The procedure for the determination of carbamate pesticides in soil was optimized. The following factors affecting the final results were investigated: extracting solvent, extraction procedure, extract purification procedure, and soil type. Triple extraction with acetone and purification of the extract on a two-stage purification column containing an activated carbon-silica gel 1+1 mixture were found optimal. The extracts after treatment were analyzed by RP-HPLC with UV detection. The method developed allows carbamate pesticides in soil to be determined at concentrations in excess of 30 μg kg-1.
A novel, efficient extraction procedure based on natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) and ionic liquids (ILs) for determination of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) in spinach has been developed. NADES, the first green extraction agent, with different hydrogen bond donors and acceptors are screened in order to determine extraction efficiencies. NADES consisting of lactic acid and levulinic acid at a molar ratio of 1:1 exhibits the highest yields. ILs, the second green extraction agent, with various cations and anions are also investigated, where [TEA] [OAc]·AcOH, χAcOH = 0.75 displays the highest recovery. Moreover, NADES-SLE and IL-SLE (SLE, solid-liquid extraction) parameters are investigated. Using the obtained optimized method, the recoveries of the target compound in spinach are above 93% and 88% for NADES-SLE and IL-SLE procedure, respectively. The methods display good linearity within the range of 0.5–30 μg/g and LODs of 0.17 µg/g. The proposed NADES-SLE-UHPLC-UV and IL-SLE-UHPLC-UV procedures can be applied to the analysis of 20-E in real spinach samples, making it a potentially promising technique for food matrix. The main advantage of this study is the superior efficiency of the new, green extraction solvents, which results in a significant reduction of extraction time and solvents as compared to those in the literature.
A quick, facile, and straightforward preconcentration technique based on the modification of magnesium silicate with mercapto-based ligands for sub-ppb determination of mercury ions in coastal seawaters.