scholarly journals Performance Analysis for Downlink MIMO-NOMA in Millimeter Wave Cellular Network with D2D Communications

2019 ◽  
Vol 2019 ◽  
pp. 1-11 ◽  
Jianguo Li ◽  
Xiangming Li ◽  
Aihua Wang ◽  
Neng Ye

Enabling nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in device-to-device (D2D) communications under the millimeter wave (mmWave) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) cellular network is of critical importance for 5G wireless systems to support low latency, high reliability, and high throughput radio access. In this paper, the closed-form expressions for the outage probability and the ergodic capacity in downlink MIMO-NOMA mmWave cellular network with D2D communications are considered, which indicates that NOMA outperforms TDMA. The influencing factors of performance, such as transmission power and antenna number, are also analyzed. It is found that higher transmission power and more antennas in the base station can decrease the outage probability and enhance the ergodic capacity of NOMA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Bo Xu ◽  
David Anguiano Sanjurjo ◽  
Davide Colombi ◽  
Christer Törnevik

International radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure assessment standards and regulatory bodies have developed methods and specified requirements to assess the actual maximum RF EMF exposure from radio base stations enabling massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and beamforming. Such techniques are based on the applications of power reduction factors (PRFs), which lead to more realistic, albeit conservative, exposure assessments. In this study, the actual maximum EMF exposure and the corresponding PRFs are computed for a millimeter-wave radio base station array antenna. The computed incident power densities based on near-field and far-field approaches are derived using a Monte Carlo analysis. The results show that the actual maximum exposure is well below the theoretical maximum, and the PRFs similar to those applicable for massive MIMO radio base stations operating below 6 GHz are also applicable for millimeter-wave frequencies. Despite the very low power levels that currently characterize millimeter-wave radio base stations, using the far-field approach can also guarantee the conservativeness of the PRFs used to assess the actual maximum exposure close to the antenna.

Algorithms ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 93 ◽  
Na Su ◽  
Qi Zhu

This paper assumes that multiple device-to-device (D2D) users can reuse the same uplink channel and base station (BS) supplies power to D2D transmitters by means of wireless energy transmission; the optimization problem aims at maximizing the total capacity of D2D users, and proposes a power control and channel allocation algorithm for the energy harvesting D2D communications underlaying the cellular network. This algorithm firstly uses a heuristic dynamic clustering method to cluster D2D users and those in the same cluster can share the same channel. Then, D2D users in the same cluster are modeled as a non-cooperative game, the expressions of D2D users’ transmission power and energy harvesting time are derived by using the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) condition, and the optimal transmission power and energy harvesting time are allocated to D2D users by the joint iteration optimization method. Finally, we use the Kuhn–Munkres (KM) algorithm to achieve the optimal matching between D2D clusters and cellular channel to maximize the total capacity of D2D users. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the system performance.

Sensors ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 18 (9) ◽  
pp. 2865 ◽  
Md Rahman ◽  
YoungDoo Lee ◽  
Insoo Koo

Device-to-device (D2D) communications allows user equipment (UE) that are in close proximity to communicate with each other directly without using a base station. Relay-assisted D2D (RA-D2D) communications in 5G networks can be applied to support long-distance users and to improve energy efficiency (EE) of the networks. In this paper, we first establish a multi-relay system model where the D2D UEs can communicate with each other by reusing only one cellular uplink resource. Then, we apply an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) architecture to select the best D2D relay to forward D2D source information to the expected D2D destination. Efficient power allocation (PA) in the D2D source and the D2D relay are critical problems for operating such networks, since the data rate of the cellular uplink and the maximum transmission power of the system need to be satisfied. As is known, 5G wireless networks also aim for low energy consumption to better implement the Internet of Things (IoT). Consequently, in this paper, we also formulate a problem to find the optimal solutions for PA of the D2D source and the D2D relay in terms of maximizing the EE of RA-D2D communications to support applications in the emerging IoT. To solve the PA problems of RA-D2D communications, a particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to maximize the EE of the RA-D2D communications while satisfying the transmission power constraints of the D2D users, minimum data rate of cellular uplink, and minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio requirements of the D2D users. Simulation results reveal that the proposed relay selection and PA methods significantly improve EE more than existing schemes.

