scholarly journals Protein hydrolysates from boarfish (Capros aper) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) skin gelatin improve metabolic control in genetically obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
Vadivel Parthsarathy ◽  
Chris M. McLaughlin ◽  
Shaun J. Sharkey ◽  
Pádraigín A. Harnedy-Rothwell ◽  
Ryan A. Lafferty ◽  

There is increasing interest in dietary protein for management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. The effects of twice-daily oral administration of a salmon skin gelatin hydrolysate (SSGH, 50 mg/kg), boarfish protein hydrolysate (BPH, (50 mg/kg), metformin (200 mg/kg), or saline control, were investigated in ob/ob mice. Non-fasting blood glucose was significantly reduced with SSGH (p<0.01), BPH (p<0.001) and metformin (p<0.001), which were reflected in reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (p<0.001, p<0.01 and p<0.01, respectively). Responses to oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were improved (p<0.05-0.01), as well as circulating plasma lipid profiles (p<0.05-0.001). Chronic BPH treatment increased circulating plasma insulin (p<0.01), whereas SSGH improved insulin sensitivity (p<0.05), versus respective controls. All treatments significantly reduced energy intake (p<0.05-<0.001) versus (ob/ob) controls, without affecting overall bodyweight. These findings suggest that fish hydrolysates mediate potent anti-diabetic actions similar to metformin and might be suitable for the management and prevention of T2DM.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3377
Omorogieva Ojo ◽  
Xiao-Hua Wang ◽  
Osarhumwese Osaretin Ojo ◽  
Amanda Rodrigues Amorim Adegboye

The use of nutritional interventions for managing diabetes is one of the effective strategies aimed at reducing the global prevalence of the condition, which is on the rise. Almonds are the most consumed tree nut and they are known to be rich sources of protein, monounsaturated fatty acids, essential minerals, and dietary fibre. Therefore, the aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of almonds on gut microbiota, glycometabolism, and inflammatory parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out according to the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA). EBSCOhost, which encompasses the Health Sciences Research Databases; Google Scholar; EMBASE; and the reference lists of articles were searched based on population, intervention, control, outcome, and study (PICOS) framework. Searches were carried out from database inception until 1 August 2021 based on medical subject headings (MesH) and synonyms. The meta-analysis was carried out with the Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software. Results: Nine randomised studies were included in the systematic review and eight were used for the meta-analysis. The results would suggest that almond-based diets have significant effects in promoting the growth of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing gut microbiota. Furthermore, the meta-analysis showed that almond-based diets were effective in significantly lowering (p < 0.05) glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and body mass index (BMI) in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, it was also found that the effects of almonds were not significant (p > 0.05) in relation to fasting blood glucose, 2 h postprandial blood glucose, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and Tumour necrosis factor α, TNF-α), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA–IR), and fasting insulin. The biological mechanisms responsible for the outcomes observed in this review in relation to reduction in HbA1c and BMI may be based on the nutrient composition of almonds and the biological effects, including the high fibre content and the low glycaemic index profile. Conclusion: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis have shown that almond-based diets may be effective in promoting short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and lowering glycated haemoglobin and body mass index in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with control. However, the effects of almonds were not significant (p > 0.05) with respect to fasting blood glucose, 2 h postprandial blood glucose, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and TNF-α), GLP-1, HOMA–IR, and fasting insulin.

2019 ◽  
Vol 16 (5) ◽  
pp. 458-465 ◽  
Eugenia Gkaliagkousi ◽  
Barbara Nikolaidou ◽  
Eleni Gavriilaki ◽  
Antonios Lazaridis ◽  
Efthalia Yiannaki ◽  

Aim: To investigate the thrombotic microenvironment in early stages of type 2 diabetes mellitus measuring platelet-derived, endothelial-derived and erythrocyte-derived microvesicles. Methods: We recruited 50 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who did not receive glucose-lowering treatment except for metformin and 25 matched non-type 2 diabetes mellitus volunteers. Microvesicles were measured with flow cytometry, glycated haemoglobin with high-performance liquid chromatography and advanced glycation end products with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients showed significantly higher levels of platelet-derived microvesicles [195/μL (115–409) vs 110/μL (73–150), p = 0.001] and erythrocyte-derived microvesicles [26/μL (9–100) vs 9/μL (4–25), p = 0.007] compared to non-type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals. Platelet-derived microvesicles were positively associated with fasting blood glucose ( p = 0.026) and glycated haemoglobin ( p = 0.002). Erythrocyte-derived microvesicles were also positively associated with fasting blood glucose ( p = 0.018) but not with glycated haemoglobin ( p = 0.193). No significant association was observed between platelet-derived microvesicles ( p = 0.126) or erythrocyte-derived microvesicles ( p = 0.857) and advanced glycation end products. Erythrocyte-derived microvesicles predicted the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, independently of platelet-derived microvesicles. Conclusion: In newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, ongoing atherothrombosis is evident during the early stages as evidenced by increased microvesicles levels. Furthermore, the association with glycemic profile suggests that microvesicles represent not only a novel mechanism by which hyperglycemia amplifies thrombotic tendency in type 2 diabetes mellitus but also early markers of thrombosis highlighting the need for earlier management of hyperglycemia.

