virus life cycle
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

240
(FIVE YEARS 90)

H-INDEX

40
(FIVE YEARS 9)

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Woo-Chang Chung ◽  
Moon Jung Song

The gammaherpesviruses, include the Epstein–Barr virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and murine gammaherpesvirus 68. They establish latent infection in the B lymphocytes and are associated with various lymphoproliferative diseases and tumors. The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1), also called ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria-toxin-like 1 (ARTD1) is a nuclear enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the ADP-ribose moiety to its target proteins and participates in important cellular activities, such as the DNA-damage response, cell death, transcription, chromatin remodeling, and inflammation. In gammaherpesvirus infection, PARP1 acts as a key regulator of the virus life cycle: lytic replication and latency. These viruses also develop various strategies to regulate PARP1, facilitating their replication. This review summarizes the roles of PARP1 in the viral life cycle as well as the viral modulation of host PARP1 activity and discusses the implications. Understanding the interactions between the PARP1 and oncogenic gammaherpesviruses may lead to the identification of effective therapeutic targets for the associated diseases.


mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sho Miyamoto ◽  
Masahiro Nakano ◽  
Takeshi Morikawa ◽  
Ai Hirabayashi ◽  
Ryoma Tamura ◽  
...  

Influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) is responsible for viral genome replication, thus playing essential roles in the virus life cycle. RNP formation occurs in the nuclei of infected cells; however, little is known about the nuclear domains involved in this process.


Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Author(s):  
Anna-Sophia Krebs ◽  
Luiza M. Mendonça ◽  
Peijun Zhang

Retroviruses have a very complex and tightly controlled life cycle which has been studied intensely for decades. After a virus enters the cell, it reverse-transcribes its genome, which is then integrated into the host genome, and subsequently all structural and regulatory proteins are transcribed and translated. The proteins, along with the viral genome, assemble into a new virion, which buds off the host cell and matures into a newly infectious virion. If any one of these steps are faulty, the virus cannot produce infectious viral progeny. Recent advances in structural and molecular techniques have made it possible to better understand this class of viruses, including details about how they regulate and coordinate the different steps of the virus life cycle. In this review we summarize the molecular analysis of the assembly and maturation steps of the life cycle by providing an overview on structural and biochemical studies to understand these processes. We also outline the differences between various retrovirus families with regards to these processes.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Naoki Saka ◽  
Yusuke Matsumoto ◽  
Keisuke Ohta ◽  
Daniel Kolakofsky ◽  
Machiko Nishio

Paramyxovirus genomes, like that of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2), are precisely a multiple of six nucleotides long (“rule of six”), in which each nucleoprotein subunit (NP) binds precisely 6 nucleotides. Ten residues of its RNA binding groove contact the genome RNA; but only one, Q202, directly contacts a nucleotide base. Mutation of NP Q202 leads to two phenotypes; the ability of the viral polymerase to replicate minigenomes with defective bipartite promoters where NP wt is inactive, and the inability to rescue rPIV2 carrying this point mutation by standard means. The absence a rPIV2 NP Q202A prevented further study of this latter phenotype. By extensive and repeated co-cultivation of transfected cells, a rPIV2 carrying this mutation was finally recovered, and this virus was apparently viable due to the presence of an additional NP mutation (I35L). Our results suggest that these two phenotypes are due to separate effects of the Q202 mutation, and that of the problematic rescue phenotype may be due to the inability of the transfected cell to incorporate viral nucleocapsids during virus budding. Importance Paramyxovirus genomes are contained within a non-covalent homopolymer of its nucleoprotein (NP) and form helical nucleocapsids (NC) whose 3’ ends contain the promoters for the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. This work suggests that these NC 3’ ends may play another role in the virus life cycle, namely via their specific interaction with virus modified cell membranes needed for the incorporation of viral NCs into budding virions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13192
Author(s):  
Rosalia Battaglia ◽  
Ruben Alonzo ◽  
Chiara Pennisi ◽  
Angela Caponnetto ◽  
Carmen Ferrara ◽  
...  

