soil type
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Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Xiaofang Huang ◽  
Lirong Lin ◽  
Shuwen Ding ◽  
Zhengchao Tian ◽  
Xinyuan Zhu ◽  

Soil erodibility K factor is an important parameter for evaluating soil erosion vulnerability and is required for soil erosion prediction models. It is also necessary for soil and water conservation management. In this study, we investigated the spatial variability characteristics of soil erodibility K factor in a watershed (Changyan watershed with an area of 8.59 km2) of Enshi, southwest of Hubei, China, and evaluated its influencing factors. The soil K values were determined by the EPIC model using the soil survey data across the watershed. Spatial K value prediction was conducted by regression-kriging using geographic data. We also assessed the effects of soil type, land use, and topography on the K value variations. The results showed that soil erodibility K values varied between 0.039–0.052 t·hm2·h/(hm2·MJ·mm) in the watershed with a block-like structure of spatial distribution. The soil erodibility, soil texture, and organic matter content all showed positive spatial autocorrelation. The spatial variability of the K value was related to soil type, land use, and topography. The calcareous soil had the greatest K value on average, followed by the paddy soil, the yellow-brown soil (an alfisol), the purple soil (an inceptisol), and the fluvo-aquic soil (an entisol). The soil K factor showed a negative correlation with the sand content but was positively related to soil silt and clay contents. Forest soils had a greater ability to resist to erosion compared to the cultivated soils. The soil K values increased with increasing slope and showed a decreasing trend with increasing altitude.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Marcin Różewicz ◽  
Beata Bartosiewicz

Abstract In order to function properly, every living organism must have favourable conditions for its operation, i.e. it must be systematically supplied with the necessary nutrients. On the example of selenium (Se), it can be seen how important is the right balance between providing the right amount of it, without exceeding the level above which it is toxic. The amount of Se in soil is closely correlated with its content in the parent rock; therefore, it differs depending on the soil type and may change even in a small area. Considerable dispersion of the element in the soils of Poland is related to their formation, mainly from dump materials of various glaciations. The problem of maintaining the balance between deficiency and excess of Se in the diet of humans and animals is related primarily to the uneven distribution of this element in nature. In this paper, on the basis of scientific literature, the current issues related to the deficiency and excess of Se in the soil and its possible sources are presented. The relationship between the content in the soil and the supply of Se in plants, animals and humans was also shown. The aim of this study was to summarise the state of knowledge on the complexity of Se occurrence in the environment and its importance in the soil-plant-animals-human system.

Juandra Hartono ◽  
Umi Khoiroh ◽  
Muhammad Saleh

Problem on the road access landfill at Balang Island II Bridge is the landslide at STA 23+025 on left side slope (BH-1) caused by a swamp pond on the roadside. The landfill that cutted into the swampy area made the water get stuck on one side (water could not flow to the original condition). The research method is the form of direct observation in the field which focuses on the results of information and laboratory testing which is then processed and analyzed. The analysis obtained that the soil type on the spot is clay with N-SPT 6 – 29. There are 2 alternatives solutions for the problem. First, if there is a ROW problem, the treatments are watercourse, adding counterweight, wooden pile under the landfill and one layer Geotextile PP 50 (initial ground water level on exsisting condition with 90,4 kPa loads). Second, if there is no ROW problem, the treatments are watercourse, adding counterweight, wooden pile under the landfill and one layer Geotextile PET 100 (initial ground water level on top of landfill with 90,4 kPa loads). Based on technical analysis, the second solution was chosen because it has bigger safety factor, smallest settlement value, and shorter time implementation. However it is still need more detail technical justification to strengthen the desicion.

Miaomiao Yang ◽  
Keli Zhang ◽  
Chenlu Huang ◽  
Qinke Yang

Soil erosion is serious in China—the soil in plateau and mountain areas contain a large of rock fragments, and their content and distribution have an important influence on soil erosion. However, there are still no complete results for calculating soil erodibility factor (K) that have corrected rock fragments in China. In this paper, the data available on rock fragments in the soil profile (RFP); rock fragments on the surface of the soil (RFS); and environmental factors such as elevation, terrain relief, slope, vegetation coverage (characterised by normalised difference vegetation index, NDVI), land use, precipitation, temperature, and soil type were used to explore the effects of content of soil rock fragments on calculating of K in China. The correlation analysis, typical sampling area analysis, and redundancy analysis were applied to analyse the effects of content of soil rock fragments on calculating of K and its relationship with environment factors. The results showed that (1) The rock fragments in the soil profile (RFP) increased K. The rock fragments on the surface (RFS) of the soil reduced K. The effect of both RFP and RFS reduced K. (2) The effect of rock fragments on K was most affected by elevation, followed by terrain relief, NDVI, slope, soil type, temperature, and precipitation, but had little correlation with land use. (3) The result of redundancy analysis showed elevation to be the main predominant factor of the effect of rock fragments on K. This study fully considered the effect of rock fragments on calculating of K and carried out a quantitative analysis of the factors affecting the effect of rock fragments on K, so as to provide necessary scientific basis for estimating K and evaluating soil erosion status in China more accurately.

