scholarly journals Role of Yoga in Ancient Menstrual Ethics with special reference to concept of Citta ?uddhi

Neha Saini ◽  
Neha Saini

One of the objectives of Yoga is to achieve and maintain purity of Citta. The entire practices of Yoga are intended to achieve purity of Citta by any means and ways, and in all conditions. It keeps working on its objective so that human beings would be able to achieve the state of supreme bliss or the state of ?nanda. To attain the level of anta? ?uddhi, covering various aspects of Citta, one has to adhere zealously to yama and niyama with Ha?h Yoga or ????nga Yoga then they would be able to reach the avacetana mana and after that they try to attain the level of Citta ?uddhi. Fortunately women are granted a great opportunity or a golden chance by nature in the form of menstrual phase which is known as Raja?sr?va k?la whereby she has to do nothing from the practices of Ha?h Yoga or R?ja Yoga and she can just sit by herself and may try to choose any way to open up her inner self and reach the avacetana mana very quickly by practicing the dh?ra?a, dhy?na, mantra chanting and various relaxation techniques. She may thus work to purify her Citta at a greater speed and able to attain peace and bliss sooner, because there are certain ancient ethics related to the menstrual phase, like; isolation, keeping away from cooking, avoids mingling with other people, etc. These can actually be conducive to thinking and taking action for awakening the inner self, the true and ultimate purpose of life. This research work is an attempt to throw light on some hidden phenomenon behind the ancient ethics related to menstrual phase, with guidelines and suggestions for women intended towards realising their real potential and leading them towards ultimate aim of life. Keywords: Citta, Ancient Menstrual Ethics, Citta?uddh.

Joanne Boucher

Abstract This article examines the role of women in Hobbes's economic thought. First, I frame Hobbes's economic thought in relation to his philosophical materialism so as to underscore the extent to which Hobbes's materialism entails the insight that human beings are, by definition, productive, economic creatures. I argue that his description of the economy, even without explicit acknowledgment, necessarily positions women as crucial economic actors. I then consider the implications of this in relation to the feminist possibilities of Hobbes's gender politics. I conclude that when deliberating on this question, we face the same conundrum that is evident in all literature considering Hobbes and gender. His radical comments about women in the state of nature are undermined by his seeming indifference to the state of women in commonwealths once they are founded.

Iver B. Neumann

The diplomat is formed in certain socially specific ways, and is defined by the role they play within certain contexts in the field of international relations. Since it is human beings, and not organizations, who practice diplomacy, the diplomats’ social traits are relevant to their work. Historically, diplomats can be defined in terms of two key social traits (class and gender) and how their roles depend on two contexts (bureaucrat/information gatherer and private/public). Before the rise of the state in Europe, envoys were usually monks. With the rise of the state, the aristocracy took over the diplomatic missions. Nonaristocrats were later allowed to assume the role of diplomats, but they needed to be trained, both as gentlemen and as diplomats. From the eighteenth century onwards, wives usually accompanied diplomats stationed abroad, though by the end of the nineteenth century, a few women came to work as typists and carry out menial chores for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA). As women became legal persons through performing such labor, they later became qualified to legally serve as diplomats. Meanwhile, in terms of context, the key context change for a diplomat is from “at home” (as in “my home country”) to “abroad.” Historically, work at home is the descendant of bureaucratic service at the MFA, and work abroad of the diplomatic service.

Early China ◽  
2000 ◽  
Vol 25 ◽  
pp. 113-146 ◽  
Paul Rakita Goldin

This article discusses the several previously unknown Confucian texts discovered in 1993 in a Warring States tomb at Guodian, near Jingmen, Hubei Province. I believe that these works should be understood as doctrinal material deriving from a single tradition of Confucianism and datable to around 300 B.C. Of the surviving literature from the same period, they are closer to the Xunzi than to any other text, and anticipate several characteristic themes in Xunzi's philosophy. These are: the notion of human nature (xing 性),and the controversy over whether the source of morality is internar or “external”; the role of learning (xue 學)and habitual practice (xi 習) in moral development; the content and origin of ritual (li 禮), by which human beings accord with the Way; the conception of the ruler as the mind (xin 心) of the state; and the psychological utility of music (yue 樂) in inculcating proper values.It is especially important for scholars to take note of these connections with Xunzi, in view of the emerging trend to associate the Guodian manuscripts with Zisi, the famous grandson of Confucius, whom Xunzi bitterly criticized.

