antiviral immune response
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2022 ◽  
Vol 143 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Yingyun Yang ◽  
Xinyuan Cao ◽  
Lisong Huang ◽  
Aiming Yang

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 815
Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard ◽  
Bashdar Mahmud Hussen ◽  
Hazha Hadayat Jamal ◽  
Mohammad Taheri ◽  
Guive Sharifi

Non-coding RNAs, particularly lncRNAs and miRNAs, have recently been shown to regulate different steps in viral infections and induction of immune responses against viruses. Expressions of several host and viral lncRNAs have been found to be altered during viral infection. These lncRNAs can exert antiviral function via inhibition of viral infection or stimulation of antiviral immune response. Some other lncRNAs can promote viral replication or suppress antiviral responses. The current review summarizes the interaction between ncRNAs and herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein–Barr infections. The data presented in this review helps identify viral-related regulators and proposes novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of viral infection.

Raul S. Freitas ◽  
Tyler F. Crum ◽  
Kislay Parvatiyar

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis is intimately linked to the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and disease severity has been associated with compromised induction of type I interferon (IFN-I) cytokines which coordinate the innate immune response to virus infections. Here we identified the SARS-CoV-2 encoded protein, Spike, as an inhibitor of IFN-I that antagonizes viral RNA pattern recognition receptor RIG-I signaling. Ectopic expression of SARS-CoV-2 Spike blocked RIG-I mediated activation of IFNβ and downstream induction of interferon stimulated genes. Consequently, SARS-CoV-2 Spike expressing cells harbored increased RNA viral burden compared to control cells. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed SARS-CoV-2 Spike associated with interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor that governs IFN-I activation. Co-expression analysis via immunoassays further indicated Spike specifically suppressed IRF3 expression as NF-κB and STAT1 transcription factor levels remained intact. Further biochemical experiments uncovered SARS-CoV-2 Spike potentiated proteasomal degradation of IRF3, implicating a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 evades the host innate antiviral immune response to facilitate COVID-19 pathogenesis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 492
Sandrine-M. Soh ◽  
Yeong-Jun Kim ◽  
Hong-Hee Kim ◽  
Hye-Ra Lee

The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is a protein degradation machinery that is crucial for cellular homeostasis in eukaryotes. Therefore, it is not surprising that the UPS coordinates almost all host cellular processes, including host–pathogen interactions. This protein degradation machinery acts predominantly by tagging substrate proteins designated for degradation with a ubiquitin molecule. These ubiquitin tags have been involved at various steps of the innate immune response. Hence, herpesviruses have evolved ways to antagonize the host defense mechanisms by targeting UPS components such as ubiquitin E3 ligases and deubiquitinases (DUBs) that establish a productive infection. This review delineates how herpesviruses usurp the critical roles of ubiquitin E3 ligases and DUBs in innate immune response to escape host-antiviral immune response, with particular focus on retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR), cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) pathways, and inflammasome signaling.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Nicholas Bessonov ◽  
Gennady Bocharov ◽  
Vitaly Volpert

The paper is devoted to a nonlocal reaction-diffusion equation describing the development of viral infection in tissue, taking into account virus distribution in the space of genotypes, the antiviral immune response, and natural genotype-dependent virus death. It is shown that infection propagates as a reaction-diffusion wave. In some particular cases, the 2D problem can be reduced to a 1D problem by separation of variables, allowing for proof of wave existence and stability. In general, this reduction provides an approximation of the 2D problem by a 1D problem. The analysis of the reduced problem allows us to determine how viral load and virulence depend on genotype distribution, the strength of the immune response, and the level of immunity.

