population dynamics
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Author(s):  
I. M. Grod ◽  
I. V. Zagorodniuk ◽  
L. O. Shevchyk ◽  
N. Ya. Kravets

Monitoring and predicting the dynamics of abundance of species living in natural habitats is an important component stability analysis of ecosystem as well as dynamics and direction of change of biotic communities under global climate change and pressure of the alien species. The aim of the work was to build a matrix model and study the state of stabilisation of the dynamics of the bank vole population within the Leslie model. The object of the study was the population dynamics of Myodes glareolus Schreber, 1780 = Clethrionomys glareolus auct. The study is based on materials obtained during 2017–2019. This period covered one phase of the long-term population dynamics of the bank vole, named “population growth”. The research was carried out according to generally accepted methods. A total of 6400 trap-days were processed, and 358 forest fistulas were collected and studied. The intensity of harmful activity of rodents is due to the variability of the number of animals in the population. The quantitative population changes are the result of three factors: births, deaths, and migrations. The main condition for the existence of the species is the stability of the population, which is determined by the action of thecompensatory mechanisms. The growth phase of the bank vole lasted all three years of the research, the quantitative indicators were respectively: 2017 – 1.8 individuals per 100 trap-days; 2018 – 2.0 individuals per 100 trap-days; 2019 – 2.7 individuals per 100 trap-days. Low levels of the abundance in the spring of each year of the study, namely at the beginning of the breeding season (3.7 – 2.6 – 8.9 individuals per 100 trap-days). Favourable for the abundance growth was the sex ratio of the population (approximately 1:1), with some rise in the share of females, which decreases on the period of spring 2018 to autumn 2019). Some decrease in the share of immature individuals (4.5 – 3.9 – 3.1 %) is an indirect confirmation of the stability of puberty of animals with subsequent replenishment of the "stock", which led to accelerated reproduction and, consequently, provided prerequisites for further population growth. The causal mechanisms of population control established by us, without a doubt, can serve as a basis for further prognosis, of the number of pests in natural habitats. To predict population changes, the Leslie model, which is widely used in mathematical analyses of the abundance of both plant and animal groups, was chosen. The algorithm for building a matrix model, detailed in the article, has five following steps. The exponential nature of the actual and projected growth of the bank vole population during the five-year cycle (2017–2019 with a prognosis until 2023) revealed in the analysis can be explained not so much by the power of the species' reproductive potential as by the lack of the significant changes in habitat, caused by constant weather conditions, low individual mortality from predators and non-communicable diseases or other accidents. The application of the matrix model allowed to confirm the key role of the main compensatory mechanisms of population dynamics, as they contribute to the stabilisation of the population and, as a consequence, are an important condition for the existence of the species.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009733
Author(s):  
Jann Paul Mattern ◽  
Kristof Glauninger ◽  
Gregory L. Britten ◽  
John R. Casey ◽  
Sangwon Hyun ◽  
...  

The rates of cell growth, division, and carbon loss of microbial populations are key parameters for understanding how organisms interact with their environment and how they contribute to the carbon cycle. However, the invasive nature of current analytical methods has hindered efforts to reliably quantify these parameters. In recent years, size-structured matrix population models (MPMs) have gained popularity for estimating division rates of microbial populations by mechanistically describing changes in microbial cell size distributions over time. Motivated by the mechanistic structure of these models, we employ a Bayesian approach to extend size-structured MPMs to capture additional biological processes describing the dynamics of a marine phytoplankton population over the day-night cycle. Our Bayesian framework is able to take prior scientific knowledge into account and generate biologically interpretable results. Using data from an exponentially growing laboratory culture of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, we isolate respiratory and exudative carbon losses as critical parameters for the modeling of their population dynamics. The results suggest that this modeling framework can provide deeper insights into microbial population dynamics provided by size distribution time-series data.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Avel GUÉNIN--CARLUT

Models of sociocultural evolution generally study the population dynamics of cultural traits given known biases in social learning. Cognitive agency, understood as the dynamics underlying a specific agent’s adoption of a given trait, is essentially irrelevant in this framework. This article argues that although implementing and instrumenting agency in computational models is fundamentally challenging, it is ultimately possible and would help us overcome major limitations in our understanding of sociocultural dynamics.Indeed, the behaviour of humans is not causally generated by a set of predefined behavioural laws, but by the situated activity of their cognitive architecture. Idealised models of biased transmission certainly help us understand specific features of population dynamics. However, they distract us from the deep intrication of the cognitive and ecological processes underlying sociocultural evolution, and erase their embodied, subjective nature.In line with the earlier “Thinking Through Other Minds” account of sociocultural evolution, this article highlights how the Active Inference framework can help us implement and instrument computational models that address these limitations. Such models would not only help ground our understanding of sociocultural evolution in the underlying cognitive dynamics, but also help solve (or frame) open questions in the study of ritual, relation between cultural transmission and innovation, as well as scales of cultural evolution.


Author(s):  
Connel Ching'anda ◽  
Joseph Atehnkeng ◽  
Ranajit Bandyopadhyay ◽  
Kenneth Callicott ◽  
Marc J Orbach ◽  
...  

