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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 322-325
Thomas Mathew ◽  
Shweta Ajay ◽  
B Ramakrishna Goud ◽  
Deepthi Narayan Shanbhag ◽  
Charles J Pallan ◽  

The prevalence of primary headache disorders (PHDs) and their burden has been seldom studied in the rural community setting of a developing country. To study the prevalence of primary headache disorders and their burden in the rural community A door to door survey was done in seven rural villages under Mugalur sub centre area, Sarjapura Primary Health Centre and Anekal taluk, Bangalore district, Karnataka State, south India, for finding the prevalence and burden of PHDs. During the study period of three months, a total of 1255 people were screened in the seven villages. 13.1% (165/1255) of people suffered from PHDs. The population prevalence of migraine without aura was 8.84% (111/1255), tension type headache was 2.86% (36/1255) and chronic migraine was 1.43%(18/1255). The mean number of headache days for all the PHDs was 4.26 (±1.64) days. 66.1% of persons with headache reported minimal or infrequent impact of headache. Among various demographic variables, headache was significantly associated with the female gender and marital status. PHDs are prevalent in the rural communities of developing countries and need urgent attention of primary care physicians, community health departments, governmental agencies and policy makers.

Akbar Aldi Kautsar ◽  
Mailin ◽  
Ade Soraya ◽  
Mas Khairani

This research is entitled "Facebook Social Media in Rural Communities (case study of Bandar Klippa Village Community against Changes in Communication Psychology)". This study aims to determine the psychological effect of rural community communication on social media Facebook and to find out what are the research criteria for rural communities in choosing social media. The time of the research was carried out from December 2, 2021 – December 10, 2021. The theories that support this research include: Media, Social Media, Facebook, and Village Community. This study uses a qualitative research method (Case Study). The population in this study is the Bandar Klippa Village Community.

2022 ◽  

The Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) is an area in southeastern Australia that has the largest and most regulated river system in the country. Historically, it has been an area of conflict over water resources, with efforts to bring the different states together to negotiate water sharing since the early 1900s. In the 20th century, the focus of water policy was predominantly on water supply infrastructure: building large-scale dam storages, weirs, and other irrigation region infrastructure. However, increasing problems with both water quality and quantity from the 1970s onwards—such as acid sulphate soils, salinity, declines in vegetation health, and species loss—meant that more attention was turned to water demand management options. These included establishing formal water markets, trade liberalization, and water extraction caps. The National Water Initiative (2004) and the Water Act (2007) laid the groundwork in unbundling water and land ownership and created the Murray-Darling Basin Authority (MDBA). The MDBA was tasked with developing the MDB Plan (Basin Plan 2012) to readjust the balance between consumptive water use and the environment. The Basin Plan when implemented in 2012 aimed to return up to one third of consumptive water extraction to environmental use, making it one of the biggest reallocations of water to the environment in the world. It has predominantly used market-based approaches to do so. However, conflict over water sharing has remained a dominant feature of MDB water reform. Self-interest among states and irrigation interests have impacted environmental water recovery methods, resource expenditure, and allocation—subsequently weakening both the Basin Plan and water policy in general. Given current policy developments, there is real danger of targets not being met, and environmental sustainability being continually compromised. The ongoing issues of drought, climate change, and readdressing First Nations access to—and ownership of—water have emphasized distributional issues in water sharing. It is clear also that the Basin Plan has been wrongly blamed and misattributed for ongoing rural community declines, with current amendments and reductions in water reallocation targets a result of this. What is clear is that the Basin Plan is currently not the fully sustainable solution for water sharing that it set out to be. It will need to continually evolve, along with various institutions to support water governance and rural community economic development in general, to address existing overallocation and future climate challenges. The challenges of equity, rural community development, and distributional fairness lie firmly in the sphere of strong governance, high-quality data, and first-best economic and scientific policies.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 210
Prince Obinna Njoku ◽  
Olatunde Samod Durowoju ◽  
Solomon Eghosa Uhunamure ◽  
Rachel Makungo

South Africa is a semi-arid, water-stressed country. Adequate measures should be put in place to prevent water wastage. This paper aims to assess domestic water wastage and determine the proper attitude towards household water management in rural and urban communities in South Africa. This study was conceptualised in two stages. Firstly, critical observations were used to examine the attitude of households towards water usage in both urban and rural communities (Durban and Thohoyandou, respectively). Secondly, structured questionnaires and interviews were used to identify the factors that influenced the participants’ attitudes towards domestic water usage. This study concludes that, irrespective of the literacy level, accessibility to limited water supply, information available through advertisements about water scarcity, and better water management in an urban community, the rural community has a better attitude towards domestic water usage and water management. The result (83.3%) also indicated that the rural community strongly agreed to be water savers in their homes. However, in the urban community, the results from the participants were somewhat evenly distributed; the participants strongly agreed and disagreed at 36.2% and 32.2%, respectively. Other results of the study also showed that variables such as family upbringing, inaccessibility of domestic water, and advertisement play a major role in influencing the attitude of the rural community to water usage. These variables were statistically significant at p < 0.001. However, the immediate environment was shown to be not statistically significant at p < 0.911. Based on the study results, it is recommended that households should be encouraged to generate greywater collection systems to reduce water use and improve water reuse. The government could introduce a rationed allocation (shedding) of domestic water in urban communities to draw attention to the prevalence of water scarcity in the nation.