In the last few years, microRNA-mediated regulation has been shown to be important in viral infections. In fact, viral microRNAs can alter cell physiology and act on the immune system; moreover, cellular microRNAs can regulate the virus cycle, influencing positively or negatively viral replication. Accordingly, microRNAs can represent diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of infectious processes and a promising approach for designing targeted therapies. In the past 18 months, the COVID-19 infection from SARS-CoV-2 has engaged many researchers in the search for diagnostic and prognostic markers and the development of therapies. Although some research suggests that the SARS-CoV-2 genome can produce microRNAs and that host microRNAs may be involved in the cellular response to the virus, to date, not enough evidence has been provided. In this paper, using a focused bioinformatic approach exploring the SARS-CoV-2 genome, we propose that SARS-CoV-2 is able to produce microRNAs sharing a strong sequence homology with the human ones and also that human microRNAs may target viral RNA regulating the virus life cycle inside human cells. Interestingly, all viral miRNA sequences and some human miRNA target sites are conserved in more recent SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Even if experimental evidence will be needed, in silico analysis represents a valuable source of information useful to understand the sophisticated molecular mechanisms of disease and to sustain biomedical applications.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sarah Creytens ◽  
Mirte N. Pascha ◽  
Marlies Ballegeer ◽  
Xavier Saelens ◽  
Cornelis A. M. de Haan

Neuraminidase of influenza A and B viruses plays a critical role in the virus life cycle and is an important target of the host immune system. Here, we highlight the current understanding of influenza neuraminidase structure, function, antigenicity, immunogenicity, and immune protective potential. Neuraminidase inhibiting antibodies have been recognized as correlates of protection against disease caused by natural or experimental influenza A virus infection in humans. In the past years, we have witnessed an increasing interest in the use of influenza neuraminidase to improve the protective potential of currently used influenza vaccines. A number of well-characterized influenza neuraminidase-specific monoclonal antibodies have been described recently, most of which can protect in experimental challenge models by inhibiting the neuraminidase activity or by Fc receptor-dependent mechanisms. The relative instability of the neuraminidase poses a challenge for protein-based antigen design. We critically review the different solutions that have been proposed to solve this problem, ranging from the inclusion of stabilizing heterologous tetramerizing zippers to the introduction of inter-protomer stabilizing mutations. Computationally engineered neuraminidase antigens have been generated that offer broad, within subtype protection in animal challenge models. We also provide an overview of modern vaccine technology platforms that are compatible with the induction of robust neuraminidase-specific immune responses. In the near future, we will likely see the implementation of influenza vaccines that confront the influenza virus with a double punch: targeting both the hemagglutinin and the neuraminidase.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2953
Author(s):  
Kai-Wen Cheng ◽  
Shan Li ◽  
Feng Wang ◽  
Nallely M. Ruiz-Lopez ◽  
Nadia Houerbi ◽  
...  

Human coronavirus (HCoV) similar to other viruses rely on host cell machinery for both replication and to spread. The p97/VCP ATPase is associated with diverse pathways that may favor HCoV replication. In this study, we assessed the role of p97 and associated host responses in human lung cell line H1299 after HCoV-229E or HCoV-OC43 infection. Inhibition of p97 function by small molecule inhibitors shows antiviral activity, particularly at early stages of the virus life cycle, during virus uncoating and viral RNA replication. Importantly, p97 activity inhibition protects human cells against HCoV-induced cytopathic effects. The p97 knockdown also inhibits viral production in infected cells. Unbiased quantitative proteomics analyses reveal that HCoV-OC43 infection resulted in proteome changes enriched in cellular senescence and DNA repair during virus replication. Further analysis of protein changes between infected cells with control and p97 shRNA identifies cell cycle pathways for both HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 infection. Together, our data indicate a role for the essential host protein p97 in supporting HCoV replication, suggesting that p97 is a therapeutic target to treat HCoV infection.


Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1881
Author(s):  
Poulami Das ◽  
Jaquelin P. Dudley

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that are dependent on host factors for their replication. One such host protein, p97 or the valosin-containing protein (VCP), is a highly conserved AAA ATPase that facilitates replication of diverse RNA- and DNA-containing viruses. The wide range of cellular functions attributed to this ATPase is consistent with its participation in multiple steps of the virus life cycle from entry and uncoating to viral egress. Studies of VCP/p97 interactions with viruses will provide important information about host processes and cell biology, but also viral strategies that take advantage of these host functions. The critical role of p97 in viral replication might be exploited as a target for development of pan-antiviral drugs that exceed the capability of virus-specific vaccines or therapeutics.


Author(s):  
Poulami Das ◽  
Jaquelin P. Dudley

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that are dependent on host factors for their replication. One such host protein, p97 or the valosin-containing protein (VCP), is a highly conserved AAA ATPase that facilitates replication of diverse RNA- and DNA-containing viruses. The wide range of cellular functions attributed to this ATPase is consistent with its participation in multiple steps of the virus life cycle from entry and uncoating to viral egress. Studies of VCP/p97 interactions with viruses will provide important information about host processes and cell biology, but also viral strategies that take advantage of these host functions. The critical role of p97 in viral replication might be exploited as a target for development of pan-antiviral drugs that exceed the capability of virus-specific vaccines or therapeutics.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document