Cobalt-base alloys (Co-Cr-Mo) are widely employed in dentistry and orthopedic implants due to their biocompatibility, high mechanical strength and wear resistance. The osseointegration of implants can be improved by surface modification techniques. However, complex geometries obtained by additive manufacturing (AM) limits the efficiency of mechanical-based surface modification techniques. Therefore, plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is the best alternative, creating nanotopography even in complex structures. In the present study, we report the osseointegration results in three conditions of the additively manufactured Co-Cr-Mo alloy: (i) as-built, (ii) after PIII, and (iii) coated with titanium (Ti) followed by PIII. The metallic samples were designed with a solid half and a porous half to observe the bone ingrowth in different surfaces. Our results revealed that all conditions presented cortical bone formation. The titanium-coated sample exhibited the best biomechanical results, which was attributed to the higher bone ingrowth percentage with almost all medullary canals filled with neoformed bone and the pores of the implant filled and surrounded by bone ingrowth. It was concluded that the metal alloys produced for AM are biocompatible and stimulate bone neoformation, especially when the Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy with a Ti-coated surface, nanostructured and anodized by PIII is used, whose technology has been shown to increase the osseointegration capacity of this implant.
In this paper, fracture behavior of four types of implants with different geometries (pure titanium locking plate, pure titanium femoral implant, Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy pelvic implant, X2CrNiMo18 14-3 steel femoral implant) was studied in detail. Each implant fractured in the human body. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the potential cause of implants fracture. It was found that the implants fracture mainly occurred in consequence of mechanical overloads resulting from repetitive, prohibited excessive limb loads or singular, un-intendent, secondary injures. Among many possible loading types, the implants were subjected to an excessive fatigue loads with additional interactions caused by screws that were mounted in their threaded holes. The results of this work enable to conclude that the design of orthopedic implants is not fully sufficient to transduce mechanical loads acting over them due to an increasing weight of treated patients and much higher their physical activity.
Over the past few decades, carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanofibers, nanocrystalline diamonds, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanodots, and graphene and its derivatives, have gained the attention of bioengineers and medical researchers as they possess extraordinary physicochemical, mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. Recently, surface functionalization with carbon nanomaterials in dental and orthopedic implants has emerged as a novel strategy for reinforcement and as a bioactive cue due to their potential for osseointegration. Numerous developments in fabrication and biological studies of carbon nanostructures have provided various novel opportunities to expand their application to hard tissue regeneration and restoration. In this minireview, the recent research trends in surface functionalization of orthopedic and dental implants with coating carbon nanomaterials are summarized. In addition, some seminal methodologies for physicomechanical and electrochemical coatings are discussed. In conclusion, it is shown that further development of surface functionalization with carbon nanomaterials may provide innovative results with clinical potential for improved osseointegration after implantation.
The present paper analyzed the microstructural characteristics and the mechanical properties of a Ti–Nb–Zr–Fe–O alloy of β-Ti type obtained by combining severe plastic deformation (SPD), for which the total reduction was of etot = 90%, with two variants of super-transus solution treatment (ST). The objective was to obtain a low Young’s modulus with sufficient high strength in purpose to use the alloy as a biomaterial for orthopedic implants. The microstructure analysis was conducted through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations. The analyzed mechanical properties reveal promising values for yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of about 770 and 1100 MPa, respectively, with a low value of Young’s modulus of about 48–49 GPa. The conclusion is that satisfactory mechanical properties for this type of alloy can be obtained if considering a proper combination of SPD + ST parameters and a suitable content of β-stabilizing alloying elements, especially the Zr/Nb ratio.