Orlando Coutinho ◽  

The way in which an unknown virus has moved from a local to a global case, taking on a pandemic outline, has caused significant changes in the lives of all human beings. Firstly, for that reason, it is unknown, then because behind the ignorance comes mistrust and fear. Nowadays, these ingredients are - in the political-social space - substance for the biggest factors of action and decision of the actors of the power. Have we been in a war context, as some have said? Was confinement, global and so prolonged, really necessary? Was decreeing a state of emergency essential? Were the exception measures proportional? And are they reversible? This article aims, in the way of the ideas of several authors that thinking about the political philosophical role of health contexts, of exception state, and of political control of the State, in face of public health issues and not only, understand the “state of the art” in the way of governing western democracies, in the firstly, but flying over other geographies and systems as the virus has assumed global contours. And, by means of the concrete measures, politically adopted, by the different political actors, what real impacts they had on the life and the institutions working, and on the psychology of the persons individually or socially considered.

Christina Schües

The laughter of the Thracian handmaid. About the ›unworldliness‹ of philosophy. Interpreting Plato’s story of the Thracian handmaid, this essay focuses on questions concerning the supposition of an opposition between common sense and philosophical thinking. Taking the laughter of the maid seriously the author discusses the role of laughter for Plato’s approach. By reevaluating the function of laughter she argues for its strength in revealing ideological thinking or an undisclosed hypothesis, and in enabling philosophical thinking. Thus, the author argues that the alliance of laughter and thinking unsettles the state of being enclosed in ideology, everydayness or thoughtlessness, and both distances and unsettles human beings. And hence, it may free us to pose again the question as to how we are thinking what.

2018 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 93
Erfa Ernawati

The purpose of national education is to develop the potential of learners to become human beings who believe and cautious to God Almighty, have noble character, healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent, and become citizens of a democratic and responsible. In fact, although the number of educated people is increasing, there is still a lot of criminality, immorality, violation of law and other issues as if eliminating the identity of a nation that berpencasila. This is where the importance of morals, the role of morals in life is often beyond the role of science, for science without morality encourages people to the kebiadapan ". So it becomes a necessity for all educators, the public as well as the state to focus on matters of morality, by realizing that children's time is the right time to instill morals. An effective method is needed to instill morals to the children, and in this case we are referring to Abdullah Nasih Ulwan who has made the formula for the education of morals for children in accordance with the rules of the current education. Departing from the background mentioned above, In order for research to have direction, base and meaning, it is necessary writer to formulate the purpose of this research, namely: first, to know urgency of moral education in children according to Abdullah Nasih Ulwan, second to know the method and application of moral education on according to Abdullah Nasih Ulwan, the third to know its relevance to the current conditions.

2004 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 387-416 ◽  
William Wilson

This paper seeks to counter a currently popular account of criminal defences which holds that both excuses and justifications are characterised by the fact that the conduct of the actor is consistent with the standards to be expected of good citizens in the role inhabited by the actor. Its object is to restore due prominence to the role played by human frailty in core defences. The position will be advanced that a significant reason for this loss of prominence is that insufficient attention has been paid to the filtering role played by crisis. For both excuses and justifications crisis marks the moral limits within which a workable system of norm enforcement can be achieved. In each case it ensures defences are socially validated, although the nature of the validation differs according to the nature of the defence. With defences of reasonable reaction crisis helps mark the parameters of reasonableness and ensures respect for the rule of law. Crisis may also deprive individuals of their susceptibility to conform their behaviour to rules. Its major constitutive role in this regard is to ensure that this susceptibility is rooted in the characteristics of human beings generally rather the specific characteristics of the actor. In this way it gives moral focus to the way excuses may intrude simply because the state cannot reasonably demand any better, at the same time providing a mechanism for distinguishing true excuses from exemptions or defences of impaired capacity.

