This study aims to analyze the role of mTOR inhibitor on the expression of miR-211 in rat brain tissue and the biological effect of miR-211 in attenuating seizure. Rats were randomly divided into four groups, and the number of seizures and the duration of single seizure were observed
within 24 hours after intervention. The level of miR-211 in brain tissue was detected by RT qPCR, the apoptosis of nerve cells was assessed by TUNEL staining, the level of immune cells was detected by flow cytometry, and the level of serum inflammatory factors was determined by ELISA. The
number of seizures and the duration of single seizure in the three groups treated by rapamycin within 24 hours were lower than those in the control group, and the symptom relief in group C was the best. After treatment, the expression level of miR-211 in the brain tissue of epileptic rats
increased. TUNEL staining showed that neuronal apoptosis was obvious in epileptic rats. The anti apoptotic ability of group C was the most significant, followed by group D and group B. Compared with group A, the levels of CD3+ cells, CD8+ cells and CD4+/CD25+
cells in brain tissue of group C were decreased, while the levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ were lower in group C than those in control. In group C (n = 5), the levels of CD3+ cells, CD8+ cells and CD4+/CD25+ cells were elevated, and
the levels of immune related cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ were higher than those of rats without miR-211 inhibition. mTOR inhibitors can improve the local immune microenvironment, reduce the release of inflammatory factors, and finally decrease the frequency and duration of seizures
by up regulating the level of miR-211 in rat brain tissue.
Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) refers to the phenomenon that the ischemic injury of brain leads to the injury of brain cells, and ischemic injury is further aggravated after the recovery of blood reperfusion. In this study, we first constructed Oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation
(OGD/R) injury model of PC12 cells, we found that the expression of LncRNA AK139328 in model cells was significantly increased through RT-qPCR. Subsequently, we interfered LncRNA AK139328 in model cells by plasmid transfection and found that interfering LncRNA AK139328 could significantly
reduce the expression of inflammatory factors, including TNF a, IL-1β, IL-6, McP-1, and oxidative stress-related factors, including ROS, MDA, LDH, while the expressions of SOD and GSHPx were significantly increased. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis, and apoptosisrelated
proteins bcl-2, Bax, cleaved-caspase3 and cleaved PARP-1 were detected by western blot. Results show that interfering LncRNA AK139328 could reduce the apoptosis rate of OGD/R cells and the expression of Bax, cleaved caspase3 and cleaved PARP-1, while increasing the expression of bcl-2. Meanwhile,
we found that after interfering LncRNA AK139328, the expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO-1 and phosphorylated-P65 increased, while P65 showed no significant changes. This may be related to Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways. In a word, our study showed that interfering with LncRNA
AK139328 can reduce cell inflammation and apoptosis in CIRI.
This study aims at investigating the mechanism underlying bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) function in glioma. Glioma cells were administered with plasmids loading NF-κB siRNA, microRNA (miRNA)-189 inhibitor, or miR-189 mimics for transfection followed by analysis
of miR-189 expression by RT-qPCR, cell apoptosis by flow cytometry, cell proliferation by MTT assay,invasion and migration by Transwell assay, inflammatory factors secretion by ELISA as well as proteins expression by western blot. A mouse model of glioma was established to detect the in
vivo effect of BMSCs. miR-189 was lowly expressed in glioma cell lines but enriched in BMSCs. When miR-189 was silenced, cell proliferation, invasion and migration were potentiated and apoptosis was decreased, along with enhancement of N-cadherin, Vimentin, MMP-2 and and MMP-9, and decline
in Bax, cleaved casepase-3 and cleaved PARP. Silencing of NF-κB reversed the effect of miR-189 inhibitor on cell progression, accompanied with reduction of inflammatory factors. BMSCs treatment effectively promoted miR-189 expression in glioma and inactivated TNF-α/NF-κB
signaling, thereby suppressing tumor growth. In conclusion, miR-189 derived from BMSC inhibits glioma progression through regulation of TNF-α/NF-κB signaling pathway.
