying AF have been pursued in recent decades, with predominant analyses focusing on early onset or lone AF. Linkage analyses, genome wide association studies (GWAS), and single gene analyses have led to the identification of rare and common genetic variants associated with AF risk. Significant overlap with genetic variants implicated in dilated cardiomyopathy syndromes, including truncating variants of the sarcomere protein titin, have been identified through these analyses, in addition to other genes associated with cardiac structure and function. Despite this, widespread utilization of genetic testing in AF remains hindered by the unclear impact of genetic risk identification on clinical outcomes and the high prevalence of variants of unknown significance (VUS). However, genetic testing is a reasonable option for patients with early onset AF and in those with significant family history of arrhythmia. While many knowledge gaps remain, emerging data support genotyping to inform selection of AF therapeutics. In this review we highlight the current understanding of the complex genetic basis of AF and explore the overlap of AF with inherited cardiomyopathy syndromes. We propose a set of criteria for clinical genetic testing in AF patients and outline future steps for the integration of genetics into AF care.

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 117
Antonella Marucci ◽  
Irene Rutigliano ◽  
Grazia Fini ◽  
Serena Pezzilli ◽  
Claudia Menzaghi ◽  

Monogenic diabetes is a genetic disorder caused by one or more variations in a single gene. It encompasses a broad spectrum of heterogeneous conditions, including neonatal diabetes, maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and syndromic diabetes, affecting 1–5% of patients with diabetes. Some of these variants are harbored by genes whose altered function can be tackled by specific actions (“actionable genes”). In suspected patients, molecular diagnosis allows the implementation of effective approaches of precision medicine so as to allow individual interventions aimed to prevent, mitigate or delay clinical outcomes. This review will almost exclusively concentrate on the clinical strategy that can be specifically pursued in carriers of mutations in “actionable genes”, including ABCC8, KCNJ11, GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A, HNF1B, PPARG, GATA4 and GATA6. For each of them we will provide a short background on what is known about gene function and dysfunction. Then, we will discuss how the identification of their mutations in individuals with this form of diabetes, can be used in daily clinical practice to implement specific monitoring and treatments. We hope this article will help clinical diabetologists carefully consider who of their patients deserves timely genetic testing for monogenic diabetes.

Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 22
Hanrong Wang ◽  
Youran Li ◽  
Fengxu Xiao ◽  
Yupeng Zhang ◽  
Guiyang Shi ◽  

Amino acid efflux and influx transport systems play vital roles in industrial microorganisms’ cell growth and metabolism. However, although biochemically characterized, most of them remain unknown at the molecular level in Bacillus licheniformis. In this study, three proteins, namely, YdgF, YvbW, and YveA, were predicted to be involved in the active transport of L-aspartate (L-Asp). This was verified by manipulating their encoding genes. When growing in the minimal medium with L-Asp as the only carbon and nitrogen source, the growth of strains lacking proteins YdgF, YvbW, and YveA was significantly inhibited compared with the wild-type strains, while supplementing the expression of the corresponding proteins in the single-gene knockout strains could alleviate the inhibition. Upon overexpression, the recombinant proteins mediated the accumulation of L-aspartate to varying degrees. Compared with the wild-type strains, the single knockout strains of the three protein genes exhibited reduced absorption of L-aspartate. In addition, this study focused on the effects of these three proteins on the absorption of β-alanine, L-glutamate, D-serine, D-alanine, and glycine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Patrick Willems ◽  
Elvis Ndah ◽  
Veronique Jonckheere ◽  
Frank Van Breusegem ◽  
Petra Van Damme

Alternative translation initiation is a widespread event in biology that can shape multiple protein forms or proteoforms from a single gene. However, the respective contribution of alternative translation to protein complexity remains largely enigmatic. By complementary ribosome profiling and N-terminal proteomics (i.e., riboproteogenomics), we provide clear-cut evidence for ~90 N-terminal proteoform pairs shaped by (alternative) translation initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next to several cases additionally confirmed by directed mutagenesis, identified alternative protein N-termini follow the enzymatic rules of co-translational N-terminal protein acetylation and initiator methionine removal. In contrast to other eukaryotic models, N-terminal acetylation in plants cannot generally be considered as a proxy of translation initiation because of its posttranslational occurrence on mature proteolytic neo-termini (N-termini) localized in the chloroplast stroma. Quantification of N-terminal acetylation revealed differing co- vs. posttranslational N-terminal acetylation patterns. Intriguingly, our data additionally hints to alternative translation initiation serving as a common mechanism to supply protein copies in multiple cellular compartments, as alternative translation sites are often in close proximity to cleavage sites of N-terminal transit sequences of nuclear-encoded chloroplastic and mitochondrial proteins. Overall, riboproteogenomics screening enables the identification of (differential localized) N-terminal proteoforms raised upon alternative translation.

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