carbon nanomaterials
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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 675
M. Amin ◽  
B. M. Abdullah ◽  
S. J. Rowley-Neale ◽  
S. Wylie ◽  
A. J. Slate ◽  

Carbon nanomaterials have gained significant interest over recent years in the field of electrochemistry, and they may be limited in their use due to issues with their difficulty in dispersion. Enzymes are prime components for detecting biological molecules and enabling electrochemical interactions, but they may also enhance multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) dispersion. This study evaluated a MWCNT and diamine oxidase enzyme (DAO)-functionalised screen-printed electrode (SPE) to demonstrate improved methods of MWCNT functionalisation and dispersion. MWCNT morphology and dispersion was determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Carboxyl groups were introduced onto the MWCNT surfaces using acid etching. MWCNT functionalisation was carried out using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), followed by DAO conjugation and glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinking. Modified C-MWNCT/EDC-NHS/DAO/GA was drop cast onto SPEs. Modified and unmodified electrodes after MWCNT functionalisation were characterised using optical profilometry (roughness), water contact angle measurements (wettability), Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) (vibrational modes and elemental composition, respectively). The results demonstrated that the addition of the DAO improved MWCNT homogenous dispersion and the solution demonstrated enhanced stability which remained over two days. Drop casting of C-MWCNT/EDC-NHS/DAO/GA onto carbon screen-printed electrodes increased the surface roughness and wettability. UV-Vis, SEM, Raman and EDX analysis determined the presence of carboxylated MWCNT variants from their non-carboxylated counterparts. Electrochemical analysis demonstrated an efficient electron transfer rate process and a diffusion-controlled redox process. The modification of such electrodes may be utilised for the development of biosensors which could be utilised to support a range of healthcare related fields.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 246
Alenka Vesel ◽  
Rok Zaplotnik ◽  
Gregor Primc ◽  
Domen Paul ◽  
Miran Mozetič

Carbon nanowalls are promising materials for various electrochemical devices due to their chemical inertness, desirable electrical conductivity, and excellent surface-to-mass ratio. Standard techniques, often based on plasma-assisted deposition using gaseous precursors, enable the synthesis of top-quality carbon nanowalls, but require long deposition times which represents a serious obstacle for mass applications. Here, an alternative deposition technique is presented. The carbon nanowalls were synthesized on titanium substrates using various polymers as solid precursors. A solid precursor and the substrate were mounted into a low-pressure plasma reactor. Plasma was sustained by an inductively coupled radiofrequency discharge in the H-mode at the power of 500 W. Spontaneous growth of carbon nanomaterials was observed for a variety of polymer precursors. The best quality of carbon nanowalls was obtained using aliphatic polyolefins. The highest growth rate of a thin film of carbon nanowalls of about 200 nm/s was observed. The results were explained by different degradation mechanisms of polymers upon plasma treatment and the surface kinetics.

2022 ◽  
pp. 163-207
Yue Shu ◽  
Zhenghong Xiong ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Yongli Zhou ◽  
Meng Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Xiaoqian Feng ◽  
Yinxing Zhu ◽  
Fujin Wang ◽  
Ting Guo ◽  
Xiaofeng Dou ◽  

Prostate cancer is one of the major malignancies that threaten men’s health all over the world. Due to the lack of specific symptoms and signs in the early stage, as well as the limitations of existing detection methods, it is difficult to achieve early diagnosis for prostate cancer. As short single-stranded oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) with specific 3D structure which can be produced using an in vitro selection process termed systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), aptamers can specifically bind to the corresponding targets. They have become a class of novel targeting ligand for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of cancer. Owing to distinctive physicochemical features, and some other special properties such as easy modifiability, good biocompatibility, being easily coupled with other ligands, nanomaterials are extensively used in biological medical field research. Enlighteningly, the combination of aptamers with nanomaterials, including metal nanoparticles, nanosilica, quantum dots, and carbon nanomaterials, can enhance the ability of nanomaterials to recognize tumor cells, which is beneficial to overcome the shortcomings such as low sensitivity in early detection and lack of specificity of traditional antineoplastic drugs, thus, clinically helpful to improve the early metaphase diagnosis rate, providing a technical guarantee for the “personalized treatment” strategy for prostate cancer. Herein, we mainly review the basic and applied research of aptamer functionalized nanocomposite in prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment, including biosensing, bioimaging, and cancer therapy, hoping to provide new ideas for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Utkarsh Chadha ◽  
Senthil Kumaran Selvaraj ◽  
S. Vishak Thanu ◽  
Vishnu Cholapadath ◽  
Ashesh Mathew Abraham ◽  