Mehreen Ahmed ◽  
Rafia Mumtaz ◽  
Shahbaz Baig ◽  
Syed Muhammad Hassan Zaidi

Abstract The quality of water is traditionally assessed by the collection of physico-chemical parameters, i.e., pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen of the water bodies. However, the variations in environmental factors may have an impact on the quality of water, as changes in these attributes may affect the water bodies. These factors include the topographical, geological, lithological and soil type parameters of the watershed. In this study, the relationship amongst the physico-chemical, topographical, geological, lithological and soil type parameters of Rawal watershed was evaluated. The parameters included in the present study could be classified as follows: (a) water quality parameters (b) topographical parameters, (c) geological parameters, (d) lithological parameters, and (e) soil type parameters. Water quality parameters consisted of dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity and temperature. The topographical parameters include the slope and aspect of the watershed while the lithological, geological and soil type parameters include the lithology, geology and soil type of the watershed. Pearson's correlation was used to determine the relationship amongst these different parameters. The results have revealed that the correlations of the topographical, lithological, geological parameters with the water quality parameters in the Rawal watershed for the monsoon seasons of June to August mostly have the same trend. Throughout the four year time period, turbidity and temperature parameters had positive correlations with soil type (ranging 0.03–0.24), however had weak correlation with geological and lithological parameters. Dissolved oxygen did not show any relationship with topographical and lithological parameters. The results for pH show that it has weak to fair positive correlations with topographical parameters. However, this analysis is based on the Landsat 8 images extracted for the monsoon seasons of the years of 2017–2020, and to examine a more prominent impact of geographical or environmental factors on the physico-chemical features, a large dataset should be considered.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 42
Kaitlyn E. Trepanier ◽  
Laura Manchola-Rojas ◽  
Bradley D. Pinno

Buried wood is an important but understudied component of reclamation soils. We examined the impacts of buried wood amounts and species on the growth of the common reclamation tree species trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides). In a greenhouse study, aspen seedlings were planted into four soil types, upland derived fine forest floor-mineral mix (fFFMM), coarse forest floor-mineral mix (cFFMM), and lowland derived peat and peat-mineral mix (PMM), that were mixed with either aspen or pine wood shavings at four concentrations (0%, 10%, 20% and 50% of total volume). Height and diameter growth, chlorophyll concentration, and leaf and stem biomass were measured. Soil nutrients and chemical properties were obtained from a parallel study. Buried wood primarily represents an input of carbon to the soil, increasing the C:N ratio, reducing the soil available nitrogen and potentially reducing plant growth. Soil type had the largest impact on aspen growth with fFFMM = peat > PMM > cFFMM. Buried wood type, i.e., aspen or pine, did not have an impact on aspen development, but the amount of buried wood did. In particular, there was an interaction between wood amount and soil type with a large reduction in aspen growth with wood additions of 10% and above on the more productive soils, but no reduction on the less productive soils.

2022 ◽  
Vol 169 ◽  
pp. 104220
Qian Zhang ◽  
Yanlai Han ◽  
Weiqiang Chen ◽  
Yulong Guo ◽  
Mingyu Wu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 307-316
Dewi Amalia ◽  
Bagus Guritno ◽  
Geni Firuliadhim

Many studies have begun to develop the concept of cracked soil. The results of research related to cracked soil are able to answer the irregularities that occur, such as the difference in the results of the stability analysis which is considered safe with the conventional bishop method, while the conditions in the field are landslides. Swelling soil is soil that is susceptible to changes in water content. This type of soil is very prone to cracking. To build infrastructure on the swelling soil type, an improvement must be made, one of which is by mixing the swelling soil with biopolymer. The results of this biopolymer mixing are then modeled in the New Slope Stability Analysis Program (NSSAP) 1.0 which refers to the concept of cracked soil. From the analysis, it was found that the slope safety factor before improvement with biopolymer was 0.305 and the safety factor after improvement with biopolymer was 2.006. From the results of this study, it can be seen that the role of biopolymers in stabilizing swelling soil is quite large, which is around 558%.

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