AbstractThere exists consensus that the traditional means by which safety of chemicals is assessed—namely through reliance upon apical outcomes obtained following in vivo testing—is increasingly unfit for purpose. Whilst efforts in development of suitable alternatives continue, few have achieved levels of robustness required for regulatory acceptance. An array of “new approach methodologies” (NAM) for determining toxic effect, spanning in vitro and in silico spheres, have by now emerged. It has been suggested, intuitively, that combining data obtained from across these sources might serve to enhance overall confidence in derived judgment. This concept may be formalised in the “tiered assessment” approach, whereby evidence gathered through a sequential NAM testing strategy is exploited so to infer the properties of a compound of interest. Our intention has been to provide an illustration of how such a scheme might be developed and applied within a practical setting—adopting for this purpose the endpoint of rat acute oral lethality. Bayesian statistical inference is drawn upon to enable quantification of degree of confidence that a substance might ultimately belong to one of five LD50-associated toxicity categories. Informing this is evidence acquired both from existing in silico and in vitro resources, alongside a purposely-constructed random forest model and structural alert set. Results indicate that the combination of in silico methodologies provides moderately conservative estimations of hazard, conducive for application in safety assessment, and for which levels of certainty are defined. Accordingly, scope for potential extension of approach to further toxicological endpoints is demonstrated.
Several local communities in Central, Western, Eastern, and Northern regions of Uganda have been using the whole leaf extracts of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae) in the treatment of various ailments. Also, several commercial companies sell A. vera as soft drinks in Uganda. However, there are inadequate reports on the toxicities of such preparations. This paper reports the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of aqueous extracts of whole leaf and green rind of A. vera in Wistar rats.
Acute oral toxicity test was carried out in female Wistar rats at doses of 175, 550, 1750, and 5000 mg/kg, p.o. The animals were observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days. Similarly, a sub-acute oral toxicity test was performed in both sexes of rats at doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg, p.o. daily for 28 days. All the groups of animals were monitored for behavioral, morphological, biochemical, and physiological changes, including mortality and compared with respective controls. Body weights were measured weekly while the animals’ relative organ weights, hematological, biochemical, gross, and microscopic pathology were examined on day 29.
There was no mortality or apparent behavioral changes at the doses tested in acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests. Thus, the Median Lethal Dose (LD50) of green rind and whole leaf aqueous extracts was above 5000 mg/kg. Gross anatomy revealed that the rats’ relative spleen weight in green rind extract at 200 mg/kg significantly decreased compared to the control group. The creatinine levels in female rats that received green rind extract and the chloride ion levels in male rats administered whole leaf extract were significantly elevated. Conversely, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) levels significantly decreased at lower doses of the green rind extract compared to the control. Histopathology of the kidney revealed the renal interstitium’s inflammation at doses of 200 and 800 mg/kg of the whole leaf extract.
The findings demonstrated that A. vera green rind and whole leaf extracts are non-toxic at relatively high doses when used for a short duration. Prolonged use of the aqueous whole leaf extract might be associated with kidney toxicity.
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a common concern during the first year of life. Recognized as gut-brain axis disorders by Rome IV criteria, FGIDs etiology is linked to altered gut-brain interaction, intestinal physiology, and microbiota. In this regard, probiotics have emerged as a promising therapy for infant FGIDs. In this study, we have investigated the probiotic potential of the strains Bifidobacterium longum KABP042 and Pediococcus pentosaceus KABP041—isolated from healthy children’s feces—in the treatment of FGIDs. To this scope, genome sequences of both strains were obtained and subjected to in silico analyses. No virulence factors were detected for any strain and only the non-transferable erm(49) gene, which confers resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin, was identified in the genome of B. longum KABP042. Safety of both strains was confirmed by acute oral toxicity in rats. In vitro characterization revealed that the strains tolerate gastric and bile challenges and display a great adhesion capacity to human intestinal cells. The two strains mediate adhesion by different mechanisms and, when combined, synergically induce the expression of Caco-2 tight junction proteins. Moreover, growth inhibition experiments demonstrated the ability of the two strains alone and in combination to antagonize diverse Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial pathogens during sessile and planktonic growth. Pathogens’ inhibition was mostly mediated by the production of organic acids, but neutralization experiments strongly suggested the presence of additional antimicrobial compounds in probiotic culture supernatants such as the bacteriocin Lantibiotic B, whose gene was detected in the genome of B. longum KABP042. Finally, an exploratory, observational, pilot study involving 36 infants diagnosed with at least one FGID (infant colic and/or functional constipation) showed the probiotic formula was well tolerated and FGID severity was significantly reduced after 14 days of treatment with the 2 strains. Overall, this work provides evidence of the probiotic and synergic properties of strains B. longum KABP042 and P. pentosaceus KABP041, and of their potential to treat pediatric FGIDs.Clinical Trial Registration: [www.ClinicalTrials.gov], [identifier NCT04944628].