We aimed to explore the mechanism underlying microRNA-23-5p from exosomes (exo-miR-23-5p) of BMSCs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The candidate related genes of miR-23-5p were screened in RA by bioinformatics analysis through gain- and loss-function method along with analysis of histopathological
changes in mice and RAC2 expression as well as the level of pro-inflammatory factors. In vivo RA model was established to detect miR-23-5p’s effect on RA. miR-23-5p level was significantly reduced in RA cells and RAC2 was highly expressed. Expression of RAC2 was inhibited and
targeted by miR-23-5p in RA. Exo-miR-23-5p treatment effectively alleviated joint destruction, reduced inflammatory factor secretion in tissues and serum, as well as decreased RAC2 expression in RA model. In conclusion, the miR-23-5p in the BMSC-exo delays the inflammatory response in RA,
indicating that it might be a new target for treating RA.
Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the role of etomidate in intestinal cell ischemia and hypoxia-reperfusion injury and potential mechanisms. Method: In this study, we establish the intestinal epithelial cells ischemia-reperfusion model in vitro.
CCK8 was used to detect cell viability and flow cytometry assay was used to detect apoptosis levels of treated OGD/R model cells. ELISA measured the expression level of oxidative stress factors and inflammatory factors. Furthermore, western blot assay was used to detect the expression the
apoptosis-related factors and TNFR-associated factors in treated OGD/R model cells. Result: Etomidate does not affect the activity of intestinal epithelial cells, and can protect intestinal epithelial cells to reduce ischemiareperfusion injury, and the expression of inflammatory factors
and oxidative stress in cells with mild intestinal epithelial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Etomidate alleviates apoptosis of intestinal epithelial ischemia-reperfusion injury cells. Etomidate inhibits the activation of traf6-mediated NF-κB signal during ischemia-anoxia reperfusion
of intestinal epithelial cells. Conclusion: Taken together, our study demonstrated that etomidate attenuates inflammatory response and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells during ischemic hypoxia-reperfusion injury and inhibits activation of NF-κB signaling regulated
<sec> <title>Objective:</title> The purpose of this research is to explore the influences of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) in deepsecond-degree scald wound healing of rat skin and its relationship with Wnt/β-catenin pathway. </sec>
<sec> <title>Methods:</title> Deep second-degree scalded model rats were prepared and divided into normal saline (NS) treatment group, Tβ4 treatment group and FH535 inhibitor group. Then, the concentrations of inflammatory factors in the rats were monitored
via adopting the correlated TNF-α and IL-1β ELISA kits. In the meantime, the wound healing rate was analyzed via photography. Subsequently, the qRTPCR procedure was wielded to determine Wnt1 and β-catenin expression in wound tissues, and the degree of wound
tissue injury was examined via hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Finally, Western blotting (WB) was adopted to assess Wnt/β-catenin pathway-associated protein levels. </sec> <sec> <title>Results:</title> Releasing amount of TNF-α
and IL-1β were conspicuously up-regulated after scalding (p <0.01), and Wnt1 and β-catenin expression at molecular transcription level was also significantly raised (p < 0.01). Besides, treatment with 18 μg of Tβ4 significantly
increased the wound healing rate of scalded rats (p < 0.01). In addition, Tβ4 treatment significantly promoted wound healing (p < 0.01) and increased the Wnt1 and β-catenin expression levels (p < 0.01). Moreover, FH535 significantly restrained
the Wnt/β-catenin pathway-correlated protein levels (p < 0.01) and wound healing. </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusion:</title> Tβ4 can promote scald wound healing in rats and may play a role via evoking Wnt/β-catenin
pathway activation. </sec>
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are capable of multipolar differentiation and repairing injured tissues. Herein, we aimed to investigate the mechanism by how BMSCs modulate the apoptotic pathway in the acute pancreatitis (AP). In this study, primary BMSCs were cultured and
administrated into 10 AP mice while 10 healthy mice were taken as a blank group and 10 AP mice as a control group. The mouse pancreatic tissues were assessed by HE staining and evaluated by pancreatitis score and serum amylase detection. Level of inflammatory factors CRP and TNF-α