2021 ◽  
Martin Villalba ◽  
Dang-Nghiem Vo ◽  
Nicolas Leventoux ◽  
Mauricio Campos-Mora ◽  
Sandrine Gimenez ◽  

NK cells play a major role in the antiviral immune response, including against HIV-1. HIV patients have impaired NK cell activity with decrease in CD56dim NK cells and increase in CD56-CD16+ subset and recently it has been proposed that a population of CD56+NKG2C+KIR+CD57+ cells represents antiviral memory NK cells. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) partly restores the functional activity of this lymphocyte lineage. NK cells when interacting with their targets can gain antigens from them by the process of trogocytosis. Here we show that NK cells can obtain CCR5 and CXCR4, but barely CD4, from T cell lines by trogocytosis in vitro. By UMAP (Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection), we show that aviremic HIV patients have unique NK cell clusters that encompass for cells expressing CCR5, NKG2C and KIRs, but lack CD57 expression. Viremic patients have a larger proportion of CXCR4+ and CCR5+ NK cells than healthy donors (HD) and this is largely increased in CD107+ cells, suggesting a link between degranulation and trogocytosis. In agreement, UMAP identified a specific NK cell cluster in viremic HIV patients, which contains most of the CD107a+, CCR5+ and CXCR4+ cells. However, this cluster lacks NKG2C expression. Therefore, NK cells can gain CCR5 and CXCR4 by trogocytosis, which depends on degranulation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Junli Jia ◽  
Jiangan Fu ◽  
Huamin Tang

Antiviral innate immune response triggered by nucleic acid recognition plays an extremely important role in controlling viral infections. The initiation of antiviral immune response against RNA viruses through ligand recognition of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) was extensively studied. RLR’s role in DNA virus infection, which is less known, is increasing attention. Here, we review the research progress of the ligand recognition of RLRs during the DNA virus infection process and the viral evasion mechanism from host immune responses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sang Hag Lee ◽  
Sung Hoon Kang ◽  
Mun Soo Han ◽  
Ji Won Kwak ◽  
Hyeon Geun Kim ◽  

EphA2 receptor and its ephrin ligands are involved in virus infection, epithelial permeability, and chemokine secretion. We hypothesized that ephrinA1/ephA2 signaling participates in rhinovirus (RV)-induced antiviral immune response in sinonasal mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Therefore, we investigated the expression of ephrinA1/ephA2 in normal and inflamed sinonasal mucosa and evaluated whether they regulate chemokine secretion and the production of antiviral immune mediators including interferons (IFNs) in RV-infected human primary sinonasal epithelial cells. For this purpose, the expression and distribution of ephrinA1/ephA2 in sinonasal mucosa were evaluated with RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence, and western blot. Their roles in chemokine secretion and the production of antiviral immune mediators such as type I and III IFNs, and interferon stimulated genes were evaluated by stimulating ephA2 with ephrinA1 and inactivating ephA2 with ephA2 siRNA or inhibitor in cells exposed to RV and poly(I:C). We found that ephrinA1/ephA2 were expressed in normal mucosa and their levels increased in inflamed sinonasal mucosa of CRS patients. RV infection or poly(I:C) treatment induced chemokine secretion which were attenuated by blocking the action of ephA2 with ephA2 siRNA or inhibitor. The production of antiviral immune mediators enhanced by rhinovirus or poly (I:C) is increased by blocking ephA2 compared with that of cells stimulated by either rhinovirus or poly(I:C) alone. In addition, blocking ephA2 attenuated RV replication in cultured cells. Taken together, these results describe a novel role of ephrinA1/ephA2 signaling in antiviral innate immune response in sinonasal epithelium, suggesting their participation in RV-induced development and exacerbations of CRS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Baoxin Zhao ◽  
Weijie Wang ◽  
Yan Zhao ◽  
Hongxiu Qiao ◽  
Zhiyun Gao ◽  

Host innate and adaptive immune responses play a vital role in clearing infected viruses. Meanwhile, viruses also evolve a series of mechanisms to weaken the host immune responses and evade immune defense. Recently, N6-methyladenosine (m6A), the most prevalent mRNA modification, has been revealed to regulate multiple steps of RNA metabolism, such as mRNA splicing, localization, stabilization, and translation, thus participating in many biological phenomena, including viral infection. In the process of virus–host interaction, the m6A modification that presents on the virus RNA impedes capture by the pattern recognition receptors, and the m6A modification appearing on the host immune-related molecules regulate interferon response, immune cell differentiation, inflammatory cytokine production, and other immune responses induced by viral infection. This review summarizes the research advances about the regulatory role of m6A modification in the innate and adaptive immune responses during viral infections.

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