2014 ◽  
Vol 2014 ◽  
pp. 1-6 ◽  
J. Ma ◽  
L. Y. Liu ◽  
P. H. Wu ◽  
Y. Liao ◽  
T. Tao ◽  

Objective. This study was designed to compare the effects of metformin and repaglinide on the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in China.Methods. A total of 107 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients (46 women and 61 men) participated in the study. All patients received 3-month treatment of metformin or repaglinide. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were determined at baseline and at the end of the 3-month of treatment.Results. FPG and HbA1c decreased in both metformin and repaglinide groups after 3 months treatment (P<0.01). The reduction of HbA1c was significantly greater in the repaglinide group(P<0.01). Metformin decreases fasting insulin concentration and HOMA-IR(P<0.01), and repaglinide improves HOMA-β  (P<0.01). Triglycerides (TG) were reduced in both groups(P<0.01in metformin group;P<0.05in repaglinide group), but total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased only after metformin treatment(P<0.05).Conclusions. Both repaglinide and metformin were effective in glycaemic control in new onset patients with type 2 diabetes in China. Repaglinide had no effect on insulin sensitivity, but it improvedβ-cell function.

Jonathan Nyebuchi ◽  
Victor Tuanwii ◽  
Felix Eedee Konne ◽  
Fyneface Chikadibia Amadi ◽  
Friday Ogidigba

Increased prevalence and incidence rates within ethnic minorities have been reported by numerous studies on tribal differences in type 2 diabetes patients, sharing a western setting. This study was aimed at comparing glycemic indices among different ethnic groups residing in Yenegoa, Bayelsa State. The study population consisted of apparently150 healthy male and female subjects; 116 Ijaws, 21 Igbos and 13 Yorubas residing in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State of Nigeria. All subjects were aged between 16 and 48 years. 4 mls of Blood samples was collected from each subject. 2mls of the blood was withdrawn into EDTA for HbA1c estimation while the other 2mls was withdrawn into fluoride oxalate for fasting blood glucose. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was determined using the automated CLOVER A1c Analyser while FBG was assayed using Glucose Oxidase Method. Results revealed that there was a significant difference in the mean levels of FBG among the studied groups (P-value < 0.05) but there was no significant difference in the HbA1c mean levels (P-value > 0.05). This study has revealed that ethnic differences may cause significant changes on fasting blood glucose but may not in HbA1c.

2014 ◽  
Vol 2014 ◽  
pp. 1-15 ◽  
Ahmad Haider ◽  
Aksam Yassin ◽  
Gheorghe Doros ◽  
Farid Saad

To investigate effects of long-term testosterone (T) therapy in obese men with T deficiency (TD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), data were collected from two observational, prospective, and cumulative registry studies of 561 men with TD receiving T therapy for up to 6 years. A subgroup of obese hypogonadal men with T2DM was analyzed. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC), fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) blood pressure, lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), and liver enzymes were measured. A total of 156 obese, diabetic men with T deficiency, aged 61.17 ± 6.18 years, fulfilled selection criteria. Subsequent to T therapy, WC decreased by 11.56 cm and weight declined by 17.49 kg (15.04%). Fasting glucose declined from 7.06 ± 1.74 to 5.59 ± 0.94 mmol/L (P<0.0001for all).HbA1cdecreased from 8.08 to 6.14%, with a mean change of 1.93%. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipid profiles including total cholesterol: HDL ratio, CRP, and liver enzymes all improved (P<0.0001). Long-term T therapy for up to 6 years resulted in significant and sustained improvements in weight, T2DM, and other cardiometabolic risk factors in obese, diabetic men with TD and this therapy may play an important role in the management of obesity and diabetes (diabesity) in men with T deficiency.

BMJ Open ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. e024029
Terry Gavaskar Ramnanansingh ◽  
Shivananda Bijoor Nayak

ObjectiveTo develop a novel sex independent anthropometric index, termed as angle index, related to type 2 diabetes.DesignCase–control.ParticipantsThe study comprised 121 participants and were divided into two groups. One group had no form of diabetes and served as controls (n=50). The other group had the condition of type 2 diabetes (n=71). 31% (n=37) of the subjects were male and 69% (n=84) were female. 62% (n=75) of the subjects were of East Indian ethnicity, 28% (n=34) were of African ethnicity and 10% (n=12) were of mixed ethnicity.SettingParticipants of the study were from the island of Trinidad, located in the Caribbean. Patients in the study were selected at random from hospital records.Primary outcome measureIt was hypothesised that the mean angle index of patients with type 2 diabetes would be higher than the mean angle index of patients without type 2 diabetes.ResultsPatients with type 2 diabetes had a significantly higher angle index value as compared with controls (p<0.001). Angle index was the superior sex independent anthropometric index in relation to type 2 diabetes (area under the curve=0.72; p<0.001) as compared with other sex independent variables. Angle index correlated with glycated haemoglobin (rs=0.28, p=0.003) and fasting blood glucose (rs=0.31, p=0.001) levels. Patients with type 2 diabetes were four times more likely to have an angle index greater than 184° (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.8 to 9.9) as compared with controls.ConclusionAngle index was a superior sex independent index for discriminating between patients with and without type 2 diabetes, as compared with waist circumference, abdominal volume index, conicity index, blood pressure readings, triglyceride levels and very low-density lipoprotein levels.