2019 ◽  
Vol 37 (12) ◽  
pp. 2699-2714
Athanasios Koutsaftis ◽  
Rajeev Kumar ◽  
Pei Liu ◽  
Shivendra S. Panwar

2020 ◽  
Vol 13 (6) ◽  
pp. 454-459
Nam-Soo Kim ◽  

Outage probability and capacity are the representative performance measures for the quality of service (QoS) in mobile cellular systems. Recently, power back-off scheme is proposed in uplink non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems. The power back-off scheme improves the performance of a near user, however, decreases that of a far user. In comparison, the scheme indicates the error floors with an outage probability of 2.4×〖10〗^(-1) and 9.1×〖10〗^(-2) with power back-off 5 dB and 10 dB, respectively under the specified condition. To address these drawbacks, we propose an equal average signal-to–interference plus noise ratio (SINR) scheme that derives the same average SINR from active users at the base station (BS) in uplink non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems. Numerical results show that required signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the outage probability of 1×〖10〗^(-3) of the near and far users are close enough within 1 dB, which means an outage balance between two users. And it is noticed that the outage probabilities in the proposed scheme decrease as the increase of the received SNR without error floors. Also, different from the power back-off scheme, we noticed that the capacities of the two users in the proposed scheme are coincident and increase with SNR. The outage probabilities and ergodic capacity of the near and far users are derived in closed-form expressions. The analytical results are conformed by Monte Carlo simulation.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 448
Yumi Kim ◽  
Mincheol Paik ◽  
Bokyeong Kim ◽  
Haneul Ko ◽  
Seung-Yeon Kim

In a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) environment, an Internet of Things (IoT) device achieves a high data rate by increasing its transmission power. However, excessively high transmission power can cause an energy outage of an IoT device and have a detrimental effect on the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio of neighbor IoT devices. In this paper, we propose a neighbor-aware NOMA scheme (NA-NOMA) where each IoT device determines whether to transmit data to the base station and the transmission power at each time epoch in a distributed manner with the consideration of its energy level and other devices’ transmission powers. To maximize the aggregated data rate of IoT devices while keeping an acceptable average energy outage probability, a constrained stochastic game model is formulated, and the solution of the model is obtained using a best response dynamics-based algorithm. Evaluation results show that NA-NOMA can increase the average data rate up to 22% compared with a probability-based scheme while providing a sufficiently low energy outage probability (e.g., 0.05).

2019 ◽  
Vol 2019 ◽  
pp. 1-12 ◽  
Hyun-Ho Choi ◽  
Wonjong Noh

In a full-duplex (FD) cellular network, a base station transmits data to the downlink (DL) user and receives data from uplink (UL) users at the same time; thereby the interference from UL users to DL users occurs. One of the possible solutions to reduce this interuser interference in the FD cellular network is user pairing, which pairs a DL user with a UL user so that they use the same radio resource at the same time. In this paper, we consider a user pairing problem to minimize outage probability and formulate it as a nonconvex optimization problem. As a solution, we design a low-complexity user pairing algorithm, which first controls the UL transmit power to minimize the interuser interference and then allows the DL user having a worse signal quality to choose first its UL user giving less interference to minimize the outage probability. Then, we perform theoretical outage analysis of the FD cellular network on the basis of stochastic geometry and analyze the performance of the user pairing algorithm. Results show that the proposed user pairing significantly decreases the interuser interference and thus improves the DL outage performance while satisfying the requirement of UL signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio, compared to the conventional HD mode and a random pairing. We also reveal that there is a fundamental tradeoff between the DL outage and UL outage according to the user pairing strategy (e.g., throughput maximization or outage minimization) in the FD cellular network.

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