Abstract Water is a necessity for all living and non-living organisms on this planet. It is understood that clean water sources are decreasing by the day, and the rapid rise of Industries and technology has led to an increase in the release of toxic effluents that are discharged into the environment. Wastewater released from Industries, agricultural waste, and municipalities must be treated before releasing into the environment as they contain harmful pollutants such as organic dyes, pharmaceuticals wastes, inorganic materials, and heavy metal ions. If not controlled, they can cause serious risks to human beings' health and contaminate our environment. Membrane filtration is a proven method for the filtration of various harmful chemicals and microbes from water. Carbon nanomaterials are applied in wastewater treatment due to their high surface area, making them efficient adsorbents. Carbon nanomaterials are being developed and utilized in membrane filtration for the treated wastewater before getting discharged with the rise of nanotechnology. This review studies carbon nanomaterials like fullerenes, graphenes, and CNTs incorporated in the membrane filtration to treat wastewater contaminants. We focus on these CNM based membranes and membrane technology, their properties and applications, and how they can enhance the commonly used membrane filtration performance by considering adsorption rate, selectivity, permeability, antimicrobial disinfectant properties, and compatibility with the environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Fuju Tai ◽  
Shuai Wang ◽  
Benshuai Liang ◽  
Yue Li ◽  
Jiakai Wu ◽  

Abstract Background Various environmental factors are capable of oxidative stress to result in limiting plant development and agricultural production. Fullerene-based carbon nanomaterials can enable radical scavenging and positively regulate plant growth. Even so, to date, our knowledge about the mechanism of fullerene-based carbon nanomaterials on plant growth and response to oxidative stress is still unclear. Results 20 or 50 mg/L quaternary ammonium iminofullerenes (IFQA) rescued the reduction in root lengths and root-hair densities and lengths of Arabidopsis and maize induced by accumulation of endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole or exogenous H2O2 treatment, as well as the root active absorption area and root activity under exogenous H2O2 treatment. Meanwhile, the downregulated contents of ascorbate acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) and the upregulated contents of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and H2O2 indicated that the exogenous H2O2 treatment induced oxidative stress of maize. Nonetheless, application of IFQA can increase the ratios of ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG, as well as the activities of glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and decrease the contents of H2O2 and MDA. Moreover, the root lengths were inhibited by buthionine sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis, and subsequently rescued after addition of IFQA. The results suggested that IFQA could alleviate exogenous-H2O2-induced oxidative stress on maize by regulating the ASA-GSH cycle. Furthermore, IFQA reduced the excess accumulation of ROS in root hairs, as well as the NADPH oxidase activity under H2O2 treatment. The transcript levels of genes affecting ROS-mediated root-hair development, such as RBOH B, RBOH C, PFT1, and PRX59, were significantly induced by H2O2 treatment and then decreased after addition of IFQA. Conclusion The positive effect of fullerene-based carbon nanomaterials on maize-root-hair growth under the induced oxidative stress was discovered. Application IFQA can ameliorate oxidative stress to promote maize-root growth through decreasing NADPH-oxidase activity, improving the scavenging of ROS by ASA-GSH cycle, and regulating the expressions of genes affecting maize-root-hair development. It will enrich more understanding the actual mechanism of fullerene-based nanoelicitors responsible for plant growth promotion and protection from oxidative stress. Graphical Abstract

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