Liver Enzymes
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2021 ◽  
Fentahun Megabiaw ◽  
Tegegne Eshetu ◽  
Zeleke Kassahun ◽  

Abstract Backgroundinfection with malaria in humans involves liver cell destruction, which alters the levels of liver enzymes and lipid profiles. Although a number of studies have been conducted to address the impact of malaria on liver enzymes and lipid profiles, their findings lack consistency and no studies were conducted after antimalarial drug treatment in the Ethiopian context. This study, therefore, is intended to fill this gap. MethodsAn observational cohort study was conducted at Dembia Primary Hospital and Teda Health Center, from June to August 2020. A total of 88 study participants were recruited using random sampling techniques. Socio-demographic data, capillary and venous blood samples were collected from confirmed Plasmodium -infected individuals. Assessment of liver enzymes and lipid profiles was done using Beckman Coulter DC-700 clinical chemistry analyzer. Data were entered using Epi-data and exported to SPSS version 20 software for analysis. One way ANova, independent t-test, and paired t-test were used to compare the mean liver enzymes and lipid profile. A p -value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTSBefore anti-malaria treatment, among 88 malaria-infected study participants, abnormally elevated AST was observed in 87.5% of them. Similarly, elevated ALT, ALP, and TG were observed among 12.5%, 43.2%, and 17.2% of the study subjects, respectively. A lower level of HDL was observed among 87.5% of the study participants, while LDL and TC levels were within the normal range. After anti-malaria treatment,100% of AST, ALT, HDL, and LDL, and 92% of ALP, 94.3% of TC, and 86.4% of TG results were in the normal range. The mean level of AST (39.70±3.55and 55.35±9.6) and ALT (22.11±11.75, and23.24±16.05) results were increased, whereas HDL (28.88±11.63and22.73±14.26) level decreased from low to higher density parasitaemia. The mean level of AST at posttreatment (33.90±15.15) was significantly lower compared to the pretreatment (47.60±9.65). The mean levels of ALT had not altered during pretreatment(23.53±16.28)and posttreatment (23.49±11.10).Moreover, the mean of HDL, LDL, and TC at posttreatment were found to be increased when compared with pretreatment, though it is statistically insignificant ( P >0.05). CONCLUSIONMalaria parasites could be responsible for increased liver enzymes and certain lipids while decreasing some lipid profiles compared with the normal range. After anti-malaria treatment, these parameters were reversed to normal from 86.4% to 100%. When the mean values are compared, a significant change was observed in AST level while ALT level remains the same. Hence, prompt treatment is important to improve liver enzymes and lipid profile impairment during malaria infection.

G. Kaaruniya ◽  
A. Mariappan ◽  
V. Suba ◽  
R. Meenakumari

Objective: To evaluate the liver protective effect of Pancha Lavana Dravagam (PLD) against Paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rat models. Methods: The hepatoprotective activity of PLD was evaluated using paracetamol induced liver damage in rats. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Paracetamol 1gm/kg bw, p.o. was given to produce liver toxicity. The normal control was given the vehicle (water 1ml/kg bw, p.o). Two test groups with PLD 1ml/kg, 2ml/kg bw, p.o. were tested for hepatoprotective potential. Silymarin 50mg/kg bw, p.o. was given as standard drug. All these drugs were administered for 7 days. On 8th day, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected from retro-orbital plexus and analyzed for serum enzymes like Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Alanine Phosphate (ALP), Total Bilirubin, Total Proteins and liver was excised for histopathological analysis. Results: In toxicant control group, paracetamol produced liver toxicity due to decrease in glutathione (GSH) by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction of hepatic cells. It resulted in an increase of serum liver enzymes like SGPT, SGOT, ALP and Total Bilirubin. This increased serum liver enzymes were reduced significantly in the test drug PLD treated groups and Standard group. The histology of liver tissues was also improved in PLD treated groups when compared to the toxicant group. Conclusion: Since, no scientific evidence is available to claim the hepatoprotective effect of PLD, in vivo studies were conducted. It demonstrated that it has a potent hepatoprotective effect against the paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity by suppression of the reactive oxygen species and increasing the anti-oxidant glutathione in liver cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 033-037
Ningrum Eka Fitri Sari

Background: Varied clinical manifestations, complex pathogenesis, and different viral serotypes make it difficult to predict the course of dengue disease. Many studies have been conducted on the prognostic factors for the occurrence of dengue shock syndrome (SSD), but all use the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines.  Aim: This study aims to determine the prognostic factors for the occurrence of SSD based on WHO guidelines in 2011.  Method: Retrospective study using medical record data of pediatric patients aged 0 to <18 years with a diagnosis of dengue fever dengue (DHF), SSD, and expanded dengue syndrome (EDS) that meet WHO criteria in 2011 at the reputable database from 2017 to December 2020. Independent variables, namely gender, age, nutritional status, secondary dengue infection, leukopenia, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatomegaly, and plasma leakage. Shock is the dependent variable. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression analysis.  Results: Subjects who met the study criteria were 145 patients, 52 (35.8%) of whom had SSD. Five of 52 SSD patients went into shock during hospitalization. The bivariate analysis yielded significant factors including, malnutrition, overnutrition and obesity, gastrointestinal bleeding, hemoconcentration, ascites, leukocytes 5,000 mm 3, encephalopathy, enzyme elevation heart, and overload. The results of multivariate analysis showed that hemoconcentration variables and elevated liver enzymes were factors of SSD Prognosis.  Conclusion: Hemoconcentration and elevated liver enzymes are prognostic factors for SSD. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 226-229
G Rajeswari ◽  
P Satya Gopal ◽  
G.B.V.V.S.V Prasad