Leidi Herrera ◽  
Antonio Morocoima ◽  
Daisy Lozano-Arias ◽  
Roberto García-Alzate ◽  
Mercedes Viettri ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Edward J. M. Joy ◽  
Alexander A. Kalimbira ◽  
Joanna Sturgess ◽  
Leonard Banda ◽  
Gabriella Chiutsi-Phiri ◽  

Background: Selenium deficiency is widespread in the Malawi population. The selenium concentration in maize, the staple food crop of Malawi, can be increased by applying selenium-enriched fertilizers. It is unknown whether this strategy, called agronomic biofortification, is effective at alleviating selenium deficiency.Objectives: The aim of the Addressing Hidden Hunger with Agronomy (AHHA) trial was to determine whether consumption of maize flour, agronomically-biofortified with selenium, affected the serum selenium concentrations of women, and children in a rural community setting.Design: An individually-randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted in rural Malawi. Participants were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive either intervention maize flour biofortified with selenium through application of selenium fertilizer, or control maize flour not biofortified with selenium. Participant households received enough flour to meet the typical consumption of all household members (330 g capita−1 day−1) for a period of 8 weeks. Baseline and endline serum selenium concentration (the primary outcome) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Results: One woman of reproductive age (WRA) and one school-aged child (SAC) from each of 180 households were recruited and households were randomized to each group. The baseline demographic and socioeconomic status of participants were well-balanced between arms. No serious adverse events were reported. In the intervention arm, mean (standard deviation) serum selenium concentration increased over the intervention period from 57.6 (17.0) μg L−1 (n = 88) to 107.9 (16.4) μg L−1 (n = 88) among WRA and from 46.4 (14.8) μg L−1 (n = 86) to 97.1 (16.0) μg L−1 (n = 88) among SAC. There was no evidence of change in serum selenium concentration in the control groups.Conclusion: Consumption of maize flour biofortified through application of selenium-enriched fertilizer increased selenium status in this community providing strong proof of principle that agronomic biofortification could be an effective approach to address selenium deficiency in Malawi and similar settings.Clinical Trial Registration:, identifier: ISRCTN85899451.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 546
Paulina Rodríguez-Díaz ◽  
Rocío Almuna ◽  
Carla Marchant ◽  
Sally Heinz ◽  
Roxana Lebuy ◽  

Rural livelihoods are under threat, not only from climate change and soil erosion but also because young people in rural areas are increasingly moving to urbanized areas, seeking employment and education opportunities. In the Valparaiso region of Chile, megadrought, soil degradation, and industrialization are driving young people to leave agricultural and livestock activities. In this study, our main objective was to identify the factors influencing young people living in two rural agricultural communities (Valle Hermoso and La Vega). We conducted 90 online surveys of young people aged 13–24 to evaluate their interest in living in the countryside (ILC). We assessed the effect of community satisfaction, connectedness to nature, and social valuation of rural livelihoods on the ILC. The results show that young people were more likely to stay living in the countryside when they felt satisfied and safe in their community, felt a connection with nature, and were surrounded by people who enjoyed the countryside. These results highlight the relevance of promoting place attachment and the feeling of belonging within the rural community. Chilean rural management and local policies need to focus on rural youth and highlight the opportunities that the countryside provides for them.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Kirsten Auret ◽  
Terri Pikora ◽  
Kate Gersbach

Abstract Background There is a lack of research to guide the implementation of voluntary assisted dying legislation within a hospice setting. Furthermore, there is limited published information related to the expectations of the community and staff to assist decision making regarding voluntary assisted dying in a community hospice. The aim of this study was to explore the expectations of staff, volunteers and members of the community as how a rural Australian community hospice could respond in relation to imminent enactment of Voluntary Assisted Dying legislation. Methods A total of 63 Hospice staff and volunteers and community members participated in 11 workshops. This qualitative study used the interpretive description method to analyse the workshop transcripts. Results While there was not a consensus view on community expectation, there was agreement among the participants for respect for a patient’s individuality and choices. Furthermore, care offered in hospice needs to remain non-judgemental and patient focused regardless of whether voluntary assisted dying policy was implemented or not. Both opportunities and risks associated with implementation were identified by the participants. Conclusion There was common ground around the respect for the dying person and the ideal of a “safe place” despite opposing views on what this may mean in practice. There is a need for clarity in organisational responses around policy, risk management, education, and staff support.

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