Setyo Utomo

<p><em>Humans as God's creatures are given freedom of human rights from birth. As a citizen, it is necessary that the State shall be obliged to protect the freedom of the rights of its citizens. However can’t be denied the freedom of human rights between human beings with each other in fact lead to differences in interests that led to the emergence of conflicts that often lead to the occurrence of fatalities and loss of property. Whereas one of the citizens' rights is free to live anywhere within a territory of the State. Likewise with citizens of Indonesia, in the Constitution of the State has guaranteed the freedom to reside within the territory of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. Based on the experience of conflicts in the country, with the post-conflict handling of those who had previously conflicted it can be reunited in living a harmonious life, but unlike the conflict that occurred in Sambas Regency in 1999 between ethnic Malays and Madurese which has been over the years and with post-conflict efforts that have been done until now people in Sambas district have not been able to accept the presence of Madurese in Sambas Regency.</em><em></em></p>

Acta Comitas ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 575
I Gusti Agung dewi Mulyani ◽  
I Wayan Wiryawan

In the ruling man is created unable to live alone, the law is human created to live both and add to his descendants and successors. This leads to a bond of marriage between men and women, whose purpose is to create happy families and homes, harmoniously with the virtue of the one true deity. The marriage is held with the Customs and culture of each party, because basically the two human beings are backed by different customs and cultures. Indonesia's state with a forward minded society wants to make its life more improved, both in the field of work and home, not infrequently in the Indonesian economic system has established relationships with foreign nationals as Investors to improve the economic system in Indonesia. It is not uncommon for Indonesian citizen to have a relationship with foreigners to work, do business, and be friends and friendly, because humans are created to require each other, profitable, and adjoining. The relationship between WNI and WNI is not uncommon in marital relationship, namely mixed marriage between citizens and foreigners who occur on the basis of affection and love and want to live a life together. The marriage itself has been governed in the marriage act, i.e. the marriage has been recognized by the State, and against the marriage of the mix has also been recognized by the state because it has been demonstrated and regulated in the marriage act as well. Through life, in it for future survival, sought and acquired wealth that can be a common treasure or can also be a split. The common treasures are the treasures obtained throughout the marriage, without the agreement of marriage. The Covenant of marriage is made with the purpose of the separation of the property of each party, meaning there is no mixing of possessions in the family, and with this each party has each responsibility. In this journal is conducted empirical research because it is to be able to discuss issues raised as to how the role of notary in protecting the status of property rights on land resulting from mixed marriages and how the status of ownership On the ground when a divorce occurs, it must be research directly with the source of space. Implemented using the fact approach, and the collection of secondary data and primary data, so as to discuss the role of notary in protecting the property rights on land is to make a marriage agreement before or after the marriage In progress, by providing legal certainty against the separation of the property that has occurred and the status of ownership of the land when divorce occurs can remain the property of Indonesian citizens, or the status is given to children born of marriage The

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 1038-1091
Aleksandr R. Pavlushkov

The purpose of the article is to reveal causes and features of punitive practice of the Spaso-Kamenny Monastery in the pre-imperial period when there was a rapid separation of the state and church jurisdiction in various spheres of society. The article tries to define the most significant events which determined the inclusion of this monastery in the punitive policy of the state. Another task of the research is to determine the peculiarities of the exile to the Spaso-Kamenny Monastery at the early stage of its development. Due to its special geographical location, initially it was used for punitive purposes rarely and rather selectively. The complexity of the research work can be explained by the limited availability of the sources related for the period under consideration, which did not allow us to recreate a complete picture of the functioning of the prison premises and the everyday life of prisoners. It was possible to create a more detailed picture only by turning to the documents of the era of the regular state of Peter the Great. Therefore, the accent in the research was made first of all on generalization and analysis of the most striking and at the same time insufficiently studied facts of exile to the Spaso-Kamenny Monastery of various well-known persons, including Metropolitan Zosimus, Metropolitan Varlaam, Archbishop Arsenii, and Archimandrite Ivan Neronov, who played an important role in the history both of the church and of the state. The author analyzes the causes and conditions of exile in the context of the events of that time. The conclusion is made that the content of punitive functions of the Spaso-Kamenny Monastery was constantly changing. The basis for these changes was the desire of the grand-princely power to see the monastery as a supporter of the spread of its own influence. A peculiarity of the first stage in the punitive activity of the Spaso-Kamenny Monastery was the fact that representatives of the religious elite were exiled there. It was explained by special natural conditions and geopolitical location of the island monastery. Later this trend continued, but the contingent of exiles significantly expanded.

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