The interlayer interference is very serious in the process of water flooding development, especially when the reservoir adopts commingling production. The implementation of various interlayer interference mitigation measures requires that the production performance parameters and remaining oil distribution of each layer of the reservoir should be clearly defined, and the accurate production splitting of oil wells is the key. In this paper, the five-spot pattern is simplified to a single well production model of commingled production centered on oil well. The accurate production splitting results are obtained through automatic history matching of single well production performance. The comparison between the calculation results of this method and that of reservoir numerical simulation shows that the method is simple, accurate, and practical. In the field application, for the multilayer commingled production reservoir without accurate numerical simulation, this method can quickly and accurately realize the production splitting of the reservoir according to the development performance data.
The purpose of this study is to introduce a new three-linear flow model for capturing the dynamic behavior of water flooding with different fracture occurrences in carbonate reservoirs. Low-angle and high-angle fractures with different occurrences are usually developed in carbonate reservoirs. It is difficult to simulate the water injection development process and the law of water flooding is unclear, due to the large variation of the fracture dip. Based on the characteristics of water flooding displacement streamlines in fractured cores with different occurrences, the matrix is discretized into a number of one-dimensional linear subregions, and the channeling effect between each subregion is considered in this paper. The fractures are divided into the same number of fracture cells along with the matrix subregion, and the conduction effect between the fracture cells is considered. The fractured core injection-production system is divided into three areas of linear flow: The injected fluid flows horizontally and linearly from the matrix area at the inlet end of the core to the fracture and then linearly diverts from the fracture area. Finally, the matrix area at the outlet end of the core also presents a horizontal linear flow pattern. Thus, a trilinear flow model for water flooding oil in fractured cores with different occurrences is established. The modified BL equation is used to construct the matrix water-flooding analytical solution, and the fracture system establishes a finite-volume numerical solution, forming a high-efficiency semianalytical solution method for water-flooding BL-CVF. Compared with traditional numerical simulation methods, the accuracy is over 86%, the model is easy to construct, and the calculation efficiency is high. In addition, it can flexibly portray cracks at any dip angle, calculate various indicators of water flooding, and simulate the pressure field and saturation field, with great application effect. The research results show that the greater the fracture dip angle, the higher the oil displacement efficiency. When the fracture dip angle is above 45°, the fracture occurrence has almost no effect on the oil displacement efficiency. The water breakthrough time of through fractures is earlier than that of nonthrough fractures, and the oil displacement efficiency and injection pressure are more significantly affected by the fracture permeability. With the increase of fracture permeability, the oil displacement efficiency and the injection pressure of perforated fractured cores dropped drastically. The findings of this study can help for better understanding of the water drive law and optimizing its parameters in cores with different fracture occurrences. The three-linear flow model has strong adaptability and can accurately solve low-permeability reservoirs and high-angle fractures, but there are some errors for high-permeability reservoirs with long fractures.
The rapid industrialization in the last decades significantly changed the traditional spatial arrangement in Central Kalimantan Island. The indigenous community’s traditional forest lands management and ownership were transferred to oil palm plantations and mining corporations. Therefore, it disempowered the traditional spatial arrangement by changing the community’s living conditions and transforming their livelihood sources from primary (forests) to secondary and tertiary. The disempowered traditional spatial arrangement of the Tumbang Marikoi village community includes a living area with rivers, forests, and dwellings. They access the forest through the village Kahayan Hulu and the Marikoi River. There is no power grid in Marikoi Village, making them depend on a solar-powered energy generation facility for their daily activities, including gardening, gathering forest products, hunting, mining gold, and fishing. This study applied the phenomenological method to explain the traditional spatial disempowerment in Marikoi Village, Central Kalimantan, following corporate plantation powers and mining activities. The results indicated that the palm plantations affected the Dayak community's living space and daily life. Furthermore, the ownership and management of their customary land, enhancing their economic, social, cultural, and religious life, was transferred to large plantations. As a result, the community’s traditional spatial arrangement was disempowered through river silting from soil drilling, cloudy river water, flooding, distant land for income (selling honey, vegetables, rattan, herbal medicine, and other forest wealth), farming restrictions by clearing land and losing sacred areas and ancestral rituals.
Nanofluid flooding, as a new technique to enhance oil recovery, has recently aroused much attention. The current study considers the performance of a novel iron-carbon nanohybrid to EOR. Carbon nanoparticles was synthesized via the hydrothermal method with citric acid and hybridize with iron (Fe3O4). The investigated nanohybrid is characterized by its rheological properties (viscosity), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The efficiency of the synthetized nanoparticle in displacing heavy oil is initially assessed using an oil–wet glass micromodel at ambient conditions. Nanofluid samples with various concentrations (0.05 wt % and 0.5 wt %) dispersed in a water base fluid with varied salinities were first prepared. The prepared nanofluids provide high stability with no additive such as polymer or surfactant. Before displacement experiments were run, to achieve a better understanding of fluid–fluid and grain–fluid interactions in porous media, a series of sub-pore scale tests—including interfacial tension (IFT), contact angle, and zeta potential—were conducted. Nanofluid flooding results show that the nanofluid with the medium base fluid salinity and highest nanoparticle concertation provides the highest oil recovery. However, it is observed that increasing the nanofluid concentration from 0.05% to 0.5% provided only three percent more oil. In contrast, the lowest oil recovery resulted from low salinity water flooding. It was also observed that the measured IFT value between nanofluids and crude oil is a function of nanofluid concentration and base fluid salinities, i.e., the IFT values decrease with the increase of nanofluid concentration and base fluid salinity reduction. However, the base fluid salinity enhancement leads to wettability alteration towards more water-wetness. The main mechanisms responsible for oil recovery enhancement during nanofluid flooding is mainly attributed to wettability alteration toward water-wetness and micro-dispersion formation. However, the interfacial tension (IFT) reduction using the iron-carbon nanohybrid is also observed but the reduction is not significant.