This study aimed to enhance the solubility and release characteristics of docetaxel by synthesizing highly porous and stimuli responsive nanosponges, a nano-version of hydrogels with the additional qualities of both hydrogels and nano-systems. Nanosponges were prepared by the free radical polymerization technique and characterized by their solubilization efficiency, swelling studies, sol-gel studies, percentage entrapment efficiency, drug loading, FTIR, PXRD, TGA, DSC, SEM, zeta sizer and in vitro dissolution studies. In vivo toxicity study was conducted to assess the safety of the oral administration of prepared nanosponges. FTIR, TGA and DSC studies confirmed the successful grafting of components into the stable nano-polymeric network. A porous and sponge-like structure was visualized through SEM images. The particle size of the optimized formulation was observed in the range of 195 ± 3 nm. The fabricated nanosponges noticeably enhanced the drug loading and solubilization efficiency of docetaxel in aqueous media. The drug release of fabricated nanosponges was significantly higher at pH 6.8 as compared to pH 1.2 and 4.5. An acute oral toxicity study endorsed the safety of the system. Due to an efficient preparation technique, as well as its enhanced solubility, excellent physicochemical properties, improved dissolution and non-toxic nature, nanosponges could be an efficient and a promising approach for the oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs.
Olive mill wastewater, a high polyphenols agro-food by-product, was successfully exploited in an eco-friendly radical process to synthesize an antioxidant macromolecule, usefully engaged as a functional ingredient to prepare functional puddings. The chemical composition of lyophilized olive mill wastewaters (LOMW) was investigated by HPLC-MS/MS and 1H-NMR analyses, while antioxidant profile was in vitro evaluated by colorimetric assays. Oleuropein aglycone (5.8 μg mL−1) appeared as the main compound, although relevant amounts of an isomer of the 3-hydroxytyrosol glucoside (4.3 μg mL−1) and quinic acid (4.1 μg mL−1) were also detected. LOMW was able to greatly inhibit ABTS radical (IC50 equal to 0.019 mg mL−1), displaying, in the aqueous medium, an increase in its scavenger properties by almost one order of magnitude compared to the organic one. LOMW reactive species and tara gum chains were involved in an eco-friendly grafting reaction to synthesize a polymeric conjugate that was characterized by spectroscopic, calorimetric and toxicity studies. In vitro acute oral toxicity was tested against 3T3 fibroblasts and Caco-2 cells, confirming that the polymers do not have any effect on cell viability at the dietary use concentrations. Antioxidant properties of the polymeric conjugate were also evaluated, suggesting its employment as a thickening agent, in the preparation of pear puree-based pudding. High performance of consistency and relevant antioxidants features over time (28 days) were detected in the milk-based foodstuff, in comparison with its non-functional counterparts, confirming LOWM as an attractive source to achieve high performing functional foods.
Chlorobutanol (CB) is used as a preservative in cosmetics and has antibacterial activity. This study investigated the single- and repeated-dose 28-day oral toxicity of a CB solvent in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. For the single-dose oral toxicity study, a dose of 62.5, 125, or 250 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg b.w.) of CB was given once orally via gavage. For the repeated-dose 28-day toxicity study, the high dose was set as 100 mg/kg b.w./day, and the middle, middle-low, and low doses were set to 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively. Body weight was not significantly changed in the repeated-dose toxicity study. Relative liver and kidney weights were significantly increased in both sexes of the 100 mg/kg b.w./day treatment group. However, there were histopathological changes in liver and kidney for females and males, respectively. These data suggested that the approximate lethal dose (ALD) of CB was over 250 mg/kg b.w./day in the single-dose study, and the no adverse effect level (NOAEL) for CB was over 50 and 12.5 mg/kg b.w./day for female and male rats in the repeated-dose toxicity study.
Py-mulin is a new pleuromutilin derivative with potent antibacterial activities in vitro and in vivo, suggesting this compound may lead to a promising antibacterial drug after further development. The present study is aimed to evaluate the acute and subacute oral toxicity, and the genotoxicity with the standard Ames test according to standard protocols.
Acute oral toxicity of Py-mulin was determined using Kunming mice. The 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity study in SD rats was performed according to OECD guideline No. 407. The bacterial reverse mutation (Ames test) was carried out using four Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA1535 with and without S9 metabolic activation.
The LD50 values in acute oral toxicity were 2973 mg/kg (female mice) and 3891 mg/kg (male mice) calculated by the Bliss method. In subacute toxicity study, 50 mg/kg Py-mulin did not induce any abnormality in body weight, food consumption, clinical sign, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weight, and histopathology in all of the treatment groups. However, high doses of Py-mulin (100 and 300 mg/kg) displayed slightly hepatotoxicity to female rats. Furthermore, Py-mulin did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies of four standard S. typhimurium strains with the doses of 0.16–1000 μg/plate in the Ames study.
Based on our findings, our study provides some information for the safety profile of Py-mulin.