Aspergillus flavus infects a wide range of crops, including pistachios, and subsequent aflatoxin contamination results in significant economic losses. Application of biocontrol products based on non-aflatoxigenic (atoxigenic) strains of A. flavus is one of the most effective tactics for controlling aflatoxins in crops. Both risk of aflatoxin contamination and effectiveness of biocontrol are influenced by the extent to which A. flavus spores move into pistachio tree canopies during periods of nut development. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate spatial and temporal population dynamics of A. flavus, including the applied biocontrol strain AF36, in canopies of pistachio orchards in Arizona. Propagule densities of A. flavus were quantified on leaf samples collected from lower, middle, and upper canopies from spring through harvest in 2018 and 2019. Aspergillus flavus propagule densities peaked during periods of high temperature and rainfall in 2018 (up to 600 CFU/g) and 2019 (up to 23 CFU/g), which coincided with nut development and maturation. The applied biocontrol strain AF36 was detected at all canopy heights, but overall propagule densities were greater in the upper and middle canopy (mean = 70 CFU/g) compared to the lower canopy (mean = 47 CFU/g). Results suggest June to August is the period during which A. flavus inoculum increases in Arizona pistachio orchards, and to most effectively displace aflatoxin-producing fungi in tree canopies, biocontrol applications should precede this period. In addition, this study demonstrates that soil-applied biocontrol strains can successfully disperse throughout the canopies of commercial tree nut orchards.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Suzanne Slack ◽  
Jeff Schachterle ◽  
Emma Sweeney ◽  
Roshni Kharadi ◽  
Jingyu Peng ◽  
...  

Populations of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora Ea110 on apple flower stigmas were tracked over the course of apple bloom in field studies conducted between 2016 and 2019. In 18 of 23 experiments, flower stigmas inoculated on the 1st day of opening were found to harbor large (106-107 cells / flower) populations of E. amylovora when assessed three to five days post-inoculation. However, populations inoculated on stigmas of flowers that were already open for three days did not reach 106 cells / flower, and populations inoculated on stigmas of flowers that were already open for five days never exceeded 104 cells / flower. During this study, >10-fold increases in E. amylovora stigma populations in a 24-hr time period (termed population surges) were observed on 34.8%, 20.0%, and 4.0% of possible days on 1-day, 3-day, and 5-day open flowers, respectively. Population surges occurred on days with average temperatures as high as 24.5°C and as low as 6.1°C. Experiments incorporating more frequent sampling during days and overnight revealed that many population surges occurred between 10:00 PM and 2:00 AM. A Pearson’s correlation analysis of weather parameters occurring during surge events indicated that population surges were significantly associated with situations where overnight temperatures either increased or remained constant, where wind speed decreased, and where relative humidity increased. This study refines our knowledge of E. amylovora population dynamics and further indicates that E. amylovora is able to infect flowers during exposure to colder field temperatures than previously reported.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Amy Zanne ◽  
Habacuc Flores-Moreno ◽  
Jeff Powell ◽  
William Cornwell ◽  
James Dalling ◽  
...  

Abstract Animals, such as termites, have largely been overlooked as global-scale drivers of biogeochemical cycles1,2, despite site-specific findings3,4. Deadwood turnover, an important component of the carbon cycle, is driven by multiple decay agents. Studies have focused on temperate systems5,6, where microbes dominate decay7. Microbial decay is sensitive to temperature, typically doubling per 10°C increase (decay effective Q10 = ~2)8–10. Termites are important decayers in tropical systems3,11–13 and differ from microbes in their population dynamics, dispersal, and substrate discovery14–16, meaning their climate sensitivities also differ. Using a network of 133 sites spanning 6 continents, we report the first global field-based quantification of temperature and precipitation sensitivities for termites and microbes, providing novel understandings of their response to changing climates. Temperature sensitivity of microbial decay was within previous estimates. Termite discovery and consumption were both much more sensitive to temperature (decay effective Q10 = 6.53), leading to striking differences in deadwood turnover in areas with and without termites. Termite impacts were greatest in tropical seasonal forests and savannas and subtropical deserts. With tropicalization17 (i.e., warming shifts to a tropical climate), the termite contribution to global wood decay will increase as more of the earth’s surface becomes accessible to termites.


Author(s):  
Yu. P. Dyakov

Based on the longterm observations for 1963–2019, the article provides an assessment of the yellowfin sole generation mortality dynamics depending initial abundance and population dynamics in view of abundance and biomass. Individual growth and matiration rates were evaluated in generations with different initial abundance and in different states of population dynamics. Results indicated about intraspecific competition in yellowfin sole in the eastern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, expressed in specifics of the dynamics of stock abundance, growth and maturation. Forming generation stock abundance in early and later ages has different character. The more exceeding number of parental eggs spawned, the more generation abundance of yearlings getting exactly compensated by mortality (complete compensation). Older generations demonstrate the phenomen of “overcompensation”, when mortality of generations appeared in the years of higher egg production exceeds fertility. In the period of population growth and stabilization at a high level the period of the Yellowfin sole abundance fluctuation cycle gets shorter and the amplitude – smaller. Effects of intraspecific competition on the growth of individuals are revealed. Negative effects of the competition authentically revealed in elder age groups were not observed in younger age groups. An increase of the Yellowfin sole abundance brings negative effects on maturation rate of males with almost no such effects on females. To the greatest extent such effects can be seen in young age groups, at the beginning and middle stage of maturation.


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