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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 938
Ripan Debnath ◽  
Christopher Pettit ◽  
Simone Zarpelon Leao

The increased frequency of extreme events facing society is placing mounting pressure on cities and regions that need more robust resilience planning against growing uncertainty. Data augmented participatory methods, such as geodesign, offer much promise in supporting strategic planning to make our cities and regions more resilient. In that context, this study aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of geodesign practices in resilience planning, through a systematic review of the selected 487 studies available from various bibliographic databases. The results indicate that a total of 75 studies were connected to resilience thinking, with a focus on climate change, floods, and sea level rise risks. A significant cluster of those resilience-related studies worked, especially, on improving sustainability. A detailed analysis of 59 relevant geodesign case studies revealed a strong underlying emphasis on disaster risk reduction and management activities. This study also noticed two prominent approaches among the analysed case studies to future city scenario planning: computational (41 studies), and collaborative (18 studies). It is recommended that an explicit integration of these two approaches into the geodesign approach can assist future city resilience planning endeavours. Thus, future research should further investigate the utility of integrating data-driven modelling and simulation within a collaborative scenario planning process, the usability of digital tools such as planning support systems within a collaborative geodesign framework, and the value of the plan’s performance evaluation during resilience decision-making. Another area for future work is increased community engagement in city resilience practices. The geodesign approach can provide a comprehensive framework for bringing communities, decision-makers, experts, and technologists together to help plan for more resilient city futures. Finally, while geodesign’s explicit role in empirical resilience implementations has been found to be low in this systematic review study, there are significant opportunities to support evidence-based and collaborative city resilience planning and decision-making activities.

Dimitrios Dimitriou ◽  
Maria Sartzetaki

In most cases, the decision to invest in a new airport is not simple, mainly because of the complications in the planning process, the amount of capital that needs to be invested before the establishment of the business, and the number of stakeholders involved in the decision. The decision process is more complicated in restricted economic and financing conditions, where the performance of the business plan is strongly related to regional development prospects and future airport business outputs in the medium and long term. This paper provides an evaluation methodology approach to support decisions on airport development projects. The proposed methodology provides an evaluation framework based on a combination of an ex ante assessment analysis, considering the airport’s economic impact and its contribution to a specific regional economy. The Input–Output (IO) analysis framework is used to determine the economic footprint of the airport development. A series of key performance indicators (KPIs) are introduced to review the project performance in a given economic system. The case study is examined, focussing on a new airport at Heraklion in Crete (in the Kasteli valley), one of the most attractive tourist destinations in the southeast Mediterranean. Conventional wisdom is to present a systematic approach appropriate to relevant projects, providing essential tools that support decisions at the level of strategic planning. The approach is essential to provide key messages to national governments, decision makers, and stakeholders on the contribution of an airport investment to regional economic development and its contribution to the business ecosystem in the post-COVID-19 era.

Steven William Selin ◽  
Jeremy Golston ◽  
Francisco Valenzuela

Integrating sustainability concepts, tools, and best practices across the outdoor recreation and park profession has gained momentum over the past three decades. However, missing from the professional and scientific literature have been action-oriented and evaluative research focused on “how” sustainability is being operationalized in the field. Through a qualitative research design focused on the 11 National Forests of the Southwestern Region of the USDA Forest Service, we developed an operational model for how sustainable recreation is being implemented at the Forest level through the Sustainable Recreation Strategy. Data collection included document analysis, stakeholder interviews, and personal observation. Document analysis included a content analysis methodology of 11 Forest-level Sustainable Recreation Action Plans, the principal planning process used to implement the vision and goals set forth by the Regional Sustainable Recreation Strategy. Evidence from the study was used to develop a grounded operational model with three foundational areas of Program, Agency, and Community. Foundational areas were further elaborated into component areas—Program into workforce, communications, outdoor recreation management, financial management, and information management systems—Agency into leadership support, administrative support, and integrated resource management—and Community into partnerships, volunteer program, and conservation education. Operational models such as this can help recreation managers, agency leaders, and policymakers adjust systems, structures, and roles to build program capacity and accelerate program transition towards sustainability.