This study was conducted on covid 19 patients who admitted in various wards in tertiary care centre (Government general hospital, Kakinada) E.G, Dt, Andhra Pradesh, from the 1st November 2020 to 15th January 2021 before Immunization. And divided in to two groups male and female cases. This study involves estimation of Biochemical profile in all the admitted patients to predict the severity of the covid 19 disease at the time of admission in to the Hospital. To analyse and estimate the serum inflammatory markers like D dimer, Ferritin, C-Reactive Protein, LFT and RFT in Covid 19 patients and evaluate the relationship of inflammatory marker se D-Dimer with other inflammatory markers like Ferritin, CRP and biochemical markers like Creatinine and liver enzymes (OT, PT). We retrospectively analysed the Clinical features and lab parameters of 393 cases of Covid-19 admitted to tertiary care hospital GGH Kakinada. Plasma d dimer, serum CRP and ferritin were significantly raised in total covid 19 patients and more increased in males when compared with females. Biochemical parameters like creatinine and liver enzymes also elevated in total cases and more increased in males as compared with females suggest organ dysfunction and systemic inflammation. The most typical finding in patients with COVID-19 coagulopathy is an increased D dimer concentration, and the relationship between D-dimer levels and the other markers of inflammation like Ferritin, CRP in COVID-19 shows disease progression. We conclude that biochemical monitoring of Covid-19 patients helps in identifying critically ill patients even earlier, aiming to reduce mortality and improve the recovery rate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (9) ◽  
pp. 110-116
Aysir Saleh Mohammed Al-Samarrai ◽  
Rafah Razooq Hameed Al-Samarrai

The study was conducted to evaluate the epidemiological of toxoplasma gondii in local cows in Salah Adeen, and its effect to renal and liver function. One hundred twenty six sample of serum were collected from cows n different cows farm in Salah Adeen, include Samarra (60 sample), Al-Mutasim (28 sample), Baled (23 sample) and Aldejil (15 sample), from the period between July 2019 until February 2020. The study include detection of serum anti T. gondii IgG antibody by using ELISA Toxoplasma IgG kit, and also determination of serum liver enzymes activity which include (Transaminases enzymes: aspartate transaminase-AST and alanine transaminase-ALT) and also the concentration of serum total protein-TP, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine. The results indicate that the total percentage for the prevalence of T.gondii between cows in Saleh Eldean was 51.58%, distributed according to the region (68.33% in Samarra, 50% in Al-Mutasim, 26.08% in Baled and 26.66 in Aldejil). While the total percentage for infection with the parasite according to the gender of animals were 58.33% (28 from 48) in male animal and 47.43% (37from 78) in female animal. The results also showed that the level of TP, Albumin, globulin were significantly higher P≤0.05 in sera of infected animals, and also the activity of liver enzymes (AST and ALT) were significantly higher P≤0.05 in sera of infected animals with T.gondii with no significant difference in the level of urea and creatinine in sera of infected group as compared with non-infected group as control group. From all the above results we can conclude that the prevalence of T. gondii was high among animal under investigation, and this infection may be effect to the physiological function especially liver function.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Noyan Hossain Molla ◽  
Rahanuma Raihanu Kathak ◽  
Abu Hasan Sumon ◽  
Zitu Barman ◽  
Ananya Dutta Mou ◽  

AbstractSerum uric acid (SUA) level has been suggested to be associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about the relationship between SUA and liver enzymes activity in the general population. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between SUA and serum liver enzymes in an adult population in Bangladesh. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 410 blood samples were collected from apparently healthy adults aged > 18 years. SUA, liver enzymes, lipid profile and other biochemical markers were measured in the collected samples by using standard methods. Multinomial logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between SUA and elevated levels of liver enzymes among the participants. Overall, the prevalence of hyperuricemia was 30.1% with 32.2% in male and 18.6% in female participants. About 33% of the participants had at least one or more elevated levels of liver enzymes. The mean level of SUA was significantly higher in males (389.3 ± 96.9 µmol/L) than in the female (290.4 ± 89.8 µmol/L) subjects (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the mean levels of serum ALT and GGT between the male (34.5 ± 16.0 U/L and 26.7 ± 19.5 U/L, respectively) and female (25.0 ± 13.0 U/L and 19.5 ± 13.2 U/L, respectively) participants (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). An increasing trend was observed in the mean levels of serum ALT and GGT across the SUA quartile groups (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). SUA showed a positive and significant correlation with serum ALT (p < 0.001) and GGT (p < 0.01). In further statistical analysis after adjustment for potential confounders, SUA showed an independent and significant association with serum ALT and GGT in all regression models. In conclusion, SUA was strongly associated with serum levels of ALT and GGT after adjustment for potential confounders. More prospective studies are needed to clarify the complex relationship between SUA and liver enzymes in the general population.


Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if there were any harmful effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the liver of Wistar albino rats chronically at three different doses, namely, low, mid, and high doses equivalent to human consumption doses in developing countries. Methods: The Wistar albino rats (n=24) were divided into four groups, namely control, Low dose MSG (180 mg/kg), Mid dose MSG (360 mg/kg), and High dose MSG (720 mg/kg). At the end of the experimental period (120 days), animal blood was collected retro-orbitally to analyze the liver enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Total protein, Albumin, and Total Bilirubin in blood serum. Lipid profiles, namely, Triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and Total cholesterol were subjected to analysis using blood serum. Results: Significant increase (p<0.05) in AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin in serum of MSG induced low, mid, and high dose groups when compared to control group were recorded. There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in LDL, decrease in HDL, increase in total cholesterol and triglycerides of MSG-induced animal groups. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on serum liver enzymes and lipid profiles in this present animal study were not severely alarming even though the dosage was chronic which opens further discussion on the controversies revolving around MSG.

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