was measured by ELISA and PIPK1, PIPK3, MLKL and Caspase-8 expression was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot. The pancreatitis score (7.29±1.36) and the serum amylase score of (453.66±103.67) mu/ml of BMSCs group was significantly higher than that of control group, indicating
increased tissue repair after BMSCs treatment. BMSCs group exhibited a higher level of CRP (711.01±115.31) and TNF-α (132.81±22.13) in serum compared to control group (p < 0.05). PIPK1, PIPK3, and MLKL expression in BMSCs group decreased (p <
0.05) whereas Caspase-8 was increased (p < 0.05). On the other hand, BMSCs group presented upregulated PIPK1, PIPK3, and MLKL (p < 0.05) and downregulated Caspase-8 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, BMSCs regulate cell apoptosis by upregulating Caspase-8 expression,
and downregulating PIPK1, PIPK3 and MLKL level, thereby alleviating the inflammation in AP.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is regarded as a serious ischemic heart disease on a global level. The current study set out to explore the mechanism of the Notch signaling pathway in the regulation of fibrosis remodeling after the occurrence of MI. First, experimental mice were infected with recombination signal binding protein J (RBP-J) shRNA and empty adenovirus vector, followed by the establishment of MI mouse models and detection of cardiac function. After 4 weeks of MI, mice in the sh-RBP-J group were found to exhibit significantly improved cardiac function relative to the sh-NC group. Moreover, knockdown of RBP-J brought about decreased infarct area, promoted cardiac macrophages M2 polarization, reduced cardiac fibrosis, and further decreased transcription and protein expressions of inflammatory factors and fibrosis-related factors. Furthermore, downregulation of cylindromatosis (CYLD) using si-CYLD reversed the results that knockdown of RBP-J inhibited fibrogenesis and the release of inflammatory factors. Altogether, our findings indicated that the blockade of Notch signaling promotes M2 polarization of cardiac macrophages and improves cardiac function by inhibiting the imbalance of fibrotic remodeling after MI.
BackgroundInduced by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis remains one of the most dangerous infectious diseases in the world. As a special virus, prophage is domesticated by its host and are major contributors to virulence factors for bacterial pathogenicity. The function of prophages and their genes in M. tuberculosis is still unknown.MethodsRv2650c is a prophage gene in M. tuberculosis genome. We constructed recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) to observe bacteria morphology and analyze the resistance to various adverse environments. Recombinant and control strains were used to infect macrophages, respectively. Furthermore, we performed ELISA experiments of infected macrophages.ResultsRv2650c affected the spread of colonies of M. smegmatis and enhanced the resistance of M. smegmatis to macrophages and various stress agents such as acid, oxidative stress, and surfactant. ELISA experiments revealed that the Rv2650c can inhibit the expression of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-10, IL-1β, and IL-6.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that the prophage gene Rv2650c can inhibit the spread of colonies and the expression of inflammatory factors and promote intracellular survival of M. smegmatis. These results build the foundation for the discovery of virulence factors of M. tuberculosis, and provide novel insights into the function of the prophage in Mycobacterium.
Dry eye is currently one of the most common ocular surface disease. It can lead to ocular discomfort and even cause visual impairment, which greatly affects the work and quality of life of patients. With the increasing incidence of dry eye disease (DED) in recent years, the disease is receiving more and more attention, and has become one of the hot research fields in ophthalmology research. Recently, with the in-depth research on the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of DED, it has been shown that defects in immune regulation is one of the main pathological mechanisms of DED. Since the non-specific and specific immune response of the ocular surface are jointly regulated, a variety of immune cells and inflammatory factors are involved in the development of DED. The conventional treatment of DED is the application of artificial tears for lubricating the ocular surface. However, for moderate-to-severe DED, treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs is necessary. In this review, the immunomodulatory mechanisms of DED and the latest research progress of its related treatments including Chinese medicine will be discussed.