2006 ◽  
Vol 154 (6) ◽  
pp. 899-906 ◽  
D Kapoor ◽  
E Goodwin ◽  
K S Channer ◽  
T H Jones

Objective: Low levels of testosterone in men have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes, visceral adiposity, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome. We investigated the effect of testosterone treatment on insulin resistance and glycaemic control in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Design: This was a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study in 24 hypogonadal men (10 treated with insulin) over the age of 30 years with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Patients were treated with i.m. testosterone 200 mg every 2 weeks or placebo for 3 months in random order, followed by a washout period of 1 month before the alternate treatment phase. The primary outcomes were changes in fasting insulin sensitivity (as measured by homeostatic model index (HOMA) in those not on insulin), fasting blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin. The secondary outcomes were changes in body composition, fasting lipids and blood pressure. Statistical analysis was performed on the delta values, with the treatment effect of placebo compared against the treatment effect of testosterone. Results: Testosterone therapy reduced the HOMA index (−1.73 ± 0.67, P = 0.02, n = 14), indicating an improved fasting insulin sensitivity. Glycated haemoglobin was also reduced (−0.37 ± 0.17%, P = 0.03), as was the fasting blood glucose (−1.58 ± 0.68 mmol/l, P = 0.03). Testosterone treatment resulted in a reduction in visceral adiposity as assessed by waist circumference (−1.63 ± 0.71 cm, P = 0.03) and waist/hip ratio (−0.03 ± 0.01, P = 0.01). Total cholesterol decreased with testosterone therapy (−0.4 ± 0.17 mmol/l, P = 0.03) but no effect on blood pressure was observed. Conclusions: Testosterone replacement therapy reduces insulin resistance and improves glycaemic control in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Improvements in glycaemic control, insulin resistance, cholesterol and visceral adiposity together represent an overall reduction in cardiovascular risk.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Lu Yuan ◽  
Fengfei Li ◽  
Yue Zhou ◽  
Rui Sun ◽  
Gu Gao ◽  

To observe whether different insulin glargine titration algorithms based on fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels lead to different glycaemic variations (GVs) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, a prospective, randomized, single-centre, comparative, three-arm parallel-group, open-label, treat-to-target, 24-week study was performed. A total of 71 uncontrolled T2D patients were recruited and randomized 1 : 3 : 3 into Groups 1, 2, and 3 (insulin titration goals of FBG ≤ 5.6 , ≤6.1, and ≤7.0) for this study. The initiated insulin glargine dose was recommended at 0.2 U/kg/day and was then titrated following the FBG target. Patients were subjected to two 3-day continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) at baseline and the endpoint, wherein the CGM data were analysed, and the study’s primary endpoint was the difference in 24 hrs mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (MAGE) among the three groups. We observed that patients in the three groups had similar MAGE levels at the endpoint; however, Group 2 achieved a significant decrease in the MAGE level from baseline to the endpoint as compared to Groups 1 and 3 (all p < 0.05 ). We also observed that these patients had significant glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value improvements as compared to the other two groups (all p < 0.05 ). Therefore, choosing an FBG level of 6.1 mmol/L as an insulin titration target provided significant GVs and HbA1c value improvements in T2D patients. Moreover, our data indicated that an FBG of 6.1 mmol/L could possibly be an insulin glargine titration target in T2D patients.

2009 ◽  
pp. 203-209 ◽  
CM Sena ◽  
T Louro ◽  
P Matafome ◽  
E Nunes ◽  
P Monteiro ◽  

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by oxidative stress, which in turn determines endothelial dysfunction. Gliclazide is a sulphonylurea antidiabetic drug with antioxidant effects due to its azabicyclo-octyl ring. It has been reported to potentially protect the vasculature through improvements in plasma lipid levels and platelet function. We hypothesized that gliclazide has a beneficial effect on endothelial function in Goto-Kakizaki rats (GK), an animal model of type 2 diabetes fed an atherogenic diet for 4 months. We evaluated the influence of gliclazide on both metabolic and oxidative status and NO-mediated vasodilation. GKAD rats showed increased oxidative stress and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. GKAD rats treated with gliclazide showed increased sensitivity to NO-mediated vasodilation, a significant decrease in fasting glycemia and insulinemia, and a significant decrease in systemic oxidative stress. In conclusion, our results suggest that gliclazide treatment improves NO-mediated vasodilation in diabetic GK rats with dyslipidemia probably due to its antioxidant effects, although we cannot rule out substantial benefits due to a reduction in fasting blood glucose. The availability of a compound that simultaneously decreases hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and inhibits oxidative stress is a promising therapeutic candidate for the prevention of vascular complications of diabetes.

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