evaluation framework
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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-18
Shaahin Angizi ◽  
Navid Khoshavi ◽  
Andrew Marshall ◽  
Peter Dowben ◽  
Deliang Fan

Magneto-Electric FET ( MEFET ) is a recently developed post-CMOS FET, which offers intriguing characteristics for high-speed and low-power design in both logic and memory applications. In this article, we present MeF-RAM , a non-volatile cache memory design based on 2-Transistor-1-MEFET ( 2T1M ) memory bit-cell with separate read and write paths. We show that with proper co-design across MEFET device, memory cell circuit, and array architecture, MeF-RAM is a promising candidate for fast non-volatile memory ( NVM ). To evaluate its cache performance in the memory system, we, for the first time, build a device-to-architecture cross-layer evaluation framework to quantitatively analyze and benchmark the MeF-RAM design with other memory technologies, including both volatile memory (i.e., SRAM, eDRAM) and other popular non-volatile emerging memory (i.e., ReRAM, STT-MRAM, and SOT-MRAM). The experiment results for the PARSEC benchmark suite indicate that, as an L2 cache memory, MeF-RAM reduces Energy Area Latency ( EAT ) product on average by ~98% and ~70% compared with typical 6T-SRAM and 2T1R SOT-MRAM counterparts, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Qiang Liu ◽  
Honghui Tang ◽  
Peiran Zhang

Fault injection attack (FIA) has become a serious threat to the confidentiality and fault tolerance of integrated circuits (ICs). Circuit designers need an effective method to evaluate the countermeasures of the IC designs against the FIAs at the design stage. To address the need, this article, based on FPGA emulation, proposes an in-circuit early evaluation framework, in which FIAs are emulated with parameterized fault models. To mimic FIAs, an efficient scan approach is proposed to inject faults at any time at any circuit nodes, while both the time and area overhead of fault injection are reduced. After the circuit design under test (CUT) is submitted to the framework, the scan chains insertion, fault generation, and fault injection are executed automatically, and the evaluation result of the CUT is generated, making the evaluation a transparent process to the designers. Based on the framework, the confidentiality and fault-tolerance evaluations are demonstrated with an information-based evaluation approach. Experiment results on a set of ISCAS89 benchmark circuits show that on average, our approach reduces the area overhead by 41.08% compared with the full scan approach and by over 20.00% compared with existing approaches. The confidentiality evaluation experiments on AES-128 and DES-56 and the fault-tolerance evaluation experiments on two CNN circuits, a RISC-V core, a Cordic core, and the float point arithmetic units show the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

Dimitrios Dimitriou ◽  
Maria Sartzetaki

In most cases, the decision to invest in a new airport is not simple, mainly because of the complications in the planning process, the amount of capital that needs to be invested before the establishment of the business, and the number of stakeholders involved in the decision. The decision process is more complicated in restricted economic and financing conditions, where the performance of the business plan is strongly related to regional development prospects and future airport business outputs in the medium and long term. This paper provides an evaluation methodology approach to support decisions on airport development projects. The proposed methodology provides an evaluation framework based on a combination of an ex ante assessment analysis, considering the airport’s economic impact and its contribution to a specific regional economy. The Input–Output (IO) analysis framework is used to determine the economic footprint of the airport development. A series of key performance indicators (KPIs) are introduced to review the project performance in a given economic system. The case study is examined, focussing on a new airport at Heraklion in Crete (in the Kasteli valley), one of the most attractive tourist destinations in the southeast Mediterranean. Conventional wisdom is to present a systematic approach appropriate to relevant projects, providing essential tools that support decisions at the level of strategic planning. The approach is essential to provide key messages to national governments, decision makers, and stakeholders on the contribution of an airport investment to regional economic development and its contribution to the business ecosystem in the post-COVID-19 era.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 854
Charlie E. Sutton ◽  
Mark Monaghan ◽  
Stephen Case ◽  
Joanne Greenhalgh ◽  
Judy Wright

This article examines the problematic reductionism and decontextualising nature of hegemonic youth justice intervention evaluation and offers a way ahead for a realistic, context-sensitive approach to intervention evaluation in the youth justice field. It opens by considering how the development of risk-based youth justice interventions in England and Wales flowed from and fed into the modernisation and resultant partiality of the ‘evidence-base’, which shaped youth justice practice. It then moves to a critical review of the emergence and continued influence of risk-based interventions and the ‘What Works’ intervention evaluation framework in youth justice. In the closing discussion, this article envisages the potential of taking a realist approach to the evaluation of youth justice interventions to mitigate the limitations of current approaches to intervention selection and the evaluation of their ‘effectiveness’.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1035719X2110576
Milbert Gawaya ◽  
Desiree Terrill ◽  
Eleanor Williams

The COVID-19 pandemic required large-scale service delivery changes for government, and provided the opportunity for evaluators to step up and support decision makers to understand the impact of these changes. Rapid evaluation methods (REM) provide a pragmatic approach for generating timely information for evidence-based policy and decision-making. Grounded in developmental and utilisation-focused evaluation theory, REM incorporates a team-based, mixed methods design, executed over a 6–8-week period. Customised rubrics were used to rigorously assess effectiveness and scalability of practice changes to inform COVID-19 response planning. REM is an alternative approach to full-scale evaluation models frequently implemented to assess policies and programs. Adapted use of REM suggests that meaningful insights can be gained through use of smaller scale evaluations. This article shares lessons learned from a novel rapid evaluation method applied in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The rapid evaluation approach was implemented to provide real-time insights and evaluative conclusions for 15 program and practice adaptations across Victorian health and human service settings. The article shares insights about the practical applicability of balancing rigour and timeliness when implementing a rapid evaluation, and strengths and limitations of working within a fast-paced evaluation framework. Findings can inform evaluative practice in resource and time-limited settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 858
Jingjie Wang ◽  
Xiaoshuan Zhang ◽  
Xiang Wang ◽  
Hongxing Huang ◽  
Jinyou Hu ◽  