Aerospace ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Kaiyang Guo ◽  
Pan Tang ◽  
Hui Wang ◽  
Defu Lin ◽  
Xiaoxi Cui

Landing on a moving platform is an essential requirement to achieve high-performance autonomous flight with various vehicles, including quadrotors. We propose an efficient and reliable autonomous landing system, based on model predictive control, which can accurately land in the presence of external disturbances. To detect and track the landing marker, a fast two-stage algorithm is introduced in the gimbaled camera, while a model predictive controller with variable sampling time is used to predict and calculate the entire landing trajectory based on the estimated platform information. As the quadrotor approaches the target platform, the sampling time is gradually shortened to feed a re-planning process that perfects the landing trajectory continuously and rapidly, improving the overall accuracy and computing efficiency. At the same time, a cascade incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion control method is adopted to track the planned trajectory and improve robustness against external disturbances. We carried out both simulations and outdoor flight experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed landing system. The results show that the quadrotor can land rapidly and accurately even under external disturbance and that the terminal position, speed and attitude satisfy the requirements of a smooth landing mission.

2022 ◽  
Forrest Fleischman ◽  
Cory Struthers ◽  
Gwen Arnold ◽  
Michael J Dockry ◽  
Tyler Scott

Abstract In this article, we respond to a critique of our earlier work examining the USDA Forest Service’s (USFS’s) planning processes. We appreciate that our critics introduce new data to the discussion of USFS planning. Further data integration is a promising path to developing a deeper understanding of agency activities. Our critics’ analysis largely supports our original claims. Our most important difference is in our conceptualization of the planning process’s relationship to agency goals. Although our critics conceive of the USFS’s legally prescribed planning processes as a barrier to land management activities, we believe that public comment periods, scientific analysis, and land management activities are tools the agency uses to achieve its goals of managing land in the public interest. Study Implications: The USDA Forest Service’s current planning process has been critiqued as a barrier to accomplishing land management activities, but it is also an important tool for insuring science-based management and understanding public values and interests that the agency is legally bound to uphold.

2022 ◽  
Jyrki Savolainen ◽  
Ramin Rakhsha ◽  
Richard Durham

AbstractPrice uncertainty is one of the major uncertainties in the life of mine (LOM) planning process which can have a decisive effect on the overall profitability. Today’s mine planning software tools provide block-sequencing optimisation for a given static price assumption that is then used as a basis of managerial decision-making process. This paper proposes a complementary approach to this by introducing a simulation-based decision-making tool that, with the help of simulation, seeks for the optimal mine plan when a managerially estimated price development with minimum and maximum boundaries is used as a data input for the given period. To demonstrate the approach, a realistic gold mine case study is presented with five alternative and technically feasible mine plans calculated in a static optimiser from a commercial mine planning software package. These mine planning scenarios are then subjected to price uncertainty in simulation with and without a price trend assumption to highlight the effect of price on the mine’s expected performance. Based on the results, we derive and demonstrate a simulation-based system that automates the matching of optimal mine plan with the managerial insight of long-term price development.

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Małgorzata Gerus-Gościewska ◽  
Dariusz Gościewski

The appearance of urban space is most often determined by planners, urbanists, and officials who fail to consider social preferences in the planning process. According to recent scientific research, spatial design should take into account people’s preferences with regard to its shape, as it is they who are the target audience. Moreover, legal regulations in many countries require the public’s inclusion into the space planning process. This paper outlines the legal status of the issue of social participation in spatial planning and provides an overview of the methods and techniques applied in the research into preferences. The aim of the article is to determine the strength of the relationship between the features adopted for the study using the grey system theory and to investigate the model’s behaviour for varied input data. It also presents the results of a study into the effect of geospatial features on the perception of the sense of security within urban space. The features were extracted using a heuristic method for solving research problems (i.e., brainstorming) and the survey was conducted by the point-scoring method. The survey results were processed by the grey system method according to the grey system theory (GST) of the grey relational analysis (GRA) type to yield a sequence of the strength of dependence between the analysed features. The study was conducted five times, with the order of entering the survey results being changed. The conducted analyses indicated that a change in the order of data from particular surveys applied for calculations resulted in the order of the epsilon coefficients in the significance sequences being changed. The analysis process was modified in order to obtain a stable significance sequence irrespective of the order of entering survey results in the analysis process. The analysis results in the form of a geospatial feature significance sequence provide information as to which of them have the greatest impact on the phenomenon under consideration. The research method can be applied to solve practical problems related to social participation.

Cecilia Gañán de Molina ◽  
José Emilio Guerrero Ginel ◽  
Carmen Sillero Illanes

The EU's response to the COVID-19 crisis, namely the approval of the Next Generation package, provides an opportunity to explore to what extent the existing Smart Specialisation regional strategies and related ecosystems have been taken into account in the highly relevant territorial context in which the national Recovery Plans have been designed. According to our results the potential of the Smart Specialisation approach (S3) in relation with its place-based strategic prioritisation may have been overlooked in the process. The research is based on a desk review of relevant documents and recent literature in this field; followed by semi-structured interviews with regional planners and practitioners from 10 Spanish regions (autonomous communities); complemented, in a second phase, by the organisation of a focus group to validate the initial results. During our research we identified the main contributions that the Smart Specialisation approach has so far made to the regions (mainly in terms of participative governance and creation of regional ecosystems); and the unanimous perception shared by all the practitioners interviewed that the S3 approach has led to a change of vision in public intervention. However, all of the interviewed regions have confirmed that the drafting of the national recovery and resilience plan lacked an ex-ante alignment with the regional S3 strategies, and failed to consider the existing regional S3 ecosystems. The separation of the recovery logic (based on the operation of public consultations at national level to identify strategic projects) from the S3 logic (based on a strategic prioritisation exercise conducted by each regional ecosystem) confirms that an opportunity may have been missed in the recovery planning process to consolidate the multi-actor, multilevel and place-based S3 approach. Although there is a certain degree of disappointment among regional practitioners as a result of this misalignment, the majority of them believe in the possibility of an ex-post alignment between the two processes, that can protect existing regional shared visions. However, without clear recognition of the S3 ecosystems and the S3 managing bodies, the significant role that Smart Specialisation could play in the recovery process may be at risk.

2022 ◽  
Temitayo Ajayi ◽  
Taewoo Lee ◽  
Andrew J. Schaefer

The quality of radiation therapy treatment plans and the efficiency of the planning process are heavily affected by the choice of planning objectives. Although simple objectives enable efficient treatment planning, the resulting treatment quality might not be clinically acceptable; complex objectives can generate high-quality treatment, yet the planning process becomes computationally prohibitive. In “Objective Selection for Cancer Treatment: An Inverse Optimization Approach,” by integrating inverse optimization and feature selection techniques, Ajayi, Lee, and Schaefer propose a novel objective selection method that uses historical radiation therapy treatment data to infer a set of planning objectives that are tractable and parsimonious yet clinically effective. Although the objective selection problem is a large-scale bilevel mixed-integer program, the authors propose various solution approaches inspired by feature selection greedy algorithms and patient-specific anatomical characteristics.

Risa Kharisma

This research or research focuses on describing the management of educational libraries in Islamic Junior High School Polehan – Malang. This description of the library is reviewed from several sources by explaining each discussion from the beginning of the library implementation planning process to the library evaluation process. The research method in this study is a case study, by conducting field research and collecting data from observations, documentation or interviews. The results of this study indicate that there are activities in the management of library administration and management of library library materials. Both types of library management must begin with a clear formation of the library organizational structure which will facilitate the overall library management process. The clarity of the organizational structure of the library can be seen from the existence of the Head of the Library and Library Staff.Management of library administration such as the vision and mission, the organizational structure, the rules, library facilities, and library services. The library management of the Islamic Middle School of Polehan – Malang has been trying to be maximized as much as possible even though there are many limitations. While the management of library library materials such as procurement of books, flow management of library materials, collection of library materials, and storage of library materials. The management of library materials at the Islamic Middle School in Polehan – Malang during the pandemic was very different, where before the pandemic library services were carried out directly by library staff and students, then during the pandemic the guardians were allowed to come to school to borrow library books.

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