RNF19a inhibits antiviral immune response to RNA viruses through degradation of TBK1

2022 ◽  
Vol 143 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Yingyun Yang ◽  
Xinyuan Cao ◽  
Lisong Huang ◽  
Aiming Yang
2020 ◽  
Magda Lewandowska ◽  
Ton Sharoni ◽  
Yael Admoni ◽  
Reuven Aharoni ◽  
Yehu Moran

ABSTRACTAnimals developed a broad repertoire of innate immune sensors and downstream effector cascades for defense against RNA viruses. Yet, this system highly varies between different bilaterian animals, masking its ancestral state. In this study we aimed to characterize the antiviral immune response of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and decipher the function of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors (RLRs) known to detect viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in bilaterians, but activate different antiviral pathways in vertebrates and nematodes. We show that a mimic of long viral dsRNA triggers a complex antiviral immune response bearing features distinctive for both vertebrate and invertebrate systems. Furthermore, the results of affinity assays and knockdown experiments provide functional evidence for the conserved role of RLRs in initiating immune response to dsRNA that originated before the cnidarian-bilaterian split and lay a strong foundation for future research on the evolution of the immune responses to RNA viruses.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 328 ◽  
Claudio Salaris ◽  
Melania Scarpa ◽  
Marina Elli ◽  
Alice Bertolini ◽  
Simone Guglielmetti ◽  

SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus that currently lacks curative treatments. Lactoferrin (LF) is a naturally occurring non-toxic glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we assessed the potential of LF in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Antiviral immune response gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR in uninfected Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells treated with LF. An infection assay for SARS-CoV-2 was performed in Caco-2 cells treated or not with LF. SARS-CoV-2 titer was determined by qRT-PCR, plaque assay and immunostaining. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production was determined by qRT-PCR. LF significantly induced the expression of IFNA1, IFNB1, TLR3, TLR7, IRF3, IRF7 and MAVS genes. Furthermore, LF partially inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Our in vitro data support LF as an immune modulator of the antiviral immune response with moderate effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (9) ◽  
pp. 4438
Jessica Proulx ◽  
Kathleen Borgmann ◽  
In-Woo Park

The ubiquitin (Ub) proteasome system (UPS) plays a pivotal role in regulation of numerous cellular processes, including innate and adaptive immune responses that are essential for restriction of the virus life cycle in the infected cells. Deubiquitination by the deubiquitinating enzyme, deubiquitinase (DUB), is a reversible molecular process to remove Ub or Ub chains from the target proteins. Deubiquitination is an integral strategy within the UPS in regulating survival and proliferation of the infecting virus and the virus-invaded cells. Many viruses in the infected cells are reported to encode viral DUB, and these vial DUBs actively disrupt cellular Ub-dependent processes to suppress host antiviral immune response, enhancing virus replication and thus proliferation. This review surveys the types of DUBs encoded by different viruses and their molecular processes for how the infecting viruses take advantage of the DUB system to evade the host immune response and expedite their replication.

2013 ◽  
Vol 61 (10) ◽  
pp. E1263
Carsten Skurk ◽  
Alexander Jenke ◽  
Moritz Becher ◽  
Alice Weithäuser ◽  
Karin Klingel ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 39-57
K.V. Zhdanov ◽  
R.F. Khamitov ◽  
V.V. Rafalsky ◽  
M.P. Mikhaylusova ◽  

Objective. A multicenter open-label randomized controlled clinical trial was aimed to compare the efficacy of the study drug (SD) containing technologically processed affinity purified antibodies (high dilutions) to IFN-γ, CD4 receptor and histamine (Ergoferon) with oseltamivir, and evaluate the influence of SD on the antiviral immune response in adults with seasonal influenza. Patients and methods. 184 outpatients aged 18–70 with confirmed influenza of mild/moderate severity were included and randomized into 2 groups (in a 1:1 ratio). Patients received SD (Group 1, n = 92) or oseltamivir (Group 2, n = 92), according to the instructions for medical use for 5 days. As the primary endpoint, the percentage of patients with recovery/improvement was assessed (according to the data of the patient's diary on days 2–7 and according to the clinical examination on days 3 and 7). Additionally, the duration and severity of influenza symptoms, the percentage of patients with virus elimination (according to RT-PCR of nasopharyngeal samples), the percentage of patients with complications, the percentage of patients prescribed antipyretic drugs, the change in concentration of T cell (IL-2, IL-18, IFN-γ) and B cell antigen-specific (IL-4, IL-16) immune response regulators in serum, the leukocyte phenotypes on days 1, 3 and 7 were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using a “Non-Inferiority” design (or no less efficiency/safety). Intention-to-Treat (ITT) analysis data are presented. Results. According to patients’ self-assessment, 53.3% of patients in Group 1 recovered/improved on the 6th day in the morning and 65.2% – in the evening (vs. 53.3% and 57.6% in Group 2, respectively). There were 73.9% recovered/ improved patients on the 7th day in the morning (vs. 67.4% in Group 2). A generalized analysis showed that the treatment results in both groups were comparable (p < 0.0001). According to objective medical examination, 79.3% of patients in the SD group and 74.0% of patients in the Оseltamivir group recovered/improved on the 7th day (p < 0.0001). The antiviral efficacy of SD was not inferior to oseltamivir, which was confirmed by comparable periods of virus elimination, duration and severity of fever and other influenza symptoms. A moderate activating effect of SD on the immune system was evaluated. A significant, compared to oseltamivir, increase in the concentration of IL-2 and IL-4 on the 3rd day of treatment (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04 vs. the oseltamivir group), and IFN-γ on the 3rd and the 7th days (p = 0.012 and p < 0.0001, respectively, vs. the oseltamivir group). No stimulating effect of SD on the growth and differentiation of immune cells was found. Conclusion. SD is effective and safe in the treatment of patients with influenza. The therapeutic and antiviral efficacy of SD is comparable to that of oseltamivir. The antiviral activity of SD affects the interferon system and the concentration of the cytokines IL-2 and IL-4, regulators of the T and B cell immune response. At the same time, there is no significant stimulation of interferon production with further development of hyporeactivity. Key words: influenza, oseltamivir, therapy, cytokines, Еrgoferon

2019 ◽  
Vol 92 ◽  
pp. 105-115 ◽  
Yongcan Zhou ◽  
Yang Lei ◽  
Zhenjie Cao ◽  
Xiaojuan Chen ◽  
Yun Sun ◽  

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