The of monitoring the Internet of Things (IoT) in the cold chain allows process data, including packaging data, to be more easily accessible. Proper optimization modelling is the core driving force towards the green and low-carbon operation of cold chain logistics, laying the necessary foundation for the development of a data-driven modelling system. Since efficient packaging is necessary for loss control in the cold chain, its final efficiency during circulation is important for realizing continuous loss prevention and efficient supply. Thus, it is urgent to determine how to utilize these continuously acquired data and how to formulate a more accurate packaging efficiency control methodology in the agri-products cold chain. Through continuous monitoring, we examined the feasibility of this topic by focusing on the concept of data-driven evaluation modelling and the dynamic formation mechanism of comprehensive packaging efficiency in cold chain logistics. The packaging efficiency in the table grape cold chain was used as an example to evaluate the comprehensive efficiency evaluation index system and data-driven evaluation framework proposed in this paper. Our results indicate that the established methodology can adapt to the continuity of comprehensive packaging efficiency, also reflecting the comprehensive efficiency evaluation of the packaging for different times and distances. Through the evaluation of our results, the differences and the dynamic processes between different final packaging efficiencies at different moments are effectively displayed. Thus, the continuous improvement of a low-carbon system in cold chain logistics could be realized.

2022 ◽  
pp. 109821402199192
Roni Ellington ◽  
Clara B. Barajas ◽  
Amy Drahota ◽  
Cristian Meghea ◽  
Heatherlun Uphold ◽  

Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in the number of large federally funded transdisciplinary programs and initiatives. Scholars have identified a need to develop frameworks, methodologies, and tools to evaluate the effectiveness of these large collaborative initiatives, providing precise ways to understand and assess the operations, community and academic partner collaboration, scientific and community research dissemination, and cost-effectiveness. Unfortunately, there has been limited research on methodologies and frameworks that can be used to evaluate large initiatives. This study presents a framework for evaluating the Flint Center for Health Equity Solutions (FCHES), a National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD)-funded Transdisciplinary Collaborative Center (TCC) for health disparities research. This report presents a summary of the FCHES evaluation framework and evaluation questions as well as findings from the Year-2 evaluation of the Center and lessons learned.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jenny Louise Olson ◽  
Becky White ◽  
Helen Mitchell ◽  
Jennifer Halliday ◽  
Timothy Skinner ◽  

Abstract Background The aim of this work was to develop a National Evaluation Framework to facilitate the standardization of delivery, quality, reporting, and evaluation of diabetes education and support programs delivered throughout Australia through the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS). The NDSS is funded by the Australian Government, and provides access to diabetes information, education, support, and subsidized product across diverse settings in each state and territory of Australia through seven independent service-providers. This article reports the approach undertaken to develop the Framework. Methods A participatory approach was undertaken, focused on adopting nationally consistent outcomes and indicators, nominating objectives and measurement tools, specifying evaluation processes, and developing quality standards. Existing programs were classified based on related, overarching indicators enabling the adoption of a tiered system of evaluation. Results Two outcomes (i.e., improved clinical, reduced cost) and four indicators (i.e., improved knowledge and understanding, self-management, self-determination, psychosocial adjustment) were adopted from the Eigenmann and Colagiuri national consensus position statement for diabetes education. This allowed for the identification of objectives (i.e., improved empowerment, reduced distress, autonomy supportive program delivery, consumer satisfaction) and related measurement instruments. Programs were categorized as comprehensive, topic-specific, or basic education, with comprehensive programs allocated to receive the highest-level of evaluation. Eight quality standards were developed, with existing programs tested against those standards. Based on the results of testing, two comprehensive (OzDAFNE for people with type 1 diabetes, DESMOND for people with type 2 diabetes), and eight topic-specific (CarbSmart, ShopSmart, MonitorSmart, FootSmart, MedSmart, Living with Insulin, Insulin Pump Workshop, Ready Set Go – Let’s Move) structured diabetes self-management education and support programs were nominated for national delivery. Conclusions The National Evaluation Framework has facilitated consistency of program quality, delivery, and evaluation of programs delivered by multiple service providers across diverse contexts. The Framework could be applied by other service providers who facilitate multiple diabetes education and support programs and could be adapted for use in other chronic disease populations where education and support are indicated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 55-81
Ioannis Karakikes ◽  
Eftihia Nathanail

Crowdsourced deliveries or crowdshipping is identified in recent literature as an emerging urban freight transport solution, aiming at reducing delivery costs, congestion, and environmental impacts. By leveraging the pervasive use of mobile technology, crowdshipping is an emerging solution of the sharing economy in the transport domain, as parcels are delivered by commuters rather than corporations. The objective of this research is to evaluate the impacts of crowdshipping through alternative scenarios that consider various levels of demand and adoption by public transport users who act as crowdshippers, based on a case study example in the city of Volos, Greece. This is achieved through the establishment of a tailored evaluation framework and a city-scale urban freight traffic microsimulation model. Results show that crowdshipping has the potential to mitigate last-mile delivery impacts and effectively contribute to improving the system’s performance.

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