American Method
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Mohammed Taher Abdul Rahman Al-Haidari

This research included an applied study for the design of concrete mixtures by following the method of the American Concrete Institute (ACl) and the method of the Building Research Center in England (British method) to restriction which of these two methods is more suitable for use and application in the design of concrete mixtures when using local aggregate (gravel and sand taken from the area Badush and Aski Mosul), where job mixes were made using the mixing ratios obtained from these two methods, and a comparative study was made for the properties concrete resulting in the soft state (workability )and the hardened state (compressive resistance), and the results proved the following: A- In general, when discussing the results according to mixing ratios and workability levels, the method of the Building Research Center in England (the British method) gave higher results than the results obtained by the American Concrete Institute method (the American method) when using the above local aggregate whereas results shown increase in (workability) and Compressive strength. This increase amounts to the percentages shown in the table below: Compressive strength (%) Slump test (%) workability 10.48 14.40 Precipitation = 10-8 cm 12.10 21.40 Precipitation = 18-15 cm Table (1-1) B- It is possible to make another comparison, when fixing the proportion of water/cement, it turns out that the method of the Building Research Center in England (the British method) gives higher workability than the method of the American Concrete Institute (the American method) and for the same proportion of cement/ water, the American method gives Higher compressive strength than the British method. C- The building research center method is a more practical and applicable method more than the American Concrete Institute method because it takes the type of cement, the type of aggregate and other properties of the aggregate (especially particle shape) into consideration

2020 ◽  
Vol 71 ◽  
Víctor Martínez Morales, S. J.

40 years ago, the Latin American bishops convened in Puebla to reflect upon and point towards new pastoral horizons and theological construction. This article conveys the dynamism, strength, and vigor of the message emanating from that meeting. Puebla gave clues of a new theology that, adhering to the Latin American method, can respond to the problems that question us with unprecedented vigor and invite us to envision new routes, fields of new approaches, and ways yet unpaved. The message arising from Puebla continues to be current. It opens up hope of new theological construction seeking to give a new dimension to its task, understand God’s action in history differently, as well as the human condition and its relation to nature. We live in a plural context, broad and open to the construction of theologies able to offer new interpretations of God’s revelation and action, a propitious moment to rethink theological efforts, regarding the challenges presented by Puebla. In this horizon, theological work should be understood from the experience of faith and fundamental openness of the being to God’s creative and salvific action, in the gratuity of filiation in the Son and not as a mere intellective obligation of the Christian faith. Puebla presents, not only for the Latin American people, but for the church in general, a reflection in which we are constantly reminded that human beings can transform situations of injustice into opportunities for liberation, forgiveness and mercy. It is up to every Christian to undertake a path of trustful commitment, marked by a spirit of solidarity and responsibility towards his or her neighbour. In this way one can make known the face of God of whom Puebla speaks and who cries out for justice.

Agronomy ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 311
Claudia García-Ventura ◽  
Alfonso Bermejo ◽  
Concepción González-García ◽  
M. Ángeles Grande-Ortíz ◽  
Esperanza Ayuga-Téllez ◽  

The determination of an asset’s economic value has always been an important step in improving its management. The Madrid Region legislated the application of the first version of the Norma Granada as a method of appraising ornamental trees. However, the trees in the city of Madrid are only assessed in terms of ecosystem services (i-Tree Eco). A photograph of the asset to be appraised is often used in studies on the valuation of publicly-owned socio-environmental assets such as trees or landscapes. As a tree’s value is very closely linked to its size and to a number of features that can be seen through direct observation of the specimen, it is important to verify the validity of photographs as a method for obtaining the public’s opinion. This work presents a comparison between the valuations chosen by members of the public when observing the tree in situ and in a photograph. The aim is to verify the validity of photographs for their application to a larger sample and to understand qualitatively how citizens assess the trees in a city. The following appraisal methods were used: the American method, Council of Tree Landscape Appraisers (CTLA), Norma Granada and the Burnley method. The survey consisted of ten specimens from ten different species, and ten surveys were taken for each stem, making a total of 100 for each tree species and 1000 surveys in all. The surveys were done randomly and individually. Each interviewed chose one of the three values they were shown when observing the specimen in the photograph and in situ; 84% of the 1000 surveys gave as a result the same value choice when looking at the specimen on site and seeing it in a photograph.

2019 ◽  
pp. 1-30
Gamonal C. Sergio ◽  
César F. Rosado Marzán

This chapter introduces the book’s main goal: to provide a “principled labor law” method to decide hard cases. It describes principled labor law as a Latin American method embedded in the principles of protection, primacy of reality, nonwaiver, and continuity. It argues that principled labor law can be useful even in the least likely case of labor protection, the United States, and explains how, if useful for the United States, it is likely helpful for other jurisdictions. It describes how principled labor law complements perspectives favoring freedom of association—the so-called labor constitution—but opposes views attempting to eviscerate the idea of protecting weaker parties from contemporary law, or those that envision labor law as merely a regulatory endeavor. It also describes how principled labor law shares similarities with the purposive perspective of Guy Davidov, but also contrasts with that perspective, to the extent principled labor law is mostly concerned, and is, in fact, “rulified” in favor of labor protection. It explains that principled labor law seems particularly needed to evade problems of legal endogeneity. The chapter concludes by arguing that the book provides a countercultural narrative for labor law in the United States that is also consonant with international labor standards and, as such, better brings U.S. labor law into the mainstream. Principled labor law may be less countercultural in other countries, but may also help there to renew jurisdictional commitments in favor of labor protection.

2017 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 10-13
Diana L. Moss

In this task, students predict the number of snow days by counting beans in a jar, a Native American method. Each month, elementary school teachers are presented with a problem along with suggested instructional notes; asked to use the problem in their own classrooms; and encouraged to report solutions, strategies, reflections, and misconceptions to the journal audience.

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