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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 653-658
Author(s):  
Xin Yang ◽  
Shandan Wang

This study intends to promote bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) differentiation into neural stem cells by down-regulating p38 MAPK/NF-κB to heal neurodegeneration. 26 patients with neurodegenerative diseases were enrolled from the Department of Neurology along with recruitment of 26 other healthy controls followed by analysis of p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway expression by ELISA. BMSCs were cultured and characterized by flow cytometry. Western blot and qRTPCR measured the p38 MAPK/NF-κB expression in the absence or presence of p38 MAPK/NF-κB inhibitors. p38 MAPK/NF-κB expression in 26 neurodegenerative patients was significantly higher than that of 26 healthy controls. The qRT-PCR and western blot results showed that the neural stem cell-specific proteins expression was increased as days went; after addition of p38 MAPK/NF-κB inhibitor, the expression of related specific genes were significantly decreased. In conclusion, inhibition of the expression of p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway can heal neurodegeneration by promoting the differentiation of BMSCs into neural stem cells.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 1040-1045
Author(s):  
Jingfang Zhu ◽  
Jianglin Hu

Preeclampsia (PE) causes serious harm to the health of mothers and infants. PTEN regulates cell biological behaviors, but its role in preeclampsia have not been reported. Real time PCR and Western blot detected PTEN level in the placenta of PE patients and controls. Placental trophoblastderived cell line HTR8 was assigned into NC group, PTEN group and si-PTEN inhibitor group followed by measuring PTEN level, cell proliferation by MTT assay, cell invasion by Transwell, Caspase 3 activity, Beclin-1 and Atg-5 expression as well as PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling protein by Western blot. PTEN in PE patients was significantly downregulated (P < 0.05). Transfection of PTEN siRNA significantly down-regulated PTEN, promoted cell proliferation and invasion, reduced Caspase 3 activity, increased Beclin-1 and Atg-5, and PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α/VEGF protein expression (P < 0.05). Transfection of pcDNA 3.0-PTEN up-regulated PTEN and significantly reversed the above changes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, PTEN is reduced in PE and it can regulate pre-eclampsia trophoblast autophagy possibly through PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling, suggesting that PTEN can be a potential target for PE therapy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 926-932
Author(s):  
Xin Guan ◽  
Ning Sun

High expression of E74-like factor 3 (ELF3) has been reported in type 1 endometrial cancer (EC). Bioinformatics analysis predicted a positive correlation with ELF3 and mucin 1 (MUC1)/hypoxiainducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), a previously identified cancer-promoting pathway. This study focused on the MUC1/HIF-1α-involved action mechanism of ELF3 in EC. ELF3 expression in EC cell lines was measured by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Following the expression of ELF3 was silent, cell proliferation was examined using CCK-8 and colony formation assay, cell migration and invasion were observed using wound healing and transwell assays. The effect of ELF1 silencing on MUC1/HIF-1α expression was detected by western blot. Rescue experiments incorporating pcDNA3.1(+)/MUC1 explored the interaction between ELF3 and MUC1/HIF-1α in EC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. ELF3 was found to be expressed at a high level in EC cell lines, and the silencing of it effectively inhibited EC cell proliferation. Moreover, ELF silencing also inhibited the migration and invasion of EC cells. Consistent with the database prediction, a positive correlation between ELF3 and MUC1/HIF-1α was observed. More importantly, MUC1 overexpression abated the promotive effect of ELF3 silencing on EC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. ELF3 promotes EC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by regulating MUC1/HIF-1α pathway. Thus, ELF3 as well as MUC1/HIF-1α pathway may be particle targets in the treatment of EC.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 373-380
Author(s):  
Xuecheng Sun ◽  
Tao Wang ◽  
Bo Huang ◽  
Gaobo Ruan ◽  
Jun Huang ◽  
...  

Background: Vitiligo, a chronic, autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, caused by the disappearance of epidermal melanocytes, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Although emerging evidence demonstrated that abnormal regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) were associated with the pathogenesis of diseases, the functions of miR-637 in vitiligo remain unclear. Objective: This research was designed to explore the potential roles of miR-637 in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced human primary melanocytes in vitiligo. Methods: Human primary melanocytes were induced by 250 μmol/L H2O2 for 4 h to establish oxidative injury of melanocytes model. Cell viability and apoptosis analyzed by MTT and flow cytometry assay, respectively. The relevance between miR-637 and transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) was checked using TargetScan and dual luciferase reporter gene assay. The expression of miR-637 and TRPM2 was evaluated using qRT-PCR and/or Western blot analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured using specific assay kits. In addition, the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax were evaluated using Western blot assay. Results: TRPM2 was up-regulated, while miR-637 was down-regulated in H2O2-stimulated human primary melanocytes. TRPM2 directly interacted with miR-637. Up-regulation of miR-637 memorably increased miR-637 level and inhibited TRPM2 expression. Furthermore, miR-637 mimic fortified cell viability, reduced apoptotic cells, enhanced Bcl-2 expression, reduced Bax level, as well as inhibited the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in H2O2-induced melanocytes. Meanwhile, miR-637 mimic obviously suppressed the accumulation of ROS and increased SOD and CAT activity. Nevertheless, all these findings were inverted by TRPM2-plasmid. Likewise, TRPM2-siRNA led to increased cell viability, reduced apoptotic cells, enhanced Bcl-2 expression, reduced Bax level, inhibited Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, inhibited ROS production, but increased SOD and CAT activity in H2O2-induced melanocytes. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that TRPM2 was up-regulated, while miR-637 was down-regulated in injurious melanocytes of vitiligo. Up-regulation of miR-637 relieved oxidative stress-stimulated melanocyte injury via down-regulating TRPM2 expression. Our results provide new insights into the functions of miR-637 in the development of vitiligo, indicating that miR-637 may be a latent target for vitiligo therapy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fanhua Kong ◽  
Shaojun Ye ◽  
Zibiao Zhong ◽  
Xin Zhou ◽  
Wei Zhou ◽  
...  

Renal transplantation is currently the most effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. However, chronic antibody-mediated rejection (cABMR) remains a serious obstacle for the long-term survival of patients with renal transplantation and a problem to be solved. At present, the role and mechanism underlying immune factors such as T- and B- cell subsets in cABMR after renal transplantation remain unclear. In this study, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) from cABMR and control subjects was performed to define the transcriptomic landscape at single-cell resolution. A comprehensive scRNA-seq analysis was performed. The results indicated that most cell types in the cABMR patients exhibited an intense interferon response and release of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we found that the expression of MT-ND6, CXCL8, NFKBIA, NFKBIZ, and other genes were up-regulated in T- and B-cells and these genes were associated with pro-inflammatory response and immune regulation. Western blot and qRT-PCR experiments also confirmed the up-regulated expression of these genes in cABMR. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses indicated that the overexpressed genes in T- and B-cells were mainly enriched in inflammatory pathways, including the TNF, IL-17, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. Additionally, MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways were also involved in the occurrence and development of cABMR. This is consistent with the experimental results of Western blot. Trajectory analysis assembled the T-cell subsets into three differentiation paths with distinctive phenotypic and functional prog rams. CD8 effector T cells and γδ T cells showed three different differentiation trajectories, while CD8_MAI T cells and naive T cells primarily had two differentiation trajectories. Cell-cell interaction analysis revealed strong T/B cells and neutrophils activation in cABMR. Thus, the study offers new insight into pathogenesis and may have implications for the identification of novel therapeutic targets for cABMR.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Valentin Navel ◽  
Jean Malecaze ◽  
Corinne Belville ◽  
Héléna Choltus ◽  
Fanny Henrioux ◽  
...  

Background. Because of the implications of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) in keratoconus (KC), we describe a differential expression of RAGE transcripts and proteins in corneal tissues and tears of KC and healthy patients. Methods. Using a case-controlled study, corneal epitheliums and tears of KC and healthy subjects were obtained during corneal collagen cross-linking and photorefractive keratectomy (PKR) and during usual consultations. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT-qPCR) and Western-Blot were performed to analyze RAGE transcripts and proteins’ expression in corneal tissues and tears. Results. One hundred and six patients were included in this study. The characteristics of the patients were as follows: 56 KC (25 corneal epithelium and 31 tears) and 50 control subjects (25 corneal epithelium and 25 tears). Transcripts of RAGE, HMGB1, and S100 family ligands were quantified by RT-qPCR, identifying a significantly higher expression of RAGE and HMGB1 in the healthy group than in the KC group ( p = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Western Blot showed a significantly higher fl-RAGE expression in KC corneal epithelium than control ( p < 0.001 ) and lower s-RAGE expression in KC tears than control ( p = 0.04 ). Conclusions. Linked with the inflammatory process occurring in KC pathophysiology, we propose for the first time that the RAGE expression (total and truncated forms of receptor and ligands) in KC corneal tissues and tear samples provides viable biomarkers.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Shuaidong Mao ◽  
Huan Huang ◽  
Xianzheng Chen

Objective. To explore the effect of long noncoding RNA H19 (lncRNA H19) on brain injury in rats following experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods. Rat ICH model was established with type IV collagenase. The neurological function scores were evaluated, and the water content in brain tissue was measured. The nerve injury indexes, inflammatory factors, and oxidative stress indexes were also measured. Moreover, the expression of lncRNA H19 was determined by qRT-PCR, and Western blot detected NF-κB pathway-related protein expression. Results. Compared with the sham group, the neurological function scores, the water content in brain tissue, and levels of injury indicators myelin basic protein (MBP), S-100B, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in the ICH rats were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ROS, and MDA were significantly increased, but the levels of SOD were significantly decreased. In addition, the expression of lncRNA H19 in the brain tissue in the ICH group was significantly higher than that in the sham group. After further interference with lncRNA H19 expression (sh-H19 group), the levels of all the above indicators were reversed and the neurological damage was improved. Western blot results showed that the expression of NF-κBp65 and IKKβ was significantly higher, and IκBα expression was lower in the perivascular hematoma tissue in the ICH group compared with the sham group. Compared with the sh-NC group, NF-κBp65 and IKKβ expression were significantly lower and IκBα was significantly higher in the sh-H19 group. Conclusion. lncRNA H19 exacerbated brain injury in rats with ICH by promoting neurological impairment, brain edema, and releasing inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. This may be related to the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 945
Author(s):  
Marlena Gudelska ◽  
Kamil Dobrzyn ◽  
Marta Kiezun ◽  
Katarzyna Kisielewska ◽  
Edyta Rytelewska ◽  
...  

Chemerin, belonging to the adipokine family, exhibits pleiotropic activity. We hypothesised that the adipokine could be involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis in the porcine endometrium. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of chemerin on the key steroidogenic enzyme proteins’ abundance (Western blot), as well as on P4 and E2 secretion (radioimmunoassay) by the porcine endometrium during early pregnancy and the mid-luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. Moreover, we investigated the hormone impact on Erk and Akt signalling pathway activation (Western blot). Chemerin stimulated E2 production on days 10 to 11 of pregnancy. On days 10 to 11 and 15 to 16 of gestation, and on days 10 to 11 of the cycle, chemerin enhanced the expression of StAR and all steroidogenic enzyme proteins. On days 12 to 13 of pregnancy, chemerin decreased StAR and most of the steroidogenic enzyme proteins’ abundance, whereas the P450C17 abundance was increased. On days 27 to 28 of pregnancy, chemerin increased StAR and P450C17 protein contents and decreased 3βHSD protein amounts. It was noted that the adipokine inhibited Erk1/2 and stimulated Akt phosphorylation. The obtained results indicate that chemerin affected P4 and E2 synthesis through the Erk1/2 and Akt signalling pathways.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Bin-Fei Zhang ◽  
Wei Song ◽  
Jun Wang ◽  
Peng-Fei Wen ◽  
Yu-Min Zhang

Abstract Objectives The lung injury is often secondary to severe trauma. In the model of crush syndrome, there may be secondary lung injury. We hypothesize that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), released from muscle tissue, mediates the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) via HMGB1/Receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. The study aimed to investigate how HMGB1 mediated the apoptosis of AEC in the rat model. Methods Seventy-five SD male rats were randomly divided into five groups: CS, CS + vehicle, CS + Ethyl pyruvate (EP), CS + FPS-ZM1 group, and CS + SP600125 groups. When the rats CS model were completed after 24 h, the rats were sacrificed. We collected the serum and the whole lung tissues. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in serum samples. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to quantify the protein and mRNA. Lastly, apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL. We used SPSS 25.0 for statistical analyses. Results Nine rats died during the experiments. Dead rats were excluded from further analysis. Compared to the CS group, levels of HMGB1 and inflammatory cytokines in serum were downregulated in CS + EP, CS + FPS-ZM1, and CS + SP600125 groups. Western blot and RT-qPCR analysis revealed a significant downregulation of HMGB1, RAGE, and phosphorylated-JNK in CS + EP, CS + FPS-ZM1, and CS + SP600125 groups, compared with the CS groups, excluding total-JNK mRNA. Apoptosis of AEC was used TUNEL to assess. We found the TUNEL-positive cells were downregulated in CS + EP, CS + FPS-ZM1, and CS + SP600125 groups. Conclusion The remote lung injury begins early after crush injuries. The HMGB1/RAGE/JNK signaling axis is an attractive target to abrogate the apoptosis of AEC after crush injuries.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Suqing Liu ◽  
Qingqing Yang ◽  
Binbin Dong ◽  
Chunhui Qi ◽  
Tao Yang ◽  
...  

Gypenosides (Gyps), the major active constituents isolated from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that Gyps displayed potent ameliorative effects on liver fibrosis and renal fibrosis. In this study, we found that Gyps significantly reduced the mortality of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice (40% mortality rate of mice in the model group versus 0% in the treatment group). Masson staining showed that Gyps could reduce the content of collagen in the lung tissue of pulmonary fibrosis mice Masson staining and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expression of the collagen gene α-SMA and fibrosis gene Col1 markedly decreased after Gyps treatment. The active mitosis of fibroblasts is one of the key processes in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases. RNA-seq showed that Gyps significantly inhibited mitosis and induced the G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. The mTOR/c-Myc axis plays an important role in the pathological process of pulmonary fibrosis. RNA-seq also demonstrated that Gyps inhibited the mTOR and c-Myc signaling in pulmonary fibrosis mice, which was further validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. AKT functions as an upstream molecule that regulates mTOR. Our western blot data showed that Gyps could suppress the activation of AKT. In conclusion, Gyps exerted anti-pulmonary fibrosis activity by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/c-Myc pathway.


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