Mixing Ratios
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2022 ◽  
Xueli Liu ◽  
Liang Ran ◽  
Weili Lin ◽  
Xiaobin Xu ◽  
Zhiqiang Ma ◽  

Abstract. Strict air pollution control strategies have been implemented in recent decades in the North China Plain (NCP), previously one of the most polluted regions in the world, and have resulted in considerable changes in emissions of air pollutants. However, little is so far known about the long-term trends of the regional background level of NOx and SO2, along with the increase and decrease processes of regional emissions. In this study, the seasonal and diurnal variations of NOx and SO2 as well as their long-term trends at a regional background station in the NCP were characterized from 2004 to 2016. On average, SO2 and NOx mixing ratios were 5.7 ± 8.4 ppb and 14.2 ± 12.4 ppb, respectively. The seasonal variations in SO2 and NOx mixing ratios showed a similar pattern with a peak in winter and a valley in summer. However, the diurnal variations in SO2 and NOx mixing ratios greatly differed for all seasons, indicating different sources for SO2 and NOx. Overall, the annual mean SO2 exhibited a significant decreasing trend of ‒6.1 % yr−1 (R = −0.84, P < 0.01) from 2004 to 2016, which is very close to −6.3 % yr−1 of the annual SO2 emission in Beijing, and a greater decreasing trend of −7.4 % yr−1 (R = −0.95, P < 0.01) from 2008 to 2016. The annual mean of NOx showed a fluctuating rise of +3.4 % yr−1 (R = 0.38, P = 0.40) from 2005 to 2010, reaching the peak value (16.9 ppb) in 2010, and then exhibited an extremely significant fluctuating downward trend of −4.5 % yr−1 (R = 0.95, P < 0.01) from 2010 to 2016. After 2010, the annual mean NOx mixing ratios correlated significantly (R = 0.94, P < 0.01) with the annual NOx emission in North China. The decreasing rate (−4.8 % yr−1, R = −0.92, P < 0.01) of the annual mean NOx mixing ratios from 2011 to 2016 at SDZ are lower than the one (−8.8 % yr−1, R = −0.94, P < 0.01) for the annual NOx emission in the NCP and (−9.0 % yr−1, R = −0.96, P < 0.01) in Beijing. It indicated that surface NOx mixing ratios at SDZ had weaker influence than SO2 by the emission reduction in Beijing and its surrounding areas in the NCP. The increase in the amount of motor vehicles led to an increase in traffic emissions for NOx. This study supported conclusions from previous studies that the measures taken for controlling NOx and SO2 in the NCP in the past decades were generally successful. However, NOx emission control should be strengthened in the future.

2022 ◽  
Mei Bai ◽  
Zoe Loh ◽  
David W. T. Griffith ◽  
Debra Turner ◽  
Richard Eckard ◽  

Abstract. The accumulation of gases into our atmosphere is a growing global concern that requires considerable quantification of the emission rates and mitigate the accumulation of gases in the atmosphere, especially the greenhouse gases (GHG). In agriculture there are many sources of GHG that require attention in order to develop practical mitigation strategies. Measuring these GHG sources often rely on highly technical instrumentation originally designed for applications outside of the emissions research in agriculture. Although the open-path laser (OPL) and open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopic techniques are used in agricultural research currently, insight into their contributing error to emissions research has not been the focus of these studies. The objective of this study was to assess the applicability and performance (accuracy and precision) of OPL and OP-FTIR spectroscopic techniques for measuring gas concentration from agricultural sources. We measured the mixing ratios of trace gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ammonia (NH3), downwind of point and area sources with known release rates. The OP-FTIR provided the best performance regarding stability of drift in stable conditions. The CH4 OPL accurately detected the low background (free-air) level of CH4; however, the NH3 OPL was unable to detect the background values < 10 ppbv.

2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (4) ◽  
pp. 210-215
Antypas Imad Rezakalla ◽  
Savostina Tatiana Petrovna

High and low density polyethylene materials constitute about 48% of total weight of plastics waste in Europe, that depends on the frequent use of these materials in packaging applications. This paper analyze the recycling effect on the mechanical properties of high and low density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE). A mechanical recycling process was tested for the plastics waste of high and low density polyethylene, then a tensile and impact tests were performed on different mixing ratios for each of the both materials ranging from 100% of the virgin material and up to 100% of the recycled material with a difference of 10% of the sample to the other. This paper discusses the tensile properties of tensile stress at the fracture, elongation and modulus of elasticity and the impact test results for HDPE and LDPE were compared with each other.

2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (6) ◽  
pp. 477-484
Mohd Faizal Hasan ◽  
Bemgba Bevan Nyakuma ◽  
Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul Rahman ◽  
Norazila Othman ◽  
Norhayati Ahmad ◽  

In the present study, torrefaction of palm kernel shell (PKS) and petcoke blends was performed for the production of solid biofuels with high energy density. The torrefaction process was performed for mixtures with various mixing ratios (by weight) from 90:10 to 60:40 (PKS:petcoke). For torrefaction under various temperatures of 250℃ to 300℃, the mixing ratio of 60:40 was used. Meanwhile, residence time and nitrogen flow rate were fixed at 30 minutes and 1 l/min, respectively. In general, the fixed carbon and ash contents increased, while the moisture and volatile matter contents decreased after torrefaction. It has been elucidated that mass yield is a dominant factor that affects the energy yield of torrefied mixtures rather than the higher heating value (HHV) ratio. Based on the energy yield and ultimate analysis, it was found that a higher amount of petcoke and higher temperature give better performance, thus causing the torrefied mixture to become very close to coals region in Van Krevelen diagram. In this case, the mixture with a mixing ratio of 60:40 torrefied under the temperature of 300℃ gives the best performance. It was also found that this mixture is thermally stable than the mixture torrefied at 250℃.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (6) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Seunghak Choi ◽  
Seungyeon Han ◽  
Hyeonsuk Kim ◽  
Kyongku Yun ◽  
Taeho Ha

Shotcrete should be attached to the ground and should have stable strength for a long-term. It should develop strength earlier for rapid work. Therefore, in this study, three types of accelerators—aluminate, cement mineral, and alkali-free—were selected and mixed to secure the initial strength. Depending on the type and mixing rate of each accelerator, slump, air amount, and compressive strength were used to evaluate the basic properties, boiling water absorption test, and chloride ion penetration resistance to conduct durability analysis. The mixing of aluminate-based and cement-mineral-based accelerators was effective in improving the initial strength, and alkali-free accelerator was effective in improving the long-term strength. The mixture to which accelerators were not mixed showed the highest water-tightness.

Mohammed Taher Abdul Rahman Al-Haidari

This research included an applied study for the design of concrete mixtures by following the method of the American Concrete Institute (ACl) and the method of the Building Research Center in England (British method) to restriction which of these two methods is more suitable for use and application in the design of concrete mixtures when using local aggregate (gravel and sand taken from the area Badush and Aski Mosul), where job mixes were made using the mixing ratios obtained from these two methods, and a comparative study was made for the properties concrete resulting in the soft state (workability )and the hardened state (compressive resistance), and the results proved the following: A- In general, when discussing the results according to mixing ratios and workability levels, the method of the Building Research Center in England (the British method) gave higher results than the results obtained by the American Concrete Institute method (the American method) when using the above local aggregate whereas results shown increase in (workability) and Compressive strength. This increase amounts to the percentages shown in the table below: Compressive strength (%) Slump test (%) workability 10.48 14.40 Precipitation = 10-8 cm 12.10 21.40 Precipitation = 18-15 cm Table (1-1) B- It is possible to make another comparison, when fixing the proportion of water/cement, it turns out that the method of the Building Research Center in England (the British method) gives higher workability than the method of the American Concrete Institute (the American method) and for the same proportion of cement/ water, the American method gives Higher compressive strength than the British method. C- The building research center method is a more practical and applicable method more than the American Concrete Institute method because it takes the type of cement, the type of aggregate and other properties of the aggregate (especially particle shape) into consideration

Biosensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Kaiheng Zhang ◽  
Siyuan Lu ◽  
Zhe Qu ◽  
Xue Feng

In this work, eight different types of optical oxygen sensing films were prepared by impregnating indicator and matrix solution on the surface of a polypropylene microporous filter membrane. The polymer matrix of the sensing films was ethyl cellulose (EC), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and their blends with different mixing ratios. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser confocal microscopy, and fluorescence spectrometer were used to investigate the morphologies and optical properties of the sensing films. Phase delay measurements under different oxygen partial pressures (PO2) and temperatures were applied to investigate the analytical performances of the sensing film for gaseous O2 monitoring. Results show that the response time of all the sensing films was extremely fast. The sensitivities and dynamic ranges of the sensing films with the blended polymer matrix were separately decreased and increased as the EC/PMMA ratio decreased, and the S-V curve of the sensing films blended with equal content of EC and PMMA exhibited good linearity under different temperatures, showing a promising prospect in practical application.

Haider Elbasher ◽  
Ahmed Ibrahim

In this study, special treatment was applied to two production batches of single-base propellant to correct three of the most important properties in the final product. These properties are internal and external volatile content (IV%, EV% respectively) and chamber pressure, the special treatments depend on mixing two batches with different percentages of mixing starting with sieving and ended with blending to guarantee the homogeneity of the final batch. The batches under study (A and B), batch A with (IV% 0.53%) which must be not less than 0.6%, so it deviated from standard requirement and Bach B with (IV =0.88%), the treatment applied for these batches to generate (C and D) batches. Batch C was a mixture composed of (25% of batch A and 0.75% of batch B). batch D was a mixture composed of (50%batchA and 50% of batch B). Six samples were subjected to sieving and blending according to calculations to correct internal and external volatile content and chamber pressure. For all samples lab, ballistics test, and executive calculations were done. After the test observed that no significant difference between the test and the results of calculations for all samples with different mixing ratios either volatiles content or chamber pressure so according to the result achieved the procedure (Method) was dependable for correcting the deviation of volatiles content and chamber pressure. The selectivity of the optimum mixing ratio can be controlled by using the equation used in this study. The importance of this study in reducing material losses due to the non-conformity of the final product with the specification.

2021 ◽  
Clara M. Nussbaumer ◽  
Andrea Pozzer ◽  
Ivan Tadic ◽  
Lenard Röder ◽  
Florian Obersteiner ◽  

Abstract. The COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) European lockdowns have lead to a significant reduction in the emissions of primary pollutants such as NO (nitric oxide) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide). As most photochemical processes are related to nitrogen oxide (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) chemistry, this event has presented an exceptional opportunity to investigate its effects on air quality and secondary pollutants, such as tropospheric ozone (O3). In this study, we present the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on atmospheric trace gas concentrations, net ozone production rates (NOPR) and the dominant chemical regime throughout the troposphere based on three different research aircraft campaigns across Europe. These are the UTOPIHAN campaigns in 2003 and 2004, the HOOVER campaigns in 2006 and 2007 and the BLUESKY campaign in 2020, the latter performed during the COVID-19 lockdown. We present in situ observations and simulation results from the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry model which allows for scenario calculations with business as usual emissions during the BLUESKY campaign, referred to as "no-lockdown scenario". We show that the COVID-19 lockdown reduced NO and NO2 mixing ratios in the upper troposphere by around 55 % compared to the no-lockdown scenario due to reduced air traffic. O3 production and loss terms reflected this reduction with a deceleration in O3 cycling due to reduced mixing ratios of NOx while NOPRs were largely unaffected. We also study the role of methyl peroxyradicals forming HCHO (αCH3O2) to show that the COVID-19 lockdown shifted the chemistry in the upper troposphere/tropopause region to a NOx limited regime during BLUESKY. In comparison, we find a VOC limited regime to be dominant during UTOPIHAN.

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