carbonate reservoirs
Recently Published Documents





Lithosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (Special 4) ◽  
Meng Sun ◽  
Hongxin Guo ◽  
Wenqi Zhao ◽  
Peng Wang ◽  
Lun Zhao ◽  

Abstract The purpose of this study is to introduce a new three-linear flow model for capturing the dynamic behavior of water flooding with different fracture occurrences in carbonate reservoirs. Low-angle and high-angle fractures with different occurrences are usually developed in carbonate reservoirs. It is difficult to simulate the water injection development process and the law of water flooding is unclear, due to the large variation of the fracture dip. Based on the characteristics of water flooding displacement streamlines in fractured cores with different occurrences, the matrix is discretized into a number of one-dimensional linear subregions, and the channeling effect between each subregion is considered in this paper. The fractures are divided into the same number of fracture cells along with the matrix subregion, and the conduction effect between the fracture cells is considered. The fractured core injection-production system is divided into three areas of linear flow: The injected fluid flows horizontally and linearly from the matrix area at the inlet end of the core to the fracture and then linearly diverts from the fracture area. Finally, the matrix area at the outlet end of the core also presents a horizontal linear flow pattern. Thus, a trilinear flow model for water flooding oil in fractured cores with different occurrences is established. The modified BL equation is used to construct the matrix water-flooding analytical solution, and the fracture system establishes a finite-volume numerical solution, forming a high-efficiency semianalytical solution method for water-flooding BL-CVF. Compared with traditional numerical simulation methods, the accuracy is over 86%, the model is easy to construct, and the calculation efficiency is high. In addition, it can flexibly portray cracks at any dip angle, calculate various indicators of water flooding, and simulate the pressure field and saturation field, with great application effect. The research results show that the greater the fracture dip angle, the higher the oil displacement efficiency. When the fracture dip angle is above 45°, the fracture occurrence has almost no effect on the oil displacement efficiency. The water breakthrough time of through fractures is earlier than that of nonthrough fractures, and the oil displacement efficiency and injection pressure are more significantly affected by the fracture permeability. With the increase of fracture permeability, the oil displacement efficiency and the injection pressure of perforated fractured cores dropped drastically. The findings of this study can help for better understanding of the water drive law and optimizing its parameters in cores with different fracture occurrences. The three-linear flow model has strong adaptability and can accurately solve low-permeability reservoirs and high-angle fractures, but there are some errors for high-permeability reservoirs with long fractures.

2022 ◽  
Javier Alejandro Franquet ◽  
Viraj Nitin Telang ◽  
Hayat Abdi Ibrahim Jibar ◽  
Karem Alejandra Khan

Abstract The scope of this work is to measure downhole fracture-initiation pressures in multiple carbonate reservoirs located onshore about 50 km from Abu Dhabi city. The objective of characterizing formation breakdown across several reservoirs is to quantify the maximum gas and CO2 injection capacity on each reservoir layer for pressure maintenance and enhance oil recovery operations. This study also acquires pore pressure and fracture closure pressure measurements for calibrating the geomechanical in-situ stress model and far-field lateral strain boundary conditions. Several single-probe pressure drawdown and straddle packer microfrac injection tests provide accurate downhole measurements of reservoir pore pressure, fracture initiation, reopening and fracture closure pressures. These tests are achieved using a wireline or pipe-conveyed straddle packer logging tool capable to isolate 3 feet of openhole formation in a vertical pilot hole across five Lower Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs zones. The fracture closure pressures are obtained from three decline methods during the pressure fall-off after fracture propagation injection cycle. The three methods are: (1) square-root of the shut-in time, (2) G-Function pressure derivative, and (3) Log-Log pressure derivative. The far-field strain values are estimated by multi-variable regression from the microfrac test data and the core-calibrated static elastic properties of the formations where the stress tests are done. The reservoir pressure across these carbonate formations are between 0.48 to 0.5 psi/ft with a value repeatability of 0.05 psi among build-up tests and 0.05 psi/min of pressure stability. The formation breakdown pressures are obtained between 0.97 and 1.12 psi/ft over 5,500 psi above hydrostatic pressure. The in-situ fracture closure measurements provide the magnitude of the minimum horizontal stress 0.74 - 0.83 psi/ft which is used to back-calculate the lateral strain values (0.15 and 0.72 mStrain) as far-field boundary condition for subsequent geomechanical modeling. These measurements provide critical subsurface information to accurately predict wellbore stability, hydraulic fracture containment and CO2 injection capacity for effective enhance oil recovery within these reservoirs. This in-situ stress wellbore data represents the first of its kind in the field allowing petroleum and reservoir engineers to optimize the subsurface injection plans for efficient field developing.

2022 ◽  
Dawei Zhu ◽  
Mingyue Cui ◽  
Yandong Chen ◽  
Yongli Wang ◽  
Yunhong Ding ◽  

Abstract The carbonate reservoir S is a giant limestone reservoir in H Oilfield, Iraq. Although the reserves account for 25%, the production contribution is only 0.4% to the total oilfield production due to poor petrophysical properties. Accordingly, the first proppant fracturing on vertical well was successfully executed in December 2016, which has already achieved a steady production period over than 3 years. In order to further improve the productivity, the first multi-stage proppant fracturing(MSPF) on horizontal well(SH01X) was successfully applied in November 2019, a technique which is rarely reported for porous limestone reservoir in the Middle East. Proppant fracturing in carbonate reservoirs is a technique difficulty worldwide, especially this is a lack of experiences in the Middle East. To ensure the success of this campaign, a holistic technical study including geology evaluation, reservoir performance analysis, drilling trajectory design, completion and fracturing technique design have been carried out based on principle of "geology-engineering integration". This paper will present a comprehensive illustration including treatment design (main completion-fracturing technique, total scale, fracturing fluid, proppant), job execution (mini-frac, main-frac) and post-frac production performance for this successful campaign. True vertical depth (TVD) of Well SH01X is 2720 m and the horizontal section length is 811 m. Based on the main technique of multi-stage proppant fracturing with open hole packers and sliding sleeves, totally 3784.3 m3 fracturing fluid and 452 m3 proppant were pumped in 8 stages. The test production was 3214 BOPD (choke size: 40/64", wellhead pressure: 970 psi). A historical breakthrough in the productivity of S reservoir has been achieved by the campaign. The post-frac evaluation shows that the treatment parameters are consistent with the design. The connectivity between artificial fractures and formation is greatly improved, and the stimulation effect is significant. Currently the "production under controlled pressure" mode has been executed and the stable production under stimulation target rate has been maintained. The systematic "geology-engineering integration" workflow is of significance to the success of the treatment as well as the stimulation effect. MSPF is planned to be a game-changing technique to develop the huge reserves of S reservoir. The experience gained from this case could provide theoretical as well as practical references for similar reservoirs in the Middle East.

Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Yunpeng Shan ◽  
Hongjun Wang ◽  
Liangjie Zhang ◽  
Penghui Su ◽  
Muwei Cheng ◽  

In order to provide paleofluid evidence of hydrocarbon accumulation periods in the Amu Darya Right Bank Block, microexperiments and simulations related to the Middle-Upper Jurassic Callovian-Oxfordian carbonate reservoirs were performed. On the basis of petrographic observation, the diagenetic stages were divided by cathodoluminescence, and the entrapment stages of fluid inclusions were divided by laser Raman experiment and UV epifluorescence. The hydrocarbon generation (expulsion) curve and burial (thermal) history curve of source rocks were simulated by using real drilling data coupled with geochemical parameters of source rocks, such as total organic carbon (TOC) and vitrinite reflectance ( R o ). The above results were integrated with microthermometry of fluid inclusions by inference the timing of hydrocarbon migration into the carbonate reservoirs. The horizon-flattening technique was used to process the measured seismic profile and restore the structural evolution profile. Four diagenetic periods and three hydrocarbon accumulation periods were identified. (i) For Syntaxial stage, the fluid captured by the overgrowing cement around particles is mainly seawater; (ii) for (Early) Mesogenetic burial stage, the calcite cements began to capture hydrocarbon fluids and show yellow fluorescence under UV illumination; (iii) for (Late) Mesogenetic burial stage, two sets of cleavage fissures developed in massive calcite cements, and oil inclusions with green fluorescence were entrapped in the crystal; (iv) for Telogenetic burial stage, blue fluorescent inclusions along with hydrocarbon gas inclusions developed in dully luminescent calcite veins. Based on the accurate division of hydrocarbon migration and charging stages, combined with the structural evolution history of the traps, the hydrocarbon accumulation model was established. Because two of the three sets of source rocks are of marine origin, resulting in the lack of vitrinite in the kerogen of those source rocks, there may be some deviation between the measured value of R o and the real value. Some systematic errors may occur in the thermal history and hydrocarbon generation (expulsion) history of the two sets of source rocks. Due to the limitations of seismic horizon-flattening technique—such as the inability to accurately recover the inclined strata thickness and horizontal expansion of strata—the final shape of the evolution process of structural profile may also deviate from the real state in geological history. The accumulation model established in this study was based upon the fluid inclusion experiments, which can effectively characterize the forming process of large condensate gas reservoirs in the Amu Darya Right Bank Block and quantify the timing of hydrocarbon charging. However, the hydrocarbon migration and accumulation model does not take the oil-source correlation into account, but only the relationship between the mature state of source rocks and the timing of hydrocarbon charging into the reservoirs. Subsequent research needs to conduct refined oil-source correlation to reveal the relationship between gas, condensate, source rocks, and recently discovered crude oil and more strictly constrain and modify the accumulation model, so as to finally disclose the origin of the crude oil and oil reservoir forming process in the Amu Darya Right Bank Block, evaluate the future exploration potential, and point out the direction of various hydrocarbon resources (condensate gas